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Jacob Hamilton

on 9 January 2013

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Transcript of Timeline

The United States and The Soviet Union in the Cold War U.S. History The Indians are pushed aside as colonies grow 1600s 1400s
Europeans arrive By Jacob Hamilton
1st Mod
Cold War 1700s
Great Britain governs all American colonies
These people developed a tradition of freedom and democracy 1775-1783 Revolutionary War takes place On July 4th, 1776
A new American Government declares independence from Britain The United States wins the War May 8th, 1945
The Allies except Germany's Unconditional Surrender ending WWII in Europe 1800s
U.S.A experiences growth of boundaries West More History 1900s
Becomes the richest nation on Earth History of The More Recent Time U.S. joins World War I in April 1917
Fight along side the Allies
Defeat of the Central Powers brought an end to the War on 11-11-1918 14 Points= January 1918
the 14th point called for a League of Nations 14 Points: January 1918
14th Point called for a League of Nations Treaty of Versailles: May 1919
Germany pays tons of reparations, 9 new countries, League of Nations
Congress reluctant to join the League because of U.S. isolation Started during World War One
Espionage Act of 1917- Crime to interfere with the draft or encourage behavior disloyal to the U.S.
Sedation Act of 1918- 20 years in jail for disloyal, profane, or abusive language towards the government, constitution, or the U.S. flag
1,500 people prosecuted The Red Scare! V.I. Lenin calls for a world wide revolution
Worker's Strikes cause fear in America
American Communist Party forms and sends bombs across America 6-2-1919: An explosion damages the house of U.S. Attorney General A. Mitchel Palmer Palmer and J.Edgar Hoover head a new radical division of the Justice Department
10,000 Aliens arrested
500 deported
Open war on all radicals with false claims
By the summer of 1920, the Red Scare is exhausted Palmer Raids Ensue August 1928 Post World War I in America Kellogg-Briand Pact: Condemned to meet the threat of WWII and Hitler
Affective to keep peace for those who wanted it 1930's
U.S. economy is in shambles
The Stock Market crash brings the Great Depression
Social unrest throughout the country
Unemployment and Homelessness
Fear of a communist take over was present Presidential Election of 1932
Communist Party had high hopes to win
America choose a main party canidate, Franklin D. Roosevelt
Started New Deal programs that helped move towards the end of the Depression 1935
U.S. signs the Neutrality Acts stating that we will stay out of both sides of the war
August 23, 1939
Nazi-Soviet Non Aggression Pact signed
Britain and France wanted Russia to fight against Germany
September 1, 1939
Germany invades Poland so Britain and France declare war on the Nazis
FDR tries to repeal the Neutrality Acts and help the Allies
November 1940
FDR wins election for 3rd Presidential term
March 1941
Lend-Lease Act: the U.S. lends equipment to any nation whose defense is vital to America
Summer 1941
Undeclared war on Germany
Shoot U-Boats on sight
Hitler invades Russia World War II Begins 1922-1991 Soviet Union History History of Brutal Rule by Leaders 1500s
Majority of population was farmers and peasents
worked the land as serfs (slaves)
1600s,1700s, and 1800s
Life is good for the ruling class, wealth
Movements began during the 19th century
Czar Alexander II freed the serfs in 1861
The people rebelled and formed new political parties
Bolshevik Party
Russian Revolution 1914-1921
Impact from WWI
Resources strained: solders, farmers, and workers overthrew the monarchy government without getting out of the war first. Solder retreat V.I Lenin led the new Bolshevik Party
Soldiers join
The Party is renamed Communists
Russia pulls out of WWI in March 1918 because a Civil War breaks out The Revolution Cont. Russian Civil War!
Reds (Communists) v.s. Whites (Loyalists)
Allied WWI Powers support the Whites
Nasty War, Czar family killed
Communists win the War, leave Russia in ruins
Lenin's Communist Party forms the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R) in 1922 Joseph Stalin! 1922- Stalin is made the Soviet Union's general secretary
Makes appointments to official party positions History on Stalin
Born in Georgia, named Losed Dzhugashvili
Set up strikes in Georgia, was exiled for Bolshevik Union strikes
From 1902-1913, exiled and imprisoned 7 times
Once the Bolsheviks took over, Stalin came back and play a subordinate role
1922- His power grew A Great Mustache! Stalin V.S. Trotsky Leon Trotsky was the Revolution's coleader, he would've been an heir to to the leadership of the U.S.S.R.
But he was a Jew and joined the Bolsheviks later
V.I. Lenin suffers a stroke (May 1922)
4 total by January 1924
Before his death, Lenin clashed with Stalin over ideals
Lenin wanted a worldwide communist revolution while Stalin focused on the Soviet economy and politics Lenin dies in January 1924
Stalin maneuvers his way to the top spot
Stalin's Regime Ruled with an Iron Fist Russia was still recovering from war
Introduced his 5 year plan
Increase productivity by force
Export precious agricultural resources This resulted in famine and 10 million peasant deaths 1934-1938: Stalin orders a program of systematic murder of 7 million of his political opponents By 1938, Stalin is ill-prepared to meet the threat of Hitler and WWII WWII Cont. War In the Pacific
Germany takes over France and Holland, Japan takes over their colonies
December 7, 1941
Japan bombs Pearl Harbor
2,400 solders and civilians killed
U.S. declares war the next day
December 11, 1941
Germany and Italy declare war on the U.S. The U.N.
26 Nations agree on the Atlantic Charter
January 1942
Goals and mottoes for the reason the fight the war Roosevelt wants to treat Stalin fairly after the War
Not as brutal as Hitler But in April 1943: a mass grave of murdered Poles (People from Poland) are found in the U.S.S.R.
20,000 people dead Tehran Meetings
November 1943
The Big 3 Allied Leaders meet and discuss post war issues
Operation Overlord (D-Day)
Baltic States and their free will
Nothing about Poland
Different opinions over Germany The Yalta Conference
February 1945
More discussions by the Big 3 Allied Leaders over postwar issues FDR is elected to 4th Term
1944 Poland
Stalin has part of Poland in possession, wants a buffer between Germany and Russia
Soviet Provisional Government in power now, the Leaders want to allow the Poles a choice between Provisional and old Government
Stalin wants the Provisional Government to stay in power Japan
Stalin said he would enter the war against Japan 2-3 months after Germany surrendered, in exchange for lost territory from past wars Germany
Divide into 4 zones
Divide Berlin into 4 zones
Each Ally would govern a zone
Soviets wanted $10 Billion in reparations Problems with Stalin Continue after Yalta Determined to put Communist allies into leadership roles in Poland
Refused to let Westerners into Poland
Kept the Russian Provisional Government in charge of Poland FDR dies on April 12, 1945 Harry S. Truman takes over the Presidency
No College Education
Uninformed on the War. FDR never discussed his plans with Truman
But he was very intelligent, decisive, and had good common sense They include: Potsdam Conference
July 17, 1945
In a suburb of Berlin, the final decisions from Yalta were being made Germany was the biggest topic discussed there.
The details include: They will follow through with dividing Germany into 4 zones
U.S and U.K. will work towards unification of zones
France and U.S.S.R want the zones to stay divided and weak
Soviets settle for 25% of reparations from the Western zones and everything in their zone
Japan was also discussed
Destruction was agreed on
Soviets agreed to give aid and join fight in 2-3 months First Nuclear bomb tested in the spring of 1945 Japan still refused to surrender to the Allied forces U.S. decided to use atomic weapons to end the war quick and not loose many Allied soldiers in an invasion of mainland Japan August 6th, 1945
1st Atomic Bomb dropped on Hiroshima
100,00 deaths August 9th, 1945
2nd Atomic Bomb dropped on Nagasaki Japan surrendered on August 14th, 1945 February 1946
U.S. citizens realize that the U.S.S.R is not a dependable ally February February 1946: Americans find out that the U.S.R.R is not a dependable ally February 22, 1946: U.S. and Soviets begin to clash
over world issues United Nations is officially born
October 24, 1945
Most important part was the security council. This included U.S, U.K., U.S.S.R, and China. France is added to this later Marshall Plan
Signed legislation in April 1948
$13 Billion in aid to Turkey and Greece
This was to keep the Greek Civil War from being won by Communists and Turkey falling to communism 1948- Communist take over in Hungry
1948- Czechoslovakia falls to the Soviets
1949- Poland is added to the U.S.S.R. Brussels Treaty
March 17, 1948 U.K., Belgium, France, Luxembourg, The Netherlands sign
Western Europe's 1st unified response to Communism
Alliance North Atlantic Treaty
April 4th, 1949
U.S. joins 12 other nations, but all don't agree on terms North Atlantic Treaty Organization
August 24, 1949
Enough countries sign to form the organization
U.S. is now involved in Western Europe's security and brings an end to the nation's isolation GERMANY! 1948
U.S, France, and Britain combine their zones in Germany to form West Germany and West Berlin
Joins NATO, receives aid, economic recovery
Soviet controlled zone, known as East Germany, doesn't receive any aid Berlin Blockade
June 24, 1948 Stalin shuts off all railways, highways, waterways, and all traffic flow in and out of Berlin
Hoped to slow down any type of unification in the West zones
Hoped to drive out any Allied influence from Berlin Berlin Airlift
June 1948-May 1949 The Allies decide to airlift the supplies into West Berlin
Led to a stronger unification and vitality of West Germany
Embarrassment for the Soviets September 1949: Soviets test their own Atomic Bomb
New type of Cold War- militaristic
U.S. begins to develop a Hydrogen Bomb October 1949: China falls to communism
Only a massive military intervention would've saved China Truman gets criticized
while protecting West Europe, he left Asia to fight communism by themselves April 1950- National Security Council produces assesment of U.S.S.R and U.S. military strength
Truman wanted to keep pace, needed to know info for a military build up, need more money June 25, 1950: Korean War begins
Truman commits 47,000 troops without consulting Congress first
Douglas MacArthur will lead April 11, 1951
MacArthur is relieved of
his UN command Insubordination to Truman's commands
Wanted to expand war into China and use Nukes McCarthyism February 1950 Wisconsin Senator Joseph McCarthy claims to have a list of 205 communists employed by the State Department For 4 years, he bullies witnesses over false claims of communist ties
Public didn't admire the attacks, but felt this was a valuable public service
Few were brave enough to resist March 1954 claims that the U.S. Army had been infiltrated by communists
20 million people watched his downfall on T.V.
He couldn't get traction for his claims The Senate censures him
McCarthy dies 3 years later of liver failure Dwight D. Eisenhower is elected President in 1952 Ends a 20 year Democratic run in the White House "New Look Policy"
Nukes instead of troops
Deterrent power instead of local defense Eisenhower uses the CIA to take care of 3rd world issues without full troop involvement or public knowledge
CIA coup restores pro west Shah leader in Iran
Guatemala leader tries to end poverty by giving out land. CIA plan institutes a new leader, but gives the country years of oppression and brutal rule Korean War armistice signed in 1953 Joseph Stalin died on March 5, 1953 Geneva Conference (May-July 1954)
Major powers meet to discuss Indochina
Vietnam is split at the 17th Parallel Eisenhower Doctrine (1955)
Secure and protect the Middle East from communism
Needs more control in this region Nikita Khrushchev rises to power and Soviet leadership
March 1955 Warsaw Pact
May 1955 Soviets grew fearful of West Germany joining NATO, so they formed their own military alliance The Space Race October 4, 1957 Russians send a satellite into space called Sputnik On November 3, 1957: The Soviets launch up Sputnik II December 6, 1957: U.S. tries to send the Vanguard satellite into space, but it blows up on national T.V February 1, 1958 U.S. finally gets a satellite into space Castro Takes Over January 1, 1959: Castro overthrows democratic government in Cuba Signs an economic agreement with the Soviets in February 1960 March 1960: Eisenhower approves a plan to overthrow Castro
But Castro learns of the plan and prepares for it As Eisenhower was leaving office, the plan for over throwing Castro was still in place
Kennedy was told of it after election JFK wins the 1960 Presidential Election as a democrat April 17, 1961: Bay of Pigs
1,500 Cuban exiles land in Cuba
Invasion was disaster, nothing went according to the plan
25,000 Cuban troops with Soviet tanks and aircraft killed all the exiles
America looks like fools, incompetent, allies embarrassed
JFK takes full blame Laos Outbreak of civil war in 1959
U.S.S.R. and U.S. take sides War escalates, Viet Cong advance in Laos
March 23, 1961: Kennedy threatens with American military action for a neutral Laos
May 1961: U.S.S.R and U.S. reps support a cease fire
Negotiations take forever, fighting starts again a year later
Kennedy sends Naval and Airforce into the area, along with 5,000 Marines and SEATO troops (from U.K., Australia, New Zeland)

June 1962: Fighting ends Berlin JFK gave his famous "Berliner" speech
July 25, 1961 Vienna Summit: June 1961 Meeting of Kennedy and Khrushchev to discuss issues of concerns with their nations Soviets want all of Berlin. Sign a treaty with East Germany to seal of Berlin from the Western World.
Threat of war is at its highest August 13, 1962: East Germany shuts down the Berlin boarder, erects a wall to separating Berlin
The Berlin Wall is born The Cuban Missile Crisis
October 1962 U.S. finds out the Soviets were in the process of putting nuclear weapons inside Cuba, 90 miles away from Florida But the U.S. had missiles stationed in Turkey, 90 miles away from the U.S.S.R, for years October 16, 1962:
U2 flights show nuclear bombs being built, launch pads found JFK imposes Naval Blockade of Cuba Negotiations 2 weeks into the crisis, JFK and Khrushchev agree that the U.S.S.R. will remove all offensive weapons from Cuba and the U.S. won't invade
Also, the U.S. pledge in private to remove their Jupiter missiles from Turkey within 6 months Fallout Kennedy wins praise for how he handled the crisis
Khrushchev will end up loosing his job in October 1964
Installation of a hot line between the Kremlin and the White House
Limits on nuke testing Vietnam The French colonized Vietnam
Vietnamese kicked out the French rulers after going through a war to do so
Divided into North and South Vietnam, with the Soviets supporting the North and the U.S. supporting the South South Vietnam leader, Diem, seemed good at first. But after the North invaded the South, he proved to not be any good. Kennedy sent Green Berets into Vietnam to "help" the South Vietnamese army as advisers 16,000 advisers were in South Vietnam by November 1963 November 1, 1963: a U.S. backed coup killed Diem and his brother, Nhu.
The South Vietnam government still remains corrupt and unstable November 22, 1963: JFK is assassinated in Dallas while campaigning for re-election
Lee Harvey Oswald was the suspect, but was gunned down 2 days later
LBJ takes over the Presidency Vietnam Again The U.S.S. Maddox and the U.S.S. C Turner Joy were attacked in August 1964 in the Gulf of Tonkin Changes LBJ's policy
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (August 1964): Gave him power to send troops and use as much force as needed without a declaration of war LBJ retires on March 31, 1968 15,000 solders had died Democrats need a canidate
Robert Kennedy looks like he will win, but is killed on 6-4-1968 Nixon wins 1968 Presidential Election (11-5-1968) August 1963: Nuclear Test Ban Treaty is signed
Bans testing of nukes in the atmosphere, outer space, or underwater Richard Nixon wins the 1968 Presidential Election Nixon Doctrine- July 1969 "Triangular balance with the U.S.S.R, China, and U.S." March 1969: U.S. bombing raids over Cambodia
Lasts 14 months, 100,000 peasants killed. Did not affect North Vietnam
Invasion of Cambodia the next year Sparks protests at college campuses nationwide
May 4, 1970 (Kent State): 4 protesting students killed by Ohio National Guard troops
May 6, 1970 (Jackson State College): 2 protesting students killed by national Guard troops China Nixon visits China in February 1972
"Week that changed the World" Chinese pledge to help the U.S. find a way out of Vietnam
Drove a wedge between U.S.S.R and China
North Vietnam isolated from their Chinese allies, the South isolated by American allies The End of the War By mid 1972: the Soviets, the Chinese, the Americans and the Congress all want out of the war in Vietnam January 27, 1973: The War in Vietnam is officially over
The South doesn't have much say in the treaty
The North troops stay in the South
The North returns U.S. POWs
The South's leader stays in power North Vietnam invades South Vietnam again, just months after the cease fire is signed
South Vietnam surrenders on April 30, 1975
One unified Communist state 16 years after Vietnam is violently unified, the Cold War will come to an end
1991 The Berlin Wall will begin to be torn down on
November 9, 1990 East Berlin, East Germany, West Berlin, and West Germany will all unify together as one whole Germany
October 3, 1990 The Soviet Union begins to fall apart in late 1990
The Union officially dissolves on December 25, 1991
New nations are formed The Results of the Cold War Ending: The U.S. was the last remaining remaining super power once the Cold War cam to an end
The Russian economy crumbled and has since faced problems while trying to find a solution for it After the conflict ended, both of these nations have improved relations with one another. It is not a perfect situation, but it is a way better friendship than it was for so many years. THE END!!
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