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GENDER AND SEXUALITY

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lisa eberling

on 23 April 2017

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Transcript of GENDER AND SEXUALITY

Women are over represented among the contingent work force. This is the fastest growing sector for women's employment. There the wages are low and the work is part time, non unionized and insecure. Women in this category earn median incomes of less then $11,000
It was only after 342 AD when Christianity became extremely prevalent did it become wrong to be transgender, transsexual, transvestite, inter sex, homosexual or lesbian
Gender - is the mental part of how we feel about ourselves in relation to our masculinity and femininity.
WHAT IS GENDER ?
Sex, Gender and Sexuality
Gender roles are perceived behavioural norms associated with 'Male' and 'Female'. These beliefs are reinforced by society in some cultures, religions and media.
GENDER STEREOTYPES
Male : an organism whose physiological sex produces sperm. Each spermatozoon can fuse with a larger gamete, or ovum, in the process of fertilization.
People who are seen as having both male and female spirits within them.
Some tribes consider there to be at least four genders.
masculine male
feminine male
masculine female
feminine female
Two spirits have been documented 'in over 130 North American tribes, in every region of the continent'.
Two-Spirits
GENDER AND SEXUALITY
Female: the sex of an organism, that produces non-mobile ova (egg cell).
Disney

Males - independent,
assertive,
intelligent,
athletic,
important,
confident,
responsible
and stronger then
females



Snow white: men can't do domestic work, and have to rescue women

Cinderella: Prince charming falls in love instantly when she is looking good

Beauty and the Beast: beast is big, unattractive and angry.
Gaston is the manliest man in town
all muscles and size.

Aladdin: stereotypes of the Arab culture
women being sexy, exotic and always dancing.


Androgyny: (1) a gender expression that has elements of both masculinity and femininity; (2) occasionally used in place of “intersex” to describe a person with both female and male anatomy

Androsexual/Androphilic: attracted to males, men, and/or masculinity

Asexual: a person who generally does not experience sexual attraction (or very little) to any group of people

Bigender: a person who fluctuates between traditionally “woman” and “man” gender-based behavior and identities, identifying with both genders (and sometimes a third gender)

Binary Gender: a traditional and outdated view of gender, limiting possibilities to “man” and “woman”

Binary Sex: a traditional and outdated view of sex, limiting possibilities to “female” or “male”

Biological sex: the physical anatomy and gendered hormones one is born with, generally described as male, female, or intersex, and often confused with gender

Bisexual: a person who experiences sexual, romantic, physical, and/or spiritual attraction to people of their own gender as well as another gender; often confused for and used in place of “pansexual”

- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Cisgender: a description for a person whose gender identity, gender expression, and biological sex all align (e.g., man, masculine, and male)

Cis-man: a person who identifies as a man, presents himself masculinely, and has male biological sex, often referred to as simply “man”

Cis-woman: a person who identifies as a woman, presents herself femininely, and has female biological sex, often referred to as simply “woman”

Closeted: a person who is keeping their sexuality or gender identity a secret from many (or any) people, and has yet to “come out of the closet”

Coming Out: the process of revealing your sexuality or gender identity to individuals in your life; often incorrectly thought to be a one-time event, this is a lifelong and sometimes daily process; not to be confused with “outing”

Cross-dressing: wearing clothing that conflicts with the traditional gender expression of your sex and gender identity (e.g., a man wearing a dress) for any one of many reasons, including relaxation, fun, and sexual gratification; often conflated with transsexuality

Drag King: a person who consciously performs “masculinity,” usually in a show or theatre setting, presenting an exaggerated form of masculine expression, often times done by a woman; often confused with “transsexual” or “transvestite”

Drag Queen: a person who consciously performs “femininity,” usually in a show or theatre setting, presenting an exaggerated form of feminine expression, often times done by a man; often confused with “transsexual” or “transvestite”

Dyke: a derogatory slang term used for lesbian women; reclaimed by many lesbian women as a symbol of pride and used as an in-group term
- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Faggot: a derogatory slang term used for gay men; reclaimed by many gay men as a symbol of pride and used as an in-group term

Female: a person with a specific set of sexual anatomy (e.g., 46,XX phenotype, vagina, ovaries, uterus, breasts, higher levels of estrogen, fine body hair) pursuant to this label

Fluid(ity): generally with another term attached, like gender-fluid or fluid-sexuality, fluid(ity) describes an identity that is a fluctuating mix of the options available (e.g., man and woman, gay and straight); not to be confused with “transitioning”

FTM/MTF: a person who has undergone medical treatments to change their biological sex (Female To Male, or Male To Female), often times to align it with their gender identity; often confused with “trans-man”/”trans-woman”

Gay: a term used to describe a man who is attracted to men, but often used and embraced by women to describe their same-sex relationships as well

Gender Expression: the external display of gender, through a combination of dress, demeanor, social behavior, and other factors, generally measured on a scale of masculinity and femininity

Gender Identity: the internal perception of an individual’s gender, and how they label themselves

Genderless: a person who does not identify with any gender

Genderqueer: (1) a blanket term used to describe people whose gender falls outside of the gender binary; (2) a person who identifies as both a man and a woman, or as neither a man nor a woman; often used in exchange with “transgender”

Gynesexual/Gynephilic: attracted to females, women, and/or femininity
- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Hermaphrodite: an outdated medical term used to describe someone who is intersex; not used today as it is considered to be medically stigmatizing, and also misleading as it means a person who is 100% male and female, a biological impossibility for humans

Heterosexism: behavior that grants preferential treatment to heterosexual people, reinforces the idea that heterosexuality is somehow better or more “right” than queerness, or ignores/doesn’t address queerness as existing

Heterosexual: a medical definition for a person who is attracted to someone with the other gender (or, literally, biological sex) than they have; often referred to as “straight”

Homophobia: fear, anger, intolerance, resentment, or discomfort with queer people, often focused inwardly as one begins to question their own sexuality

Homosexual: a medical definition for a person who is attracted to someone with the same gender (or, literally, biological sex) they have, this is considered an offensive/stigmatizing term by many members of the queer community; often used incorrectly in place of “lesbian” or “gay”

Hypersex(ual/-ity): a sexual attraction with intensity bordering on insatiability or addiction; recently dismissed as a non-medical condition by the American Psychiatric Association when it was proposed to be included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version 5.

Intersex: a person with a set of sexual anatomy that doesn’t fit within the labels of female or male (e.g., 47,XXY phenotype, uterus, and penis)

Male: a person with a specific set of sexual anatomy (e.g., 46,XY phenotype, penis, testis, higher levels of testosterone, coarse body hair, facial hair) pursuant to this label

Outing [someone]: when someone reveals another person’s sexuality or gender identity to an individual or group, often without the person’s consent or approval; not to be confused with “coming out”

Pansexual: a person who experiences sexual, romantic, physical, and/or spiritual attraction for members of all gender identities/expressions

Queer: (1) historically, this was a derogatory slang term used to identify LGBTQ+ people; (2) a term that has been embraced and reclaimed by the LGBTQ+ community as a symbol of pride, representing all individuals who fall out of the gender and sexuality “norms”
- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Questioning: the process of exploring one’s own sexual orientation, investigating influences that may come from their family, religious upbringing, and internal motivations

Same Gender Loving (SGL): a phrase coined by the African American/Black queer communities used as an alternative for “gay” and “lesbian” by people who may see those as terms of the White queer community

Sexual Orientation: the type of sexual, romantic, physical, and/or spiritual attraction one feels for others, often labeled based on the gender relationship between the person and the people they are attracted to; often mistakenly referred to as “sexual preference”

Sexual Preference: (1) generally when this term is used, it is being mistakenly interchanged with “sexual orientation,” creating an illusion that one has a choice (or “preference”) in who they are attracted to; (2) the types of sexual intercourse, stimulation, and gratification one likes to receive and participate in

Skoliosexual: attracted to genderqueer and transsexual people and expressions (people who aren’t identified as cisgender)

Straight: a man or woman who is attracted to people of the other binary gender than themselves; often referred to as “heterosexual”

Third Gender: (1) a person who does not identify with the traditional genders of “man” or “woman,” but identifies with another gender; (2) the gender category available in societies that recognize three or more genders

Transgender: a blanket term used to describe all people who are not cisgender; occasionally used as “transgendered” but the “ed” is misleading, as it implies something happened to the person to make them transgender, which is not the case

Transitioning: a term used to describe the process of moving from one sex/gender to another, sometimes this is done by hormone or surgical treatments
- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Transsexual: a person whose gender identity is the binary opposite of their biological sex, who may undergo medical treatments to change their biological sex, often times to align it with their gender identity, or they may live their lives as the opposite sex; often confused with “trans-man”/”trans-woman”

Transvestite: a person who dresses as the binary opposite gender expression (“cross-dresses”) for any one of many reasons, including relaxation, fun, and sexual gratification; often called a “cross-dresser,” and often confused with “transsexual”

Trans-man: a person who was assigned a female sex at birth, but identifies as a man; often confused with “transsexual man” or “FTM”

Trans-woman: a person who was assigned a male sex at birth, but identifies as a woman; often confused with “transsexual woman” or “MTF”

Two-Spirit: a term traditionally used by Native American people to recognize individuals who possess qualities or fulfill roles of both genders
- See more at: http://itspronouncedmetrosexual.com/2013/01/a-comprehensive-list-of-lgbtq-term-definitions/#sthash.oqGoh9W5.dpuf
Is society causing it to be more than it is ?
Why is it so big in the Media?
Are we as a society making it more confusing and complicated than it needs to be?
-Homosexuality since the beginning.
-Before 342 AD
-two emperors in Rome, Elagabalus and Nero.
-same sex marriage and ruled the lands together.
Africa:

Queen Sobekneferu found that men got more respect then women.
As queen dressed as a man with false beard.
-daughter who was to be the next queen. ---Trained her to dress as a male and with a beard.
GREECE: Cretan Kidnappings
Pederasty-
Adult male chooses an adolescent male.
Announce his intentions.
'Kidnaps' the adolescent
-Friends would give chase.
-end up in the forest at a camp.
-spend a few months with all of the boys, teaching them how to hunt, fish and feast.
-teach the chosen boy the skills of sex.


GREEKS AND ROMANS: Cybele
Practiced homosexuality.
-not seen as a negative life style.
Two men could be together with no penetration.
If dominant partner you were surrendering control.
That was the negative.
ANCIENT HISTORY
TRANSGENDERS
All through history, in every culture

Transgenders were seen as having a connection
to the Gods.
Many gods themselves were seen as 'Hermaphrodites'
( intersex)
MIDDLE EAST:
MTF - could be prostitutes but were criminalized.
If they live completely as a female with or with out the surgery they can live with out shame.
Europe:
Cupid was considered a dual God/Goddess. He/She came into existence asexually. Deities were begotten through male-female unions.

Asia:
It is considered good luck to have a transgender at your wedding.
Amazons:
Female warriors - dressed as males, fought in wars.
no contact with men unless it was to procreate
males born- either killed, sent back to their fathers villages or left out in the wild.
GENDER INEQUALITY
Women and girls are often discriminated against in health, education, political representation, labour market etc.
Most of the world communities are patriarchal. Patriarchy is about the social relations of power between men and women. It is a system for maintaining class. Relies on crude forms of oppression like violence and subtle ones, like laws to perpetuate inequality.
Unions had the ability to help women in the work force. They could have forced society to see men and women as equals in the workplace.
Women in Work

- the first industrial factory workers were girls

- women textile workers formed unions before the civil war

-1900 International ladies garment workers union organized women workers in early 20th century.

-1911 Triangle Shirt Waist fire killed 146 women, shocked the nation.
1941 Kelsey-Hays wheel corporation - strike ' the removal of all girl employees from machine work'

United Auto Workers opposed training women until all unemployed men had work.
1930's banks, schools and some federal agencies fired women if they became pregnant.

Unions banned women from jobs as bus drivers, typesetters or assembly line workers.
When I was in the 3rd grade I thought that I was gay 'cause I could draw,
My uncle was and I kept my room straight
I told my mom, tears rushing down my face, she's like,
"Ben you've loved girls since before pre-K"
Trippin', yeah, I guess she had a point, didn't she?
A bunch of stereotypes all in my head
I remember doing the math like "Yeah, I'm good a little league"
A pre-conceived idea of what it all meant
For those who like the same sex had the characteristics
The right-wing conservatives think its a decision
And you can be cured with some treatment and religion
Man-made, rewiring of a pre-disposition. Playing God
Ahh nah, here we go
America the brave
Still fears what we don't know And God loves all his children it's somehow forgotten
But we paraphrase a book written 3,500 hundred years ago
I don't know

And I can't change
Even if I tried
Even if I wanted to
And I can't change
Even if I tried
Even if I wanted to
My love, my love, my love
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm

If I was gay I would think hip-hop hates me
Have you read the Youtube comments lately
"Man that's gay" Gets dropped on the daily
We've become so numb to what we're sayin'
Our culture founded from oppression
Yeah, we don't have acceptance for 'em
Call each other faggots behind the keys of a message board
A word routed in hate, yet our genre still ignores it
Gay is synonymous with the lesser
It's the same hate that's caused wars from religion
Gender to skin color the complexion of your pigment
The same fight that lead people to walk-outs and sit-ins,
It's human rights for everybody
There is no difference
Live on! And be yourself!
When I was in church, they taught me something else
If you preach hate at the service Those words aren't anointed
And that Holy Water, that you soak in is then poisoned
When everyone else Is more comfortable remaining voiceless
Rather than fighting for humans, that have had their rights stolen
I might not be the same But that's not important
No freedom 'til we're equal
Damn right I support it


Read more: Macklemore - Same Love Lyrics | MetroLyrics

I don't know

And I can't change
Even if I tried
Even if I wanted to
My love, my love, my love
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm

We press play Don't press pause
Progress, march on!
With a veil over our eyes
We turn our back on the cause
'Till the day That my uncles can be united by law
Their kids are walkin' around the hallway
Plagued by pain in their heart
A world so hateful, some would rather die than be who they are
And a certificate on paper
Isn't gonna solve it all, but it's a damn good place to start
No law's gonna change us
We have to change us. Whatever God you believe in
We come from the same one
Strip away the fear
Underneath it's all the same love
About time that we raised up

And I can't change
Even if I tried
Even if I wanted to
And I can't change
Even if I tried
Even if I wanted to
My love, my love, my love
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm
She keeps me warm

Love is patient, love is kind
Love is patient
Love is kind (Not crying on Sundays)
Love is patient,(Not crying on Sundays) love is kind (I'm not crying on Sundays)
Love is patient,(Not crying on Sundays) love is kind(I'm not crying on Sundays)
Love is patient,(Not crying on Sundays) love is kind(I'm not crying on Sundays)
Love is patient, love is kind


Read more: Macklemore - Same Love Lyrics | MetroLyrics

50's and 60's - norms of behaviour included sexism.
Girls were brought up to believe they were inferior and men always ' knew best' and women did not argue with them.
Television shows promoted these concepts, with shows like 'father knows best', 'Bewitched' etc
Bible says ' wives must accept the
authority of their husbands'
Women were given jobs of 'less importance'. ie, secretaries, assistants
Men dominated. They got preferential treatment from the chairman.

The ' glass ceiling' was put into place.

Women were and still are paid less for doing the same jobs.
A study of over 1,000 childrens t.v programs
-male characters out number female characters 2 to 1.

- sexualization of very young girls has become common.

-62 % of Canadians see girls being exposed to unrealistic, sexy images of women in advertising as a major problem for women and girls in Canada today.
Over 1/3 of clothing for girls
- from toddlers to pre teens
- sold at major retailers have 'sexualizing' features
i.e. emphasizes chest or buttocks,
fabrics normally used in adult womens clothing or lingerie
-Push up bikinis marketed to girls as young as seven
-'plastic surgery' mobile app encouraged children to perform cosmetic surgery on a virtual girl to make her slim and beautiful
- ' pole dancer' toy

-stripper pole marketed to girls 11 years and over.
-35% of all management positions in Canada are held by women.
-23 % of senior managers are women.
-21% of Fortune 500 executive officers are women.
CCPA - Canadian Center for Policy
Alternatives
-median earnings of B.C. women working full time $43,000 in 2011, about $12,700 per year (23%) less then men.
At this rate it will take Canadian women 228 years to close the gender pay gap.
What is sex?
GENDER
Sex v.s. Gender
- What's the difference between sex and gender?

- SEX: the biological components make up who we are - the mechanical parts

- GENDER: a social construct

- it refers to a set of social roles, attitudes and behaviours that describe people of one sex or the other

- Stereotypically we attribute or identify a certain set of roles and traits to males and another set to females


Females - weaker,
controlled,
warmer,
romantic,
frailer,
domestic,
and needing to be
saved by men
Two Spirits
Definitions
Transgender: category that includes cross-dressing males, cross- dressing females, and inter - or bi- gendered individuals, as well as trans- sexed individuals

Questioning: individuals who are uncertain about their gender, sexual identity, or sexual orientation; individuals who may be unsure of their sexuality or are still exploring their feelings

Transsexual: person who permanently identifies with the role of the opposite sex or someone who has had sex reassignment surgery to alter his or her external sex organs to those of the opposite sex
The waria in indonesia are individuals who identify as male but assume certain characteristics of femininity

they wear womens clothing jewellery and make up

the word waria comes from the indonesian words wanita ( meaning woman) and pria (meaning man) BBC 2012
Sexuality
Encompasses your biological sex, your gender identity, your sexual orientation & your sexual feelings & behaviour
Our sexuality includes........

- our biological sex

- our gender - masculine, feminine or transgender

- our gender identities - our comfort with and feelings about our gender

- our sexual orientations

- our sexual identity - the way we feel about our sex, gender and sexual orientation

How new is this idea of sexuality ?
Alfred Kinsey- started human sexuality studies in the 1940's and 50's

- publish the idea that sexuality could be measured on a continuum, people weren't necessarily just heterosexual or just homosexual ( Kinsey, Pomeroy, Martin 1948)
Kinsey Report-


- One of Kinsey's major contributions was the creation of a rudimentary scale
- the Heterosexual- Homosexual Scale
- that allowed individuals to self-identify and categorize their sexual orientation
Bonobos
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