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COM10003 Assessment 2A GROUP 6
Transcript of COM10003 Assessment 2A GROUP 6
1. Goals to be pursed.
Example: Disagreement between parent and child on what college they want to attend
2. The allocation of resources such as money or time.
Example: Partner’s different opinion on how to spend their money
3. Behaviour that are considered appropriate or desirable by one person but inappropriate or undesirable by another.
Example: disagreement over one person’s flirting or drinking.
TYPES OF CONFLICT
There are many types of conflict, however for the purposes of this presentation we will review the following, which are common in workplaces:
1. Interpersonal Conflict
2. Intrapersonal Conflict
3. Intragroup Conflict
REASONS FOR CONFLICT
Conflict… we’ve all heard about it, and without doubt, at some stage or another being involved in it; but what does it actually mean? And once conflict has occurred, how is it to be resolved?
To put it simply, conflict is a disagreement between two or more parties, generally based on actual or
perceived differences. Surprising to many, conflict can actually have benefits… however, if not managed
effectively, the consequences can be detrimental to individuals, teams and organisations.
This presentation will explore some of the common types of conflict; common causes of conflict and more importantly, how conflict can be resolved.
Interpersonal conflict occurs when you are in conflict with other people. It can happen between spouses, family members, colleagues and friends; it is an extreme level of conflict (Lewicki, Barry & Saunders 2007).
Interpersonal conflict happens when at least two or more people disagree over an outcome where they express different opinions.
Such conflict can temporarily fracture a relationship.
Intrapersonal conflict is classified as a disagreement among connected individuals who perceive their goals as incompatible (Rahim, 2010). Rahim (2010), states that an individual is in intrapersonal conflict if he or she has difficulty making a decision because of uncertainty and is pushed or pulled in opposite directions.
According to Lewin (1948) there are three types of intrapersonal conflict:
Approach – Approach conflict
Approach – Avoidance
Double Approach – Avoidance
When a conflict is intrapersonal, it is most often resolved through one-on-one coaching and feedback from trusted friends or professionals. Gradually, the individual works through their situation, which can cause the problem. Solutions are found by inviting the person to invent new, more effective responses to conflict situations.
Intragroup conflict refers to conflict between two or more members of a group or team.
The changing structure of workplaces has resulted in a greater demand for diverse work groups consisting of members from both genders, various cultures, diverse backgrounds, speaking different languages; and owning different kinds of knowledge, expertise and skills to help organisations enhance their performance and productivity by improving their internal operations (Bao, 2007).
Although still widely assumed to be disruptive, conflict, when managed appropriately, has been found to make teamwork within and between organisations effective (Tjosvold, 2007). However when not managed effectively, research has shown that intragroup conflict can have detrimental affects on the outcome the team is attempting to achieve (Bao, 2007).
In two separate articles in 2000 and 2002, Bell and Hart concluded that there were
eight common causes of conflict in workplaces:
1. Conflicting resources
2. Conflicting styles
3. Conflicting perceptions
4. Conflicting goals
5. Conflicting pressures
6. Conflicting roles
7. Different personal values
8. Unpredictable policies
Conflict resolution occurs following conflict and can be described as a situation whereby the
conflicting parties enter into an agreement that solves the central incompatibilities
(Peter Wallensten, 2015). It is important through this process to respect individual
differences and focus on the issue in dispute.
Bao, L (2007). How Four Types of Intragroup Conflicts Shape the Role of Group Diversity on Group Outcomes. Retrieved from https://weatherhead.case.edu/departments/organizational-behavior/.../WP-14-01.pdf
Bell, A. (2002). Six ways to resolve workplace conflicts. San Francisco, CA: University of San Francisco.. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hr024
Conflict The Office, You Tube (video file) Smart City Vocational College Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5SnSzo4AbR
Eight Causes of Conflict, You Tube (Video File) Brighton School of Business and Management. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R1xHDomYsr
End of Summer, You Tube (video File) Heroboard. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5peYhuqG7e
Fisher, R and Ury, W. (1983). Getting to Yes: Negotiating Agreement Without Giving In. New York: Penguin Book
Hart, B. (2009). "Conflict in the workplace." Behavioral Consultants, P.C. http://www.excelatlife.com/articles/conflict_at_work.htm. Retrieved from http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/hr024
Lewicki, R.J, Barry, B. & Saunders, D.M. (2007). Essentials of Negotiation. Boston: McGraw-Hill/Irwin
Lewin, K. (1948). Resolving social conﬂicts: Selected papers on group dynamics. Ed. G. W. Lewin. New York: Harper & Row.
Rahim, M.A. (2010). Managing Conflict in Organizations. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers
Science Pole , Conflict Resolution. Retrieved from http://sciencepole.com/conflict-resolution/
Tjosvold (2007). The conflict-positive organization: it depends upon us. Retrieved from https://weatherhead.case.edu/departments/organizational-behavior/.../WP-14-01.pdf
Wallensten, P. (2015). Understanding Conflict Resolution. Retrieved from https://au.sagepub.com/en-gb/oce/understanding-conflict-resolution/book243347.
Similarly, Thomas & Kilman (1974) developed the
Conflict Mode Instrument Model
, which aims to increase cooperative behaviours and therefore produce positive outcomes for individuals and others:
Rather then Competing and Avoiding...
Being willing to give and take with another person
Cooperation within a team that leads to both parties needs being met with a positive outcome
Yielding positive outcomes
Conflict resolution can begin with
individuals asking themselves:
• “What is the problem here?”
• “What do I want to achieve?”
• “Is mediation an option”
Several approaches can be
utilised to assist in resolving
conflict, including “
Ury’s (1981) Interest Based
participants are encouraged to:
1. Set the scene
2. Gather information
3. Agree on the problem
4. Brainstorm solutions
5. Negotiate a solution
In order to be successful in applying this approach, parties must separate people and
emotions from the problem.
This approach focuses on respect and understanding, and involves 6 steps
1. Make sure that good relationships are a priority
2. Separate people from problems
3. Listen carefully to different interests
4. Listen first, talk second
5. Set out the “facts”
6. Explore options together
Conflict is a breakdown in the decision making process where an alternative path cannot be chosen which can cause conflict in life and in the work place. Whatever the reason for the conflict, and whether the conflict be interpersonal, intrapersonal or intragroup, it is vital that people have the skills necessary to handle conflict and resolve it. The main issue is that we deal with conflict in an appropriate manner and resolve conflict with the best plan of action that all parties agree on.
The primary advantage of conflict is its ability to highlight issues that need to be resolved. Therefore, when conflict does arise, it is important that it be acknowledged quickly and dealt with in an efficient manner.