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Transcript of History Culminating
Economic: Axum heavily relied on trade for its wealth. Rich in natural resources and a growing season that lasted ¾ of the year Axum never worried about lack of crops. After the sack of Kush they also had control over the Northern Africa trade routes and traded with many. The also minted their own money, including gold coins
Religious: King Ezana converted to Christianity in 300 CE, and made Axum the first Christian state in the world. Before Christianity the Axumite people followed a polytheistic religion similar to the one in Southern Arabia. They had gods like Almouqah and Mahrem the moon god and the god of war respectively. They build temples and offered sacrifices for their gods.
Social: The Axumite people were a mix of Kushitic Africans and Semitic South Arabians. The hierarchy of Axum was simple with the King at the top, followed by the nobles, then everyone else. Evidence of 10-12 small towns suggested it was an urban society.
Intellectual: They had their own writing system called Ge’ez, which was written left to right.
Artistic: Stone towers called stele which still stand today are Axum most know artistic achievement. The tallest of these towers stand at a height of 33m.
Technological: No known technological advancements/creations of their own PERSIAT The Axumites had contact with many other people such as the Romans, Arabians, Nubians, Somalis and Indians. It drew influence from all its trading partners but the from what is known about the Kingdom of Axum it had its was unqiue, having its own style of art and way of life. Influences Axum consisted of two very different climate and topographical regions
Its main port at Adulis had high temperatures, and spare vegetation
It was a natural habour and was close to Arabia, which was good for trade
Further inland in the Ethiopian highlands the land was fertile, and had two rainy seasons
Which lead to rich soil, a lot of vegetation, and cooler temperatures
Through the use of these two very different regions Axum made its self successful and powerful Kingdom Of Axum - Geography Kush fell to their neighbours in the south, Axum around ca. 350 CE after the Axumites invaded and destroyed Kush Fall of Kush Political : Kush was ruled by a monarchy, a King or sometimes Pharaoh.
Economic: Agricultural and trade gave them most of their revenue. Due to lack of fixed model of exchange, and no currency its believed they had a redistributive economy.
Religion: The Kushites shared religious beliefs similar to the Egyptians, they worshiped Amon and Isis, and all other major Egyptians gods. They also worshiped their own gods such as Apedemak and Sbomeker.They also had a head priest who could decide things like when it was time for the King to die. Human sacrifice was also a part of the religion
Social/Intellectual: Although the Kushites do have their own unique language it currently has no been deciphered, so there is no concrete information about their intellectual and social life-style.
Artistic: The Kushites were heavily influence by the Egyptians, so their arts followed similar artistic trends in Egypt except that the had their own distinctive artistic traditions
Technology: They invented the first irrigation machine. Called a saqia it’s a wooden wheel with pots attached. PERSIAT The Kingdom’s of Kush & Axum Ancient Northeast Africa The greatest legacy left behind from Axum would be its monolithic stele, and the story of the Queen Sheba of Axum who married King Solomon of Jerusalem, and Axum is also known to be the home of the Biblical Ark of the Covenant. Accomplishments Created the first irrigation machine
Pyramids in Meroe
Ruled Egypt during the 25th dynasty
Controlled the trade routes in Northwest Africa Accomplishments The Kushites were heavily influenced by the Egyptians to the North.
They adopted a similar art style, and some parts of the Egyptian religion.
Between 1500 and 1070 BC, Egypt had control over the Kingdom of Kush which then allowed for the influences in their art, architecture and religion.
They were also influenced by Central Africa’s language and material culture. Influences Geologically similar to Egypt except further south
Sandy or rocky desert with extreme temperature variations
Narrow strip of fertile land along side the Nile River after annual flooding
Fertile basins, Kerma and Napata are situated near these basins
A significant feature about the Nile were the cataracts, which could not be sailed over in their boats
Due to the dryness of the land building of wells and reservoirs (hafirs) were extremely important Kingdom Of Kush - Geography At around 1000 C.E. wars and natural resources had Ghana in its downfall. Muslim warriors attacked Ghana in 1076, they took their capital city but in 1087, Ghana’s king regained power. The natural resource loss made it even a worse situation. In 1203, the kingdom came to a final end. Fall of Ghana Political: Monarchy
Economic: Ghana became the center for trade, amongst black Africans in grains, cattles and metals. Agriculture is Ghana’s most important economic sector. Agriculture crops form the base of Ghana’s economy.
Religion: Many religions are being practiced in Ghana.
Social: Ghana has been getting an ever increasing number of visitors, especially tourists from all over the world.
Artistic: The arts serve as the supreme pursuit of humanity. It also creates permanent impressions of passing moments. It was said that the Ghanaian was artistic through and through.
Technology: Ghana is one of the most technologically advanced. In 1994, Ghana was the first West African nation to be connected to the internet. PERSIAT Class Structure
& Occupation Specializations Ghana had many accomplishments, one of the most important is the gold, ivory, and salt trades. The empire grew rich from the trans-Saharan trade in gold and salt. Accomplishments Merchants and Trade State Religion Centralized Government Development of Science and Writing All About Ghana History of Ghana Mandinka were the ones behind the destruction of the empire.
1588 the struggle for succession led to civil war. This war encouraged the sultan of Morocco to invade Songhay.
After the fall of Songhay this part of Africa never united as one state.
Power of Islam decreased, traditional religion flourished.
No one ruled the Manden(Mali) empire after death of Mahmud IV, resulting the end of Mali empire.
What was once a land of peace and prosperity is now stricken with poverty and a dangerous place. Civilization collapsed Politics: they had a monarchy. King regulated the kingdom.
Economics: trade was the source of income into the kingdom. Agricultural was another source
Religion: Practiced Islam.
Social: class distinctions between each class etc : farmers, artisans, slaves
Intellectuals: schools were established to educate the youth about Islam
Artistic: Mosque that were built, schools
Technology: did not find technology PERSIAT Rulers like Mansa Musa, Askia Muhammad travelled to perform hajj a duty where a Muslim travels to Mecca to perform this sacred pilgrimage once in his life time.
From this journey both these emperors cam back with great knowledge.
Bought back scholars to educate the people in the kingdom.
Schools were established also mosque and architectures etc. Outside influences Trade was one of the accomplishments that made the kingdom unique.
Scholars that were bought from Mecca also had a great impact on the people to educate them about religion. Accomplishments Sundiata secured west african gold fields he then started to re-establish the gold and salt trade.
Economy was based on trade and similar to Ghana Mali became exceptionally rich by controlling the trade that comes in and out
Gained gold trade and started to expand north and east to Egypt, Tunisia and south which is known as Ghana. Developments Mali also known as the Mandingo empire was found between 1230-1235 by Sundiata Keita.
He was a great warrior and reunited his people.
He bought peace and prosperity into the kingdom.
Mali was know for trades with other countries. Rise of the Mali kingdom Mali empire had many cultural influences on west Africa.
Sundiata adopted the agriculture and encouraged many of his soldiers to use this technique.
Mali became an important agricultural country. Influences Mali Pics
Great Zimbabwe declined and was abandoned around 1450 AD for unknown reasons
The Mutapa Empire, centered on the northern part of the Zimbabwe plateau, and controlled a very large territory that extended from Zambezi to the Limpopo River. It also covered wide stretches between the Kalahari Desert and the Indian Ocean.
The Rise of the Mutapa Empire
Artifacts found in Zimbabwe link it to many places across the ancient world. Trade
Again very little is known about the ancestors of the Great Zimbabwe, however historians believe that Shona- speaking people believed that they could speak with there ancestors whenever they sought fit. Beliefs
Little is known about the Shona- speaking people who built Great Zimbabwe or how there society was organized. The People
In the 1800s, European travelers and English colonizers refused to accept that the structures were African Creations. They said what? The Zimbabwe site is known for the great enclosure wall. It is one of the most astounding sites in Africa.
It has walls as high as 36 feet extending approximately 820 feet, making it the largest ancient structure south of the Sahara Desert.
The great Zimbabwe is one of the best known archaeological sites in Africa. The Great Zimbabwe.
The ruins of the Great Zimbabwe is located on the highland known as the Zimbabwe plateau, which is 1000m above sea level.
The Shona people found that The Great Zimbabwe’s land was elevated and was a safe haven from the flies for the settlers. It’s Geography
Around 350 AD the Great Zimbabwe was settled by the Shona- speaking farmers.
It is believed that these people migrated to Zimbabwe to avoid tsetse flies. The Founders of Great Zimbabwe. Central Africa
Civilizations of central Africa
By: Suraya I’m the Map! The 7 pillars The Islamic Empire PERSIAT The Civilization