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Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life
Transcript of Chapter 2: The Chemistry of Life
2.2 Properties of Water
The attraction between a hydrogen atom with a partial positive charge and another atom with a partial negative charge is known as a hydrogen bond.
Cohesion is an attraction between molecules of the same substance.
Adhesion is an attraction between molecules of different substance.
2.3 Carbon Compounds
Nucleic acids are macromolecules containing hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.
Nucleotides consist of three parts: a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group(-PO4), and a nitrogenous base.
Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information
2.4 Chemical Reaction and Enzymes
--A chemical reaction is a process that changes, or transforms, one set of chemicals into another.
--The elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction are known as reactants.
--The elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction are known as products.
--Chemical reactions involve changes in the chemical bonds that join atoms in compounds
A catalyst is a substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction. Catalyst work by lowering a reaction's activation energy.
Nature's Catalysts: Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalyst. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions that take place in a cell. Just like other catalysts enzymes act by lowering the activation energies. Lowering the activation energy has a dramatic effect on how quickly the reaction is completed
Structure of Atoms
Solution and Suspensions
Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1:2:1.
Simple sugar molecules are known as mono saccharides.
The large macromolecules formed from mono saccharides are known as polysaccharides.
Plants use a slightly different polysaccharides, called starch, to store excess sugar. Plants also make another important polysaccharides called cellulose.
--Proteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen, and oxygen. Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids.
--Amino acids are compounds with an amigo group (-NH2) on one end and a carbonyl group(-COOH) on the other end.
Structure and Function
: More than 20 different amigo acids are found in nature.
Levels of Organization
: Amino acids are assembled into polypeptide chain according to instructions coded in DNA.
Energy in Reactions
Acids, Bases, and pH
Chemists devised a measurement system called the pH scale to indicate the concentration of H+ ions in solution.
An acid is any compound that forms H+ ions than than pure water and have pH values below 7.
A base is a compound that produces hydroxide (OH-) ions in solution.
Buffers are weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or base to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH.
2.1~The Nature of Matter
The basic unit of matter are atoms.
The center of an atom is the nucleus.
The nucleus is made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
Isotopes have the same chemical properties because they have the same number of electrons.
Elements are pure substances.
A compound is a chemical combination of two or more elements.
When molecules are close or nearby each other their forces of attraction can develop between opposite charged regions, chemist call this the van der Waals force.
Protons and neutrons are at the center of the atoms.
Electrons are free to move around the nucleus.
Electrons have negative charges, while protons have positive charges. The number of electrons and protons are the same. So atoms are all neutral.
An ionic bond is formed when one or more electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
The moving electrons actually travel about the nuclei of both atoms, forming a covalent bond.
The structure that result when atoms are joined together by covalent bonds is called molecule. The molecule is the smallest unit of most compounds.
All the components of a solution are evenly distributed throughout the solution.
The substance that is dissolved is called solute.
The substance in which the solute dissolved is called solvent.
Mixture of water and non dissolved material are known as suspension.
Carbon can bond with many element, including hydrogen, oxygen, phosphorus,sulfur, and nitrogen to form the molecules of life.
Many of the organic compounds in living cells are so large that they are known as macromolecules, which means "giant molecules."
Most macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization, in which large compounds are built by joining smaller ones together. The smaller units, or monomers, join together to form polymers.
Lipids are made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms.
Lipids can be used to store energy. Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings
: Chemical reactions that release energy often occur on their own, spontaneously. Chemical reactions that absorb energy will not occur without a source of energy.
: In order to stay alive, organisms need to carry out reactions that require energy. because matter and energy are conserved in chemical reactions, every organism must have a source of energy to carry out chemical reactions.
: Chemical reaction that release energy do not always occur spontaneously.
Chemists call the energy to get a reaction started the activation energy.