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Transcript of Morphology
The Words of Language
The cat sat on the mat.
Potawatomi, American Indian language
"They see us."
add a line more
Dewey, Cheethum, & Howe
Un petit d'un petit
S'étonne aux Halles.
i need a check
margin of error
pick up &
Sat on a wall.
She can't bear (tolerate) children.
She can't bear (give birth to) children.
Bruin bear is the mascot of UCLA.
He stood there - bare and beautiful.
the minimal unit of meaning
"They gave it me," Humpty Dumpty continued, "for an un-birthday present."
"I beg your pardon?" Alice said with a puzzled air.
"I'm not offended," said Humpty Dumpty.
"I mean, what is an un-birthday present?"
"A present given when it isn't your birthday, of course."
Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass
"Looks like we spend most of our time inging... you know, like sleeping, eating, running, climbing..."
Bound and Free Morphemes
boy (sg.) > boys (pl.)
zigi "chin" > kazigi "chins"
fumikas "to be strong"
kumilad "to be red"
chokma "he is good"
ik+chokm+o "he isn't good"
lieb (verb root) "love"
geliebt (past participle) "loved"
(or "beloved" when used as an adjective)
A root is a lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts.
When a root morpheme is combined with an affix, it forms a stem.
katab "he wrote"
"I never heard of "Uglification," Alice ventured to say. "What is it? The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. "Never heard of uglifying!" it exclaimed. "You know what to beautify is, I suppose?" "Yes,' said Alice doubtfully: "it means - to make - anything - prettier." "Well, then," the Gryphon went on, "if you don't know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton."
Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland
When bound morphemes are added to a root morpheme or stem, a new word with a new meaning is derived.
purify "to make pure"
purification "the process of making pure"
Noun to Adjective
boy + ish
virtu + ous
Elizabeth + an
pictur + esque
affection + ate
health + ful
alcohol + ic
life + like
Verb to Noun
acquitt + al
clear + ance
accus + ation
confer + ence
sing + er
conform + ist
predict + ion
free + dom
Adjective to Adverb
exact + ly
quiet + ly
Not all derivational morphemes cause a change in grammatical class.
Noun to Noun
friend + ship
Verb to Verb
un + do
Two or more words may be joined to form new compound words.
When the two words are in the same category,
the compound will be in that category.
In English, the rightmost word is the
HEAD of the compound.
Compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the nonprepositional part of the compound.
Words derived from the initials of several words.
radar : radio detecting and ranging
scuba : self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
laser : light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
faq : frequently asked questions
wysiwyg : what you see is what you get
aids : acquired immune deficiency syndrome
A new word may enter the language because of an incorrect morphological analysis.
peddler > peddle
swindler > swindle
editor > edit
pease > pea
bikini > monokini
resurrection > resurrect
preemption > preempt
television > televise
Abbreviations of longer words or phrases may also become lexicalized.
fax : facsimile
telly : television
prof : professor
gym : gymnasium
ad : advertisement
bike : bicycle
math : mathematics
gas : gasoline
van : caravan
Eponyms are words derived from proper names and are another of the many creative ways that the vocabulary of a language expands.
sandwich : named for the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who put his food between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled
robot : after the mechanical creatures in the Czech writer Karel Capek's play R.U.R., the initials standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"
gargantuan : named for Gargantua, the creature with a huge appetite created by Rabelais
jumbo : after an elephant brought to the United States by P.T. Barnum
paparazzo : (paparazzi, pl.) comes from the news photographer character Signor Paparazzo in the motion picture La Dolce Vita
Blends are similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted, so they are "less than" compounds.
smog : smoke + fog
motel : motor + hotel
urinalysis : urine + analysis
Bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function. They mark properties such as tense, number, gender, case, and so forth. They never change the syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached.
(1) I sail the ocean blue.
(2) He sails the ocean blue.
(3) John sailed the blue ocean.
(4) John has sailed the ocean blue.
(5) John is sailing the ocean blue.
English Inflectional Morphemes
third-person singular present
She wait-s at home.
She wait-ed at home.
She is eat-ing the donut.
Mary has eat-en the donuts.
She ate the donut-s.
Jay's hair is short.
Mark has short-er hair than Jay.
Jem has the short-est hair.
pik "to cook"
"We will not have made him cook for them."
Ha + tu + ta + wa + pik + i + sh + i + a
negative tense, subject agreement, object agreement,
indicative mood, and prefixes as well as suffixes
Irregular, or suppletive, forms are treated separately in the grammar.
child : children
datum : data
hit : Yesterday you hit the ball.
sheep : The sheep are in the meadow.
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2000). An introduction to
language (7th ed.). Boston : Wadsworth.
form (sound/sign) MEANING linguistic sign ARBITRARY lexicon PRONUNCIATION (PHONOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION)
meaning (semantic properties) SYNTACTIC CATEGORY
While the particular morphemes and the particular morphological rules are language-dependent, the same general processes occur in all languages.
SIT (1 time)
Every speaker of every language knows tens of thousands of words.