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Transcript of Chocolate
35-60% cocoa solids
In 1849 the first eatable dark chocolate solid was produced by Joseph Storrs Fry in England (Spadaccini 2013). Over the past 5 years there has been a growth toward dark chocolate due to the awareness about health, nutrition and low fat diets (Sivasailam 2013).
over 70% cocoa solids
Semisweet and bittersweet chocolate is a sweet chocolate containing no less than 35 percent chocolate liquor. (US Food & Drug Administration)
Although raw cocoa can reduce blood pressure and help prevent cancer and heart disease (Bishop 2010), milk chocolate contains less than 30%, which diminishes its ability to provide any health benefits significantly (Minifie 1989).
When consumed in moderation, milk chocolate can be part of a balanced diet, however eating chocolate can raise the dopamine levels in the brain which can lead to ‘cravings’ (Nasser & Bradley et al 2011) and thus, over-consumption.
The alkalizing process used to convert raw cocoa to powder reduces the body’s ability to absorb cocoas nutrients (Bishop 2010), and the addition of sugar and fat can lead to obesity and poor health in general (Bruinsma & Taren 1999).
When compared to milk chocolate it has:
More cocoa solids (Lupkin 2013).
The benefits come from the “antioxidants found in raw cocoa beans or cocoa solids” (Saxelby 2010).
Not all dark chocolates are the same, the ingredient quantities vary (Mcshea et al 2008) resulting in the same risks as milk chocolate.
Always check the label, the higher the cocoa solids over 70% the better it is for you and consume in moderation (Lupkin 2013, Pimentel et al 2010, Monash University 2013).
Dark chocolate containing 70% cocoa has flavanols which have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which can lower blood sugar levels and improve cholesterol levels (Doheny 2012)
Dark chocolate contains caffeine which can cause issues to those that are sensitive. Oxalates in chocolate can lead to an increase risk of kidney stones. Tyramine is thought to be a trigger for migraines. (Myklebust & Wunder 2010)
Lactose free chocolate, although a healthier alternative for the lactose intolerant, cannot be classified as a health food due to its high sugar and fat content. One should only consume chocolate in moderation whilst maintaining a balanced diet (Better Health Channel 2012).
Last year, Barry Callebaut launched a chocolate with the lowest lactose content in the world. This chocolate tastes like milk chocolate as it contains larger amounts of artificial milk powder. It has health benefits for the lactose intolerant as it causes no pain or discomfort. (Europe Intelligence Wire 2012).
Lactose free chocolate, like other chocolate, can contribute to health risks such as obesity due to its high fat and sugar content. (Adams 2004).
A lot of producers of sugar-free alcohol use Maltitol. This substance helps combat obesity as it contains half the calories that normal sugar does. It also has limited impact on a person’s blood sugar level, therefore making it a safer type of chocolate for people with diabetes to eat (Magee 2006).
The sugar alcohols used in the chocolate are not completely absorbed in our body when consumed. As a result, it is not uncommon for people to suffer abdominal gas and diarrhea when eating too much sugar free chocolate (Kovacs 2013).
Experts warn that sugar-free chocolate is not a license to eat big amounts of the product. Sugar alcohols still contain calories and if eaten in large quantities can be comparable to other traditional chocolate types. Experts warn to read labels to check calorie levels prior to consumption (Kovacs 2013).
Adams, Stuart J 2004 "A critical look at the effects of cocoa on Human Health" Pubulum, Issue 61, p10
Better Health Channel 2012, Chocolate. Net, viewed 24 August 2013 < http://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/bhcv2/bhcarticles.nsf/pages/Chocolate >
Bishop, M 2010, ‘Chocolate, Fast foods and sweeteners: consumption and health’, Food and Beverage consumption and Health, Nova Science Publishers, pp. 1 - 13
Bruinsma K & Taren D 1999, ‘Chocolate: Food or Drug?’ The American Dietetic Association Journal, vol. 99, no. 10, pp. 1250 – 1255
Cooper K, Donovan J, Waterhouse A, & Williamson G 2008, ‘Cocoa and Health: A decade of research’, British Journal of Nutrition, vol. 99, pp. 1 - 11
Doheny K, 2012, ‘Choose Dark Chocolate for Health Benefits’, viewed 25/08/13 <http://www.webmd.com/diet/news/20120424/pick-dark-chocolate-health-benefits>.
Euromonitor International, 2013, Chocolate Confectionery in Australia, viewed 25/08/13 <http://www.portal.euromonitor.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/Portal/Pages/Search/SearchResultsList.aspx>.
Europe Intelligence Wire 24 August 2012, Lactose - free Chocolate, Financial Times.
Field Museum 2007, Chocolate: A Mesoamerican luxury 250 - 900 C.E (A.D). Net viewed 24/8/2013 <http://archive.fieldmuseum.org/Chocolate/history_mesoamerican4.html>
Hertzler, Steven R, Huynh, Bao-Chau L and Saviano, Dennis A 1996 ''How much lactose is low lactose'', Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol 96.3 p243
Kovacs B 2013, Are there any safety concerns with sugar alcohols? viewed 17/8/13 http://www.onhealth.com/artificial_sweeteners/page4.htm
Lindt 2013, ‘More than 70% cocoa’, viewed 10 September 2013 [image] <http://www.lindt.com.au/swf/eng/secrets-of-chocolate/secrets-of-chocolate/lindt-quality/more-than-70-cocoa/>
Lupkin S 2013, Dark Chocolate and 5 Other Not-So-Guilty Pleasures, viewed 16/08/13 http://abcnews.go.com/Lifestyle/dark-chocolate-guilty-pleasures/story?id=19918347#1
Magee E 2006, Can sugar free chocolate compare to the real thing? viewed 19/8/13 http://www.webmd.com/food-recipes/features/taste-test-sugar-free-chocolate
Mcshea A, Ramiro-puig E, Munro S B, Casadesus G, Castrell M & Smith M A 2008, ‘Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing’, Nutrition review, vol 66, no 11, p630-641, Ebscohost.
Minifie B 1989, Chocolate, Cocoa and Confectionery, 3rd edn, Springer, New York
Mogelonsky M 2013, Sliding Sugar Free Sales, viewed 18/8/13 http://www.confectioneryproduction.com/8767/feature-article/sliding-sugar-free-sales/
Monash University 2012, A dark chocolate a day keeps the doctor away, viewed 16/08/13 http://www.monash.edu.au/news/show/a-dark-chocolate-a-day-keeps-the-doctor-away
Mondelez International group 2013, ‘Cadbury Products’, viewed 24/8/2013, http://www.cadbury.com.au/Products.aspx
Myklebust M & Wunder J, 2010, ‘Healing Foods Pyramid’, viewed 25/08/13 <http://www.med.umich.edu/umim/food-pyramid/dark_chocolate.htm>.
Nasser J, Bradley L, Leitzsch J, Chohan O, Fasulo K, Haller J, Jaeger K, Szulanczyk B & Del Parigi A 2011, ‘Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate’, Physiology & Behaviour, vol. 104, no. 1, pp. 117 – 121
Pimentel F A, Nitzke J A , Klipel C B & Jong E V 2010, ‘Chocolate and red wine – A comparison between flavonoids content’, Food chemistry, vol 120, no1, p109-112, Science direct
Saxelby C 2010, ‘Myths busted how healthy is dark chocolate’, viewed 15/08/13 http://www.healthyfoodguide.com.au/articles/2010/august/myths-busted-how-healthy-is-dark-chocolate
Sivasailam N 2013, Chocolate and Confectionery Manufacturing, IBISworld C1182
Spadaccini J 2013, The sweet lure of chocolate, viewed 19/08/13 http://www.exploratorium.edu/exploring/exploring_chocolate/
US Food and Drug Administration, 2013, ‘Food for Human Consumption’ vol 2, viewed 25/08/13 <http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfCFR/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=163.123>.
Zeratsky K, 2012, ‘Can chocolate be good for my health?’ viewed 28/08/13 <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/healthy-chocolate/AN02060>.
GROUP 4: Suzanne Wilson, Brooke Gamble, Samantha Arney, Therese Wermuth & Sam Hughes.
In ancient times, the Mayans crushed cocoa beans to produce a beverage high in nutrients (Bruinsma & Taren 1999). Today, the health benefits of chocolate are attributed to this raw cocoa. However over time, the reduced amount of raw cocoa and the addition of ingredients such as sugar and fat have been shown to have negative health effects. This poses the question: Can chocolate be good for you? To answer this question, we explore five chocolate varieties; milk, semisweet and bittersweet (both forms of dark chocolate), lactose free and sugar free.
Difference in chocolate
Serving size 25g (approx. 4 squares) Qty per serving
Saturated fat Sugar
Cadbury old Gold 70% cocoa solids 6.5g 7.7g
Cadbury old Gold 45% cocoa solids 4.7g 13.6g
Cadbury Milk 26% cocoa solids 4.7g 14.3g
(Mondelez International group 2013)
In the 1500’s the Spanish added vanilla and sugar to the Mayans original cocoa beverage (Bruinsma & Taren 1999). In the 1800’s the British added milk to create a smooth, creamy texture (Minifie 1989). Milk chocolate was born. Today, 58% of people in Europe and 61% in the UK prefer it over other varieties. (Cooper & Donovan et al 2008).
Our sources are credible as they were retrieved from two trustworthy search engines, Swinburne iLearn Library and Google Scholar, as well as other reliable educational and government sites. The information researched was factual in nature and included accurate, peer reviewed academic journals and articles based on current studies, authored by qualified, contactable experts.
Today, 70% of adults around the world are lactose intolerant (Europe Intelligence Wire 2012). Lactose intolerant people struggle to digest milk and suffer pain, bloating, nausea and diarrhea when milk is ingested (Hertzler et al. 1996). Lactose free chocolate has been around for centuries as dark chocolate was originally lactose free (Field museum 2007).
Major confectionery companies have experimented with sugar free chocolate products for the best part of a decade with limited success. Despite a worldly focus on issues such as obesity, companies have reported that sales have dropped 19% over the past 4 years (Mogelonsky 2013).
In some studies consuming 85 grams of dark chocolate with a cocoa content of 65 percent or higher has shown to have health benefits. (Zeratsky 2012). Dark chocolate consumption is continuing to increase after the European Food Safety Authority confirmed dark chocolate improves blood circulation. (Euromonitor International 2013)
Our research demonstrated that making conclusive statements on whether chocolate can be good for you is problematic. Chocolates health benefits derive from raw cocoa, so only dark chocolate with over 70% cocoa solids can be good for you in moderation. Undeniable though, is that excessive consumption of any chocolate leads to obesity and poor health due to its high sugar and fat content.