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Transcript of Camelot
Camelot is said to be the home of chivalry
Knights in shining armor
Is one of the most romanticized eras of all time
Camelot first appeared in le morte d'Arthur by Sir Thomas Malory
* Camelot is both a time also known as the Arthurian era and Camelot is the physical castle that all the legends and stories revolve around
Camelot dies with Arthur and so does the Arthurian Era
Camelot is what we tend to associate chivalry and knighthood with
It was the original model of these qualities
It is known for its heroic tales
It's most famous characters are that of King Arthur, Merlin, and Sir Lancelot
Many legends from the Arthurian Era are still well known/recognized today:
sword and the stone
holy grail quest
King Uther of Camelot (Arthur and his sister, Morgan La fay's father) falls in love with Igraine, the wife of the Duke of Cornwall
Merlin, the wizard of Camelot, helps Uther appear as the Duke of Cornwall so he can sleep with Igraine.
Uther and Igraine sleep together and Merlin tells King Uther that he will take the son as payment
Arthur is born and Merlin takes him and gives him to an adoptive family to raise
King Uther's daughter, Morgan La Fay, kills him in order to seize the crown
Arthur is told he is to be the King of Camelot
Arthur removes the sword from the stone
Battles for Camelot territory ensue
King Arthur forms the knights of the round table.
The knights go on a quest for the holy grail
A Brief Timeline of Camelot
Arthur's biological mother
Well liked-except by Morgan
Uther in welsh means “terrible, awe-inspiring”
Arthurs and Morgan's father
Uther falls in love with Igraine, the wife of the Duke of Cornwall
Has Merlin make him look like the Duke of Cornwall so he can sleep with Igraine.
Arthur is conceived
Because the Duke of Cornwall was fallen in battle, Uther marries Igraine.
About 16 years later he dies - possibly of Saxon poison
There is no proof that Uther was a real person
His mother was a Cornish princess and is father was a fallen angel
Inherited his mothers skill of herbalism, and his fathers second sight
He was given to a druid and with his druid father he learned astrology, spell making, and shape shifting.
Merlin is constantly at the centre of the action, predicting events and using magical powers to change history.
He is said to be the creator of the round table and its prophet.
In later works Merlin's original function as prophet is entirely lost and he becomes uniquely Merlin the wizard.
Pulled the sword out of the stone
He was a REAL PERSON
He was a strong boy, rode horses, good swordsman, good with lances
Growing up he wanted to be a knight
Might have acted hastily but he rarely acted out of anger
Even-tempered almost to the point of blandness
Morgan La Fay
Is Arthur's half-sister
Supposedly has Cornish fairy blood in her veins
She knew and had magic like Merlin
Was sent to live in a nunnery
She hated Igraine
Relationship with her brother was unclear, some say she was good and was on good terms with him, others say she was evil and hated him.
King Arthur's wife
Merlin warned Arthur that marrying her would cause him nothing but pain
Mistress of Lancelot
Always portrayed in a love triangle
Was extremely beautiful
Some legends say that she was in awe and fear of Arthur others say that she was very much “plain Jane”, and others say that she was very smart, cunning and powerful.
Was Arthur's champion
The favored love of Guinevere
He is the central hero in many legends of Camelot and plays a prominent role in every other.
His loyalties are always portrayed as being divided between being a knight for Arthur and his love for Guinevere
Lancelot is referred to as “the best knight of all time”
When going on the quest for the holy grail he is shocked to learn that because of his adultery with Guinevere he himself can not fulfill the quest of the holy grail.
Therefore the quest is achieved by lancelets son, Galahad
Lancelot's affair with Guinevere is always at the centre of the Arthurian legends.
What do you think of when you think of Camelot
THE SWORD AND THE STONE
although most people confuse Excalibur with the sword in the stone it was in fact the name of the sword given to Arthur by Lady of the lake.
Arthur traveled to Avalon (Camelot's 'otherworld') on Merlin's orders
Merlin feared for Arthur's safety
Merlin and Arthur met Lady of the Lake who said the sword was hers but Arthurs to take as long as he returned it before his life's end
a hand came from the water holding the sword; Arthur took it
The sword and its scabbard have magical properties:
scabbard - as long as in owners possesion- protects from being mortally wounded
sword was unbreakable
The Knights of the Round Table
It was Merlin's idea to create the round table but Arthur took the credit for it
could seat 150
The round table was intended to prevent quarrels and promote a sense of equality
There was an empty seat at the table called 'Siege Perilous'
Its most commonly believed that whoever was to find the holy grail would then sit in this empty seat but anyone who sat there who was not the knight of legend would peris
Sir Galahad is the only knight to occupy the seat
Is like the “heaven” characters in Arthurian legend believed very noble people went to
It’s a fairy island/ an otherworldly island of Celtic mythology
Arthur’s sword was forged there and he was carried there after his last battle so that his wounds might be attended to
is said to be the home of Morgan le Fay
Arthur is not a departed spirit; he is still alive through enchantment and will continue on in Avalon till the day comes for his return
Variations in the Legend
First is that Arthur pulled to sword out of the stone as a young boy and that proved that he was to be king
Second is that Arthur pulled the sword out of the stone once he was king (but he was newly king) to prove to his subjects that he was going to be a good and revolutionary king
What is the Holy Grail?
The Holy Grail (sometimes referred to as Sangreal) is believed to be a chalice or dish which earned its spiritual power as the cup Jesus used during the Last Supper
or was believed to have received blood flowing from Christ's side at his crucifixion
was believed to have magical properties; it could satisfy hunger, replenish strength and had healing abilities
It has become the most famous and most sought after Christian relic
It's legacy surpasses 800 years
Legend of the Holy Grail
according to legend the grail was brought to England with the lance used to pierce Christ's side
left in the care of Grail-keeper or 'Fisher King'
legend tells how the wounding of the Fisher King's father cause the land to become barren
He could only be cured and prosperity returned if a purehearted knight found the Grail and asked the right questions
whom does the Grail serve?
Why does the Lance drip blood?
The legend of the Holy Grail was adapted from Celtic myths and first appeared in written text in Chrétien de Troyes's Old French poem Conte del Graal ('Story of the Grail') in 1180 C.E.
Troyes's version focuses more on the contents of the grail which was consecrated bread able to sustain life.
Said platter was holy but made no connection between it and Christ
He never finished his tale
His early works inspired many other authors to finish or adapt his tale.
The main character of these stories changed throughout the years from Sir Perceval, to Gawain Lancelot, to Galahad
The two main Grail heros are Perceval and Galahad
The legend of the Holy Grail itself is believed to have been adapted from Celtic mythology
In the Irish myth, the Cauldron of Dagda was a vassal believed to have restorative powers
In the Welsh myth, spoils of Annwyn Arthur and his companions went to Annwyn (welsh 'otherworld') to steal a cauldron similar to that of the Cauldron of Dagda . In the story the cauldron would not boil for a coward so they could not receive the effects of its magical properties
Sir Perceval and the Holy Grail
In early Holy Grail stories Sir Percival was the hero
brought up in Wales, inspired by a group of armed knights (whom he takes for angels) to seek out his fortune
He comes to the grail castle, where he fails to ask the vital questions about the Grail and the lance
he reaches King Arthur's court and an old woman curses him for his failure - land became barren
the 2nd time Perceval goes to the castle he asks the right questions
In some adaptions he is taken to the Isle of Plenty where he is to be king and the Grail he received is to feed the people of the Isle of Need (beneath Isle of Plenty).
The Holy Grail
Sir Galahad and the Holy Grail
upon adulthood Galahad is knighted and brought to King Arthur's court
led by an old Knight he is brought to 'Siege Perilous' an unused chair that has been vacant for the sole person who will accomplish the quest of the Holy Grail
all others who aspired to sit there proved to be fatal
Galahad passes the test; Arthur realizes Galahad's potential and takes him out where a sword lies in a stone, he removes it easily passing the second test
he is declared to be a knight of the round table and the greatest knight ever
King Arthur's court witnesses a vision of the Holy Grail and immediately set of to find it
Galahad mostly travels alone
smites enemies, saves damsels in distress and rescues Perceval from 20 knights before he is reunited with Knights Perceval and Bors
these 3 knights meet sir Perceval's sister who leads them to the grail ship, they take it and arrive on a distant shore
Perceval's sister is forced to die to save another; Bors leaves to take back her body
Perceval and Galahad find themselves in the court of King Pelles who take them to the Holy Grail
Galahad is asked to take the holy grail to Sarras
Holy Grail in Modern Era
The search for the holy grail did not stop with Arthur and the knights of the round table
it is one of the most enduring legends and many theories as to its location have developed
Many other looked and continue to look for this ancient relic
It is prominent in pop culture appearing in:
Dan Brown's book The DaVinchi Code
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Monty Python and the Holy Grail
Sir Lancelot and the Holy Grail
According to legend Sir Lancelot du Lac was the first to see the Holy Grail
He had left Camelot for some time and while gone he slayed a dragon for King Pelles who in turn showed him a vision of the Holy Grail
however He was denied it because of his adultury ( He was in love with Guinevere, King Arthur's wife)
He returned to Camelot and told Arthur what he had seen but Arthur dismissed it as trickery
Legend of the Sword in the Stone
according to legend after Uther's death (their is no rightful heir) the people turn to Merlin for assistance
he places Uther's sword in a stone and says that the man who can remove the sword is the rightful heir
Many tried but no one was able to
Until one day Arthur and his adoptive father, Sir Ector, and brother, Kay, come to the place where the sword is ( they had come for a tournament)
Kay's sword is broken and Arthur must fetch him a new one. Arthur passes by the stone and draws the sword which he brings to Ector and Kay
Merlin appears declaring Arthur to be the rightful heir
for proof Merlin places the sword back into the stone and dares anyone to try; no one succeeds but Arthur
Just Kidding! :)
The Death of King Arthur
Lancelot and Guinevere, King Arthur's wife, are found together.
King Arthur feels betrayed not only by his wife but his best friend. They are both to be punished; Guinevere was to be burned at the stake
Lancelot rescues Guinevere and they run away to his castle in France,
Arthur's his forces besiege Lancelot's castle
Lancelot kills Gareth and Gaheris brothers of knight Gawain
shamed, Lancelot returns Guinevere to Arthur; he is banished
Arthur is still dissatisfied and decides to pursue Lancelot
While Arthur and his knights are gone England is left in Mordred's hands
Mordred, Arthur's son by his half sister, was predicted by Merlin to be his undoing
Mordred forged letters declaring Arthur had died in pursuit of Lancelot
declares himself king and claims Guinevere as his wife
Mordred meets Arthur at Dover; they fight
Gawain dies, but not before writing to Lancelot to come to Arthur's aid
Mordred flees Dover to Salisbury Plain
Arthur goes to Salisbury Plain where is to be the final battle
The night before the battle Arthur has a prophetic dream where Gawain warns him against fighting in the morning for he will surely die, but if he waits a month Lancelot will be there to help him
Arthur heeds the advice and decides to make a truce in the morning
The End of Arthur/ The End of Camelot
In Arthur's dying moments he asks a knight to return Excalibur to the lady of the lake
Arthur is brought to the lakeside where a barge and ladies in black await him
Arthur is borne away to Avalon, perhaps to heal his wounds or perhaps to die
The Last Stand
Arthur and Mordred's forces are preparing to make an uneasy truce
but an adder (venomous snake) appears and a knight unthinkingly draws his sword
The armies fight until only Mordred and King Arthur and his two knights stand
Arthur grabs a spear but in his haste drops Excalibur and its scabbard
He pierces Mordred's heart with the spear but not before Mordred cleaves a fatal wound with his sword to Arthur's head