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Teaching Grammar Rhetorically

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Maria Vlahiotis

on 21 May 2015

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Transcript of Teaching Grammar Rhetorically

Teaching Grammar



Rhetorically

Maria Vlahiotis
Literacy Specialist
Core Learning
Alameda County Office of Education

mvlahiotis@acoe.org
website: acoecore.org
events: tinyurl.com/corelearningevents
Twitter: @mvliteracy

Grammatical Pet Peeves
Which grammatical errors irk you the most?
Grammatical Conventions
For each of the sentences, select one of the following:
A. Does not bother me
B. Bothers me a little
C. Bothers me a lot
Then, try to identify
the grammatical
rule each sentence is breaking.
Hairston's Findings
women checked a much higher percentage of
"C. bothers me a lot" than men
women are more grammatically conservative than men; they listed more pet peeves in their responses
both sexes responded most negatively to "status markers"
substandard verb usage:
When Mitchell moved, he brung his secretary with him.
When we was in the planning stages...
Jones don't think it is acceptable...
double negatives
There has never been no one here like that woman.
beginning a sentence with an object pronoun
Him and Richards were the last ones hired.
Grammar
Grammar is...
Teaching grammar looks like...
Paradigm Shift
"So the best place to start to teach grammar is by demonstrating what its presence does for us,
rather than what its absence does to us."
--Steve Tollefson, "I Am Begging You," California English Journal
Traditional instruction...
focuses on constraints.
is separate from writing instruction.
relies on memorization.
is based on definitions.
Rhetorical instruction...
focuses on syntactical choice.
is directly embedded into student writing.
is interactive.
utilizes master texts, teacher modeling, and strong examples.
Oprah Winfrey
David Letterman
My desk at work,_____,_______.
My room,_____,_______.
My [relative/coworker/boss],_____,_______.
Grammar Lesson
What is the function of the word or phrase that we are adding?
What is it called?
Where is it located in a sentence?
Inductive Learning
You know what they look like...
Imitation is the
Sincerest Form of Flattery
Here and there, the children could see traces of the enormous home they had loved: fragments of their grand piano, an elegant bottle in which Mr. Baudelaire kept brandy, the scorched cushion of the windowseat where their mother liked to sit and read.
-Lemony Snicket,
The Bad Beginning

A balding, smooth-faced man, he could have been anywhere between forty and sixty.
-Harper Lee,
To Kill a Mockingbird

In New York, the most important state in any Presidential race, and a state where politics were particularly sensitive to the view of various nationality and minority groups, Democrats were joyous and Republicans angry and gloomy.
-John F. Kennedy,
Profiles in Courage
A
B
C
so find them!
underline the appositives and appositive phrases

discuss the ways in which the two writings structure the appositives
Writing as a Choice
If You're Going to Break the Rules, Do So on Purpose
Make it about STYLE
Give me liberty or give me death.

If I cannot have my individual liberty, I would rather be put to death.
Which sentence is more effective? Why?
A
B
Sentence Comparison
Here and there, the children could see traces of the enormous home they had loved:
fragments of their grand piano, an elegant bottle in which Mr. Baudelaire kept brandy, the scorched cushion of the windowseat where their mother liked to sit and read.
-Lemony Snicket,
The Bad Beginning

A balding, smooth-faced man,
he could have been anywhere between forty and sixty.
-Harper Lee,
To Kill a Mockingbird

In New York,
the most important state in any Presidential race
, and
a state where politics were particularly sensitive to the view of various nationality and minority groups
, Democrats were joyous and Republicans angry and gloomy.
-John F. Kennedy,
Profiles in Courage
tinyurl.com/grammar052115
Sentence Structure and Style
they rename the thing they refer to
they provide additional information
they highlight information
they may communicate tone
A criminal mastermind, the Joker outwitted Batman.

The Joker, a criminal mastermind, outwitted Batman.

The Joker outwitted Batman, a criminal mastermind.
Where is it Used Appropriately?
An appositive

An appositive phrase
Read the selections by Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, and Mary Oliver.

Although each writer is describing a nature scene, they all do so in different ways.
1. Which structures make the descriptions effective?
2. Which structures make them alike?
3. Which structures make them different?
The Language Standards
the grammar you are responsible for teaching
http://tinyurl.com/CCSSprogressions
Today's Objectives
Seven Keys to Effective Student Feedback
Decades of education research support the idea that by teaching
less
and providing
more
feedback, we can produce greater learning...
Actionable
Not actionable:
Actionable feedback is concrete, specific, and useful.
Good job!
Fix the sentence.
A-
User-Friendly
It is not...
overwhelming (too much)
difficult vocabulary to understand
It does...
use student-friendly language
focus on 1-2 items, no more
Timely
Vital feedback on key performances often comes days, weeks, or even months after the performance...
Ongoing
What makes any assessment in education formative is that the performer has opportunities, if results are less than optimal, to reshape the performance to better achieve the goal
Consistent
...teachers have to be on the same page about what high-quality work is. Teachers need to look at student work together, becoming more consistent over time and formalizing their judgments in highly descriptive rubrics supported by anchor products and performances.
Progress Toward a Goal
Score student work in the fall and winter against spring standards
Use more pre- and post-assessments to measure progress toward these standards
Do the item analysis to note what each student needs to work on for better future performance.
"But There's No Time!"
...research shows that less teaching plus more feedback is the key to achieving greater learning. And there are numerous ways--through technology, peers, and other teachers--that students can get the feedback they need.
Wiggins, Grant. "Seven Keys to Effective Feedback." Educational Leadership 70.1 (2012): 10-16. ASCD. ASCD. Web. 3 Dec. 2014.
<http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/sept12/vol70/num01/Seven-Keys-To-effective-feedback.aspx>.
Provide Feedback on this Student Paper
Make Sure You Think about the Seven Keys to Effective Feedback
1.
Actionable
2.
User-friendly
3. Timely
4. Ongoing
5.
Consistent
6.
Progress Toward a Goal
7.
But I Don't Have Time
*Delaware's DOE rubrics, Lucy Calkins rubrics, SBAC rubrics, your own rubrics
*CCSS's language progressive skills, by grade
Maria Vlahiotis
Literacy Specialist
Core Learning
Alameda County Office of Education

mvlahiotis@acoe.org
Twitter: @MVliteracy

Please Provide Me with Some (Actionable, User Friendly) Feedback!
tinyurl.com/corelearningsurvey
understand the paradigm shift between traditional and rhetorical grammar instruction
experience various strategies to engage students in learning grammar
bypass biases in order to differentiate between effective and ineffective sentences that break "the grammar rules"
learn to provide feedback on student writing that will truly help students progress toward their writing goals
*with material borrowed from the Bay Area Writing Project
Story Grammar for Elementary School: A Sentence-Composing Approach
Grammar for Middle School: A Sentence-Composing Approach
Grammar for High School: A Sentence-Composing Approach

by Don and Jenny Killgallon
Resources for Examples from Literature
http://tinyurl.com/grammarrhetor
My compilation
The Killgallon Books
Oregon Dept. of Ed.
http://www.ode.state.or.us/search/page/?=3405
Full transcript