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Philippine Visual Arts
Transcript of Philippine Visual Arts
Philippine Visual Arts
Visual arts in the Philippines can be described as a fusion of Western and native cultural influences.
SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD
The Spanish friars were the ones who introduced the Western styles of painting and engraving to the Filipinos through art which was mainly on religious themes since these forms back then were strictly for the Church or religious purposes only.
Newer art forms were slowly introduced
Through the ethnic art forms brought about by the Spanish friars, Chinese and the colony's primary trading partner.
Until the 19th Century, art was only for Church and religious use.
Suez Canal opened in 1869 and the agricultural export economy developed ; native indios earned economic wealth and became what was called "illustrados" - enlightened and educated.
Images of the Holy Family and the saints were introduced to the Filipinos through carved "santos", the "via crucis" (stations of the Cross), engravings on "estampitas", and through glass paintings on Church walls.
Stations of the Cross
Ethnic Art Forms :
- metal work
Icons brought by the friars were used as models for sculptures.
Filipino artisans were taught the Chinese brushwork technique in painting.
Engraving was also introduced.
- Filipinos with money and education.
- They became the new patron of arts because they paved the way for the secularization of art in the 19th century.
A. Painting (2D)
The Spanish friars introduced Western painting in the Philippines to artisans who learned to copy on two-dimensional form from the religious icons that the friars brought from Spain.
Again, for the first centuries of Spanish colonization, painting was limited to religious icons ONLY.
Painters from Visayas island of Bohol were noted for their skillful manipulation of the technique.
Their paintings of saints and other religious scenes show figures in FRONTAL and STATIC POSITIONS.
For the Boholano painters, the more important persons would be portrayed bigger than the other figures.
For instance, Christ normally dwarfs the Roman soldiers in the painting.
These painters did not sign their names on their works and no record of their names exists.
Although, there are still some works that were signed and acknowledged up to date.
In one of the Churches in Paete, Laguna are two works by Joseph Luciano Dans (1805-1870) - probably one of the earliest recorded painters in the Philippine art history.
(Heaven, Earth and Hell), a three-level painting which shows the Holy Trinity, Mary the mother of Christ, saints and the Seven Blessed Sacraments.
Langit, Lupa at Impierno (1850)
Occasionally, paintings were also used for propaganda
Esteban Villanueve of Vigan, Ilocos Sur depicted the Ilocos revolt agains the basi monopoly in 1821.
First Still Life Paintings
Tagalog painters Jose Loden, Tomas Nazario and Miguel de los Reyes, did the first still life paintings in the country. They were commissioned in 1786 by a Spanish botanist to paint the Flora and Fauna found in the country.
Still life painting is a work of art depicting mostly inanimate subject matter typically commonplace objects which may be either natural or man-made.
Earliest Known Historical Paintings in the Philippines
The conquest of the Batanes (1783)
A mural at the Palacio Real (Royal Palace) in Intramuros ; destroyed during the 1863 earthquake.
Watercolor Paintings in the Philippines
Shows the different types of inhabitants in the Philippines in their different native costumes that show their social status and occupation.
It also became an album of different native costumes.
Damian Domingo y Gabor (1790-1832) was the most popular artist who worked in this style; The first great Filipino painter.
First Filipino to paint his face; the first self-portrait in the Philippines.
Founder of the "Academia de Dibujo y Pintura" - the first school of drawing in the Philippines (1821).
"Father of Filipino Painting"
"The First Great Filipino Painter"
The First Formal Philippine Art School
Academia de Dibujo y Pintura
The students were taught how to draw still life and the human form, the art of perspective, painting in oil and aquarelle, and the preparation of colors and surfaces.
They painted not only in canvas, but on wood and ivory, of copper, iron, silver, and sometimes GOLD.
B. Sculpting (3D)
It was sculpting that the Filipinos accepted quickly, which resulted in the emergence of the sculpted saints that replaced the earlier carved "Anitos" in the natives' homes.
Nowadays, the influence of the Spaniards can still be seen in the works of the Filipinos along with influences from other countries as a result of globalization.
With the renewal of nationalism in the latter decades of the twentieth century, indigenous forms and motifs have also been adopted by modern visual arts.
Modern Paintings and Sculptures in the Philippines
New Deck (Baraha ng Buhay Filipino) by Brenda Fajardo
Gabay, Oil on Canvas, 1994, Enrico Santos
Lakbay Diwa (2013) by Kristoffer Tolentino - 3rd Place Maningning Miclat Award
World's largest Human Cross
The Oblation by Guillermo Tolentino
Touchstone of Modern Sculpture by Daniel De La Cruz