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Morphology

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Michael Manahan

on 23 October 2016

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Transcript of Morphology

MORPHOLOGY
The Words of Language

Thecatsatonthemat.
The cat sat on the mat.
Kwapmuknanuk.
Potawatomi, American Indian language
"They see us."
Adeline Moore
Copyeditor
add a line more
Ineeda Check
Accounts Payable
Maury Missions
Pollution Control
Lois Bidder
Purchasing
Marge Innovera
Statistician
Picov Andropov
Russian chauffeur
Dewey, Cheethum, & Howe
Legal firm
Un petit d'un petit
S'étonne aux Halles.
i need a check
more emissions
lowest bidder
margin of error
pick up &
drop off
Humpty Dumpty
Sat on a wall.
She can't bear (tolerate) children.
She can't bear (give birth to) children.
Bruin bear is the mascot of UCLA.
He stood there - bare and beautiful.
homonyms
homophones
MORPHEME:
the minimal unit of meaning
"They gave it me," Humpty Dumpty continued, "for an un-birthday present."
"I beg your pardon?" Alice said with a puzzled air.
"I'm not offended," said Humpty Dumpty.
"I mean, what is an un-birthday present?"
"A present given when it isn't your birthday, of course."
Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass
"Looks like we spend most of our time inging... you know, like sleeping, eating, running, climbing..."
Bound and Free Morphemes
boy
desire
gentle
man
-ish
-ness
-ly
dis-
trans-
un-
PREFIXES &
SUFFIXES
English:
boy (sg.) > boys (pl.)
Isthmus Zapotec:
zigi "chin" > kazigi "chins"
INFIXES
Bontoc:
Adjective
fikas "strong"
kilad "red"
Verb
fumikas "to be strong"
kumilad "to be red"
INFIXES
American English:
un-fuckin-believable
in-fuggin-credible
CIRCUMFIXES
Chickasaw:
Affirmative:
chokma "he is good"
Negative:
ik+chokm+o "he isn't good"
CIRCUMFIXES
German:
lieb (verb root) "love"
geliebt (past participle) "loved"
(or "beloved" when used as an adjective)
ROOTS &
STEMS
A root is a lexical content morpheme that cannot be analyzed into smaller parts.
When a root morpheme is combined with an affix, it forms a stem.
ROOTS &
STEMS
Egyptian Arabic:
ktb "write"
katab "he wrote"
kaatib "writer"
kitáab "book"
kútub "books"
ROOTS &
STEMS
root
stem
stem
stem
word
system
system+atic
un+system+atic
un+system+atic+al
un+system+atic+al+ly
"I never heard of "Uglification," Alice ventured to say. "What is it? The Gryphon lifted up both its paws in surprise. "Never heard of uglifying!" it exclaimed. "You know what to beautify is, I suppose?" "Yes,' said Alice doubtfully: "it means - to make - anything - prettier." "Well, then," the Gryphon went on, "if you don't know what to uglify is, you are a simpleton."
Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland
DERIVATIONAL
MORPHOLOGY
When bound morphemes are added to a root morpheme or stem, a new word with a new meaning is derived.
pure
purify "to make pure"
purification "the process of making pure"
DERIVATIONAL
MORPHOLOGY
Noun to Adjective
boy + ish
virtu + ous
Elizabeth + an
pictur + esque
affection + ate
health + ful
alcohol + ic
life + like
DERIVATIONAL
MORPHOLOGY
Verb to Noun
acquitt + al
clear + ance
accus + ation
confer + ence
sing + er
conform + ist
predict + ion
free + dom
DERIVATIONAL
MORPHOLOGY
Adjective to Adverb
exact + ly
quiet + ly
DERIVATIONAL
MORPHOLOGY
Not all derivational morphemes cause a change in grammatical class.
Noun to Noun
friend + ship

Verb to Verb
un + do
WORD COINAGE
Kodak
Colgate
Frigidaire
Kleenex
COMPOUNDS
Two or more words may be joined to form new compound words.
COMPOUNDS
ADJECTIVE
NOUN
VERB
ADJECTIVE
bittersweet
headstrong
-
NOUN
poorhouse
homework
pickpocket
VERB
whitewash
spoonfeed
sleepwalk
When the two words are in the same category,
the compound will be in that category.
In English, the rightmost word is the
HEAD of the compound.
Compounds formed with a preposition are in the category of the nonprepositional part of the compound.
overtake
undertake
sundown
downfall
uplift
ACRONYMS
Words derived from the initials of several words.
radar : radio detecting and ranging
scuba : self-contained underwater breathing apparatus
laser : light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation
faq : frequently asked questions
wysiwyg : what you see is what you get
aids : acquired immune deficiency syndrome
BACK-FORMATIONS
A new word may enter the language because of an incorrect morphological analysis.
peddler > peddle
swindler > swindle
editor > edit
pease > pea

bikini > monokini

resurrection > resurrect
preemption > preempt
television > televise
ABBREVIATIONS
Abbreviations of longer words or phrases may also become lexicalized.
fax : facsimile
telly : television
prof : professor
gym : gymnasium

ad : advertisement
bike : bicycle
math : mathematics
gas : gasoline
van : caravan
WORDS FROM
NAMES
Eponyms are words derived from proper names and are another of the many creative ways that the vocabulary of a language expands.
sandwich : named for the fourth Earl of Sandwich, who put his food between two slices of bread so that he could eat while he gambled
robot : after the mechanical creatures in the Czech writer Karel Capek's play R.U.R., the initials standing for "Rossum's Universal Robots"
gargantuan : named for Gargantua, the creature with a huge appetite created by Rabelais
jumbo : after an elephant brought to the United States by P.T. Barnum
paparazzo : (paparazzi, pl.) comes from the news photographer character Signor Paparazzo in the motion picture La Dolce Vita
BLENDS
Blends are similar to compounds but parts of the words that are combined are deleted, so they are "less than" compounds.
smog : smoke + fog
motel : motor + hotel
urinalysis : urine + analysis
INFLECTIONAL MORPHEMES
Bound morphemes that have a strictly grammatical function. They mark properties such as tense, number, gender, case, and so forth. They never change the syntactic category of the words or morphemes to which they are attached.
(1) I sail the ocean blue.
(2) He sails the ocean blue.
(3) John sailed the blue ocean.
(4) John has sailed the ocean blue.
(5) John is sailing the ocean blue.
-s
-ed
-ing
-en
-s
-'s
-er
-est
English Inflectional Morphemes
third-person singular present
past tense
progressive
past participle
plural
possessive
comparative
superlative
Examples
She wait-s at home.
She wait-ed at home.
She is eat-ing the donut.
Mary has eat-en the donuts.
She ate the donut-s.
Jay's hair is short.
Mark has short-er hair than Jay.
Jem has the short-est hair.
Hatutawapikishia.
Swahili:
pik "to cook"
"We will not have made him cook for them."


Ha + tu + ta + wa + pik + i + sh + i + a
negative tense, subject agreement, object agreement,
indicative mood, and prefixes as well as suffixes
EXCEPTIONS &
SUPPLETIONS
Irregular, or suppletive, forms are treated separately in the grammar.
child : children
datum : data
hit : Yesterday you hit the ball.
sheep : The sheep are in the meadow.
Fromkin, V., Rodman, R., & Hyams, N. (2000). An introduction to
language (7th ed.). Boston : Wadsworth.

REFERENCE
form (sound/sign) MEANING linguistic sign ARBITRARY lexicon PRONUNCIATION (PHONOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION)
meaning (semantic properties) SYNTACTIC CATEGORY

While the particular morphemes and the particular morphological rules are language-dependent, the same general processes occur in all languages.
CHAIR (twice)
short redupli-
cation
SIT (1 time)
long mov
Derivational Morphology
ASL
Every speaker of every language knows tens of thousands of words.
Full transcript