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TREDTRI (Historical Criticism of Matthew and 1st Corinthians)

(Historical Criticism of Matthew and 1st Corinthians) July 5 ,2012 Report

Reinard John

on 1 July 2013

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Transcript of TREDTRI (Historical Criticism of Matthew and 1st Corinthians)

Historical Criticism of
Matthew and 1Corinthians
By: Amiela Roasa
Reinard John
Thea Miralles

of Matthew
-Was a tax collector
from Rome. Being a
tax collector has led
him to write capably
because his profession
forced him to keep
accurate and detailed
records. He used this
skill into good use
composing his Gospel.
-Four other church fathers mentioned that Matthew wrote in Aramaic and that translations followed in Greek: Irenaeus (A.D. 130-202), Origen (A.D. 185-254), Eusebius (4th century), and Jerome (6th century).
-Matthew appears first among the four Gospels in our canon because when the church established the canon Matthew was believed to have been the first one written and the one with the most developed connection to the Old Testament.
- Mathew was a disciple
of Jesus and one of the
12 Apostles.
- External evidence
strongly supports
the Matthean authorship
of the first Gospel.
- Several early church fathers
referred to Mathew as
"gift of God" or "faithful".
-Mathew was a disciple
of Jesus and one of the
12 Apostles.
- Matthew ministered in
Palestine for several years
after Jesus' ascension to
- He also made missionary
journeys to the Jews who
lived among the Gentiles
outside Palestine
- There is evidence that he visited Persia,
Ethiopia, Syria and Greece
Date and Place
of Composition
- Dating Matthew's Gospel
is difficult for many reasons
- Matthew probably wrote
before A.D. 70
- References in the text to the customs of the Jews continuing "to this day" (27:8; 28:15) imply that some time had elapsed between the crucifixion of Jesus Christ and the composition of the Gospel
- Since Jesus probably died in A.D. 33, Matthew may have composed his Gospel perhaps a decade or more later.
and Purpose
- He wrote his Gospel
primarily for his fellow Jews
- Matthews purpose for this
book is to prove the readers
that Jesus is the true Messiah
- He wrote, under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, for a specific purpose or, more accurately, specific purposes. He did not state these purposes concisely, as John did in his Gospel.
-There are at least three wider purposes that Matthew undoubtedly hoped to fulfill with his Gospel.

He wanted to instruct Christians and non-
Christians concerning the person and work of
He wanted to provide an apologetic to aid his Jewish brethren in witnessing to other Jews
about Christ
He wanted to encourage all Christians to witness
for Christ boldly and faithfully
The Six Antitheses: Attaining the Purpose of the Law through the Teachings of Jesus
- Found on Matthew 5:21–47

- Jesus compared the demands of the law of the gospel with the requirements of the Mosaic Law

- The Master cited an earlier proposition of the law, a thesis, and made an authoritative counter proposition, or antithesis, that called disciples to a higher standard of belief, motivation, and observance

-These six antitheses do not appear in isolation, they are integral parts of the other arguments of the first section of the Sermon on the Mount, now found in Matthew chapter 5
The Nature and
Structure of the Antitheses

-In Classical dialectic, or philosophical reasoning, absolute truth was established in a transitory, uncertain world through stepwise approximation

-the goal was to arrive at a synthesis, or compromise, that ideally was closer to the actual truth

-While neither Jesus in delivering the sermon nor Matthew in his writing of it had necessarily been exposed to such dialectic, the traditional use of the first two of these terms, thesis and antithesis, by biblical scholarship in relation to the teachings of Jesus in Matthew 5:21–47 is appropriate because of what it indicates about the authority of Jesus itself

-While the Mosaic precepts are stated as initial theses, the antitheses presented by Jesus are absolute
The Gospel Of
Matthew - Historical
•Torah- based

•Prevalence of Judaism


•“Coming to faith”


•“Synoptic gospels”
•90 percent of Mark

•Not accurate representation of Jesus

•Gospel- traditional and edited, good and bad

•Eyewitness account
Audience and Purpose
•Messianic kingdom

•Witness Christ boldly and faithfully
•Jewish Leaders
•Disciples’ understanding and faith

and Structure
Parables, sayings, miracles
Least chronological
Prologue, epilogue,
major movements
1 Corinthians
•It was written by Paul together with Sosthenes – the Synagogue ruler and successor of Crispus
•Paul is identified as the author of I Corinthians in the opening verses. Paul refers to himself by name eight times in the letter. Few have contested the claim that Paul was the writer.

•Paul writes First Corinthians from the city of Ephesus during his third missionary journey.
•The Letter was intended to the Corinthians – people who live in the city of Corinth

oCorinthian believers – most believers were part of the lower social class, but it was also mentioned that the earliest believers were actually part of the upper social class
Purpose of Writing
•To correct the misinterpretations of the ‘previous’ letter that he wrote
•To correct the problems that he heard from the people (Prisca, Aquila, Chloe, etc.) of the city of Corinth
•Paul’s defense of his apostolic authority
•To deal with several moral problems and the divisions that had formed as people had divided into fan-clubs and were proclaiming themselves followers of Paul, Apollos, Peter or Christ (1:10)
•To restore the Corinthian church to its foundation
• Paul rebukes the church for improper attitudes and conduct
•Nevertheless, he attempts to promote the spirit of unity throughout the fellowship in Corinth
The City of Corinth
•It is a large Greek city that was colonized by the Romans.
•It is a very rich city because trading was easy for the Corinthians and the Romans.
•The division of the upper and lower social classes were evident.
•Hosted Isthmian Games
Doctrinal Differences (ACT 15)
•Paul addresses the Jews with little knowledge of their Jewish culture which led to the confusion of the Jews.
•James and Peter’s approach were more conservative as compared to Paul. The two apostles adhered to the Jewish law.
Structure of 1 Corinthians
I.Introduction (1:1-9)
II.Reproof of Their Sin
A.Divisions in the Church 1:10-4:21
1. The Problem Stated 1:10-17
2. Reasons for the Problem 1:18-2:16
3. Results of the Problem
a. Immaturity 3:1-9
b. Loss of Rewards 3:10-23
c. Judging Others 4:3
4. Solution to the Problem 4:1-23
B. Lack of Discipline of the Church 5:1-13
C. Litigation of the Body 6:1-8
D. Lack of Purity 6:9-20
III. Reply to Their Questions
A. Concerning Marriage 7:1-40
1. Celibacy 7:1-9, 25-40
2. Divorce 7:10-24
B. Concerning Meat Sacrificed to Idols 8:1-11:1
C. Concerning Public Workshop 11:2-34
1. The Role of Women 11:2-16
2. The Lord’s Supper 11:17-34
3. The Use of Spiritual Gifts 12:1-14:40
a. Spiritual Gifts 12:
b. Love 13:
c. Tongues 14:
D. Concerning the Resurrection 15:1-58

IV. Conclusion 16:1-24
A. Giving 16:1-4
B. Paul’s Visit 16:5-9
C. Treatment of Timothy and Apollos 16:10-12
D. Greetings and Benediction 16:13-24
I. Salutation (1:1-9)
A. Greetings (1:1-3)
B. Thanksgiving (1:4-9)

II. Divisions in the Church (1:10–4:21)
A. The Fact of Divisions (1:10-17)
B. The Causes of Division (1:18–4:13)
1. Faulty View of the Christian Message (1:18–3:4)
a. False Wisdom Vs. the Gospel of Christ (1:18–2:5)
1) The Foolishness of the Cross to Gentiles (1:18-31)
2) The Centrality of the Cross to Paul’s Kerygma (2:1-5)
b. True Wisdom and the Spirit of God (2:6–3:4)
1) The Maturity of the Spiritual Man (2:6-16)
2) The Immaturity of the Carnal Man (3:1-4)
2. Faulty View of Christian Ministry and Ministers (3:5–4:5)
a. Analogy One: Farmers and the Field (3:6-9)
b. Analogy Two: Builders and the Temple (3:10-17)
1) The Builders (3:10-15)
2) The Temple (3:16-17)
c. Warning about Self-Deception regarding the Ministers (3:18-23)
d. Paul’s Reflections on his own Ministry (4:1-5)
3. Faulty View of the Christian’s Blessings (4:6-13)
C. The Cure for Divisions (4:14-21)
1. Imitation of Paul (4:14-17)
2. Rebuke of Arrogance (4:18-21)
III. Disorders in the Church (5:1–6:20)
A. Failure to Discipline an Immoral Brother (5:1-13)
B. Failure to Resolve Personal Disputes (6:1-11)
C. Failure to Exercise Sexual Purity (6:12-21)
IV. Difficulties in the Church (7:1–14:40)
A. Concerning Marriage (7:1-40)
1. Conjugal Duties and Celibacy (7:1-9)
2. Divorce (7:10-24)
a. Between Believers (7:10-11)
b. Between Believer and Unbeliever (7:12-16)
c. The Principle of Satisfaction with God’s Sovereignty (7:17-24)
3. Marriage and Ministry (7:25-38)
B. Concerning Christian Liberty (8:1–11:1)
1. Eating Meat Offered to Idols (8:1-13)
a. Knowledge Vs. Love (8:1-3)
b. Knowledge about Idols (8:4-6)
c. Love for Weaker Brothers (8:7-13)
2. Paul’s Personal Example: Restricting his Rights (9:1-27)
a. The Rights of an Apostle Defended (9:1-14)
b. The Reason for Restricting Paul’s own Rights (9:15-27)
3. Israel’s Failure as an Example to Believers (10:1-13)
a. God’s Discipline Resulted in their Death (10:1-10)
b. Application to Christians (10:11-13)
4. Eating Meat in Pagan Temples (10:14-22)
5. The Principles Applied (10:23–11:1)
C. Concerning Worship (11:2–14:40)
1. Diversity in Worship Roles between the Sexes (11:2-16)
a. Theological Argument (11:2-10)
b. Cultural Argument (11:11-15)
c. Summary (11:16)
2. Diversity in Worship Roles between the Classes (11:17-34)
a. The Love Feast and Rich Vs. Poor (11:17-22)
b. The Lord’s Supper and Discipline from the Lord (11:24-32)
c. Summary (11:33-34)
3. Diversity in Worship Roles because of Spiritual Gifts (12:1–14:40)
a. The Necessity of Diversity of Gifts (12:1-31a)
1) Transition: From Worship of Idols to Worship of Christ (12:1-3)
2) Analogous Arguments for Diversity within Unity (12:4-26)
a) Diversity in the Godhead, Diversity of Gifts (12:4-11)
b) Diversity of Body Parts, Diversity of Gifts (12:12-26)
3) The Priority in the Gifts (12:27-31a)
b. The Priority of Love over the Gifts (12:31b–13:13)
1) The Necessity of Love (13:1-3)
2) The Character of Love (13:4-7)
3) The Permanence of Love (13:8-13)
c. The Priority of Prophecy over Tongues (14:1-40)
1) Edification (14:1-5)
2) Intelligibility (14:6-19)
3) Christian Community (14:20-25)
4) Orderliness (14:26-40)
V. Doctrinal Correction of the Church Regarding the Resurrection (15:1-58)
A. The Evidence for Christ’s Resurrection (15:1-11)
B. The Necessity of Christ’s Resurrection (15:12-28)
1. Past Forgiveness (15:12-19)
2. Future Reign (15:20-28)
C. The Proof of Believers’ Resurrection (15:29-34)
D. The Nature of the Resurrection Body (15:35-49)
E. The Assurance of Resurrection (15:50-58)
VI. Conclusion (16:1-24)
A. About the Collection (16:1-11)
1. Instructions on Giving (16:1-4)
2. The Travel Plans of Paul and Timothy (16:5-11)
B. News about Apollos (16:12)
C. Final Exhortations (16:13-18)
D. Final Greetings (16:19-24)
•Principle of Purity
•Principle of mutual sexual responsibility in marriage
•Recognizes the benefits of singleness but also of marriage; all is according to how God gifts
•Live as you are called
•Unless people give to charity, gifts from the Holy Spirit don’t mean nothing
•Culture as the unifying theme
oAddresses the conflict in the culture of Christianity
•Centrality of Christ
oFollow Christ; Be one with the Lord, Jesus Christ
•ThePractical Implications of Progressive Sanctification in the context of the Christian community
•The Application of Christian Principles on an Individual and Social level
Internal Evidence
- The Gospel of Matthew is anonymous:
- There is no internal, direct evidence for authorship
It suggests that he was a Jew
- Because a gentile would tend not to be interested in such teaching tradition
- Since a Jew would be concerned to understand Jesus as such.
External Evidence
- The earliest piece of external, direct evidence for the authorship of the Gospel of Matthew derives from Papias
> Papias makes the following obscure statement about the origin of the gospel
- Although it probably best reflects the meaning of Papias' statement, this translation is not certain
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