Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

APUSH Project

baaaam
by

KVB Project

on 14 December 2010

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of APUSH Project

1607-1763 Theatre 1607 - 1763 1763 - 1775 1775 - 1825 1825 - 1865 House of Burgesses - the London Company granted Virgina the right to establish a local government in 1619 and it was model after the English Parliament and gave the colonies a taste of independence. Mayflower Compact - written for Plymouth colony by the Pilgrim colonists, who made their journey to the New World aboard the Mayflower and who were a part of a separatist group and wanted religious freedom. New England Confederation -
a political and militaristic alliance of the New English colonies and was established in 1643, in order to establish an alliance of colonies against the Native Americans and serve as a place to settle colonial disputes. Freedom of Consciences -
is the freedom to have opinions on a fact, and have viewpoints or thought that are different than another person's. William Penn -
the founder of the Pennsylvania, the early ideas of democracy and religious freedom and he was famous for good relationships with Native Americans. Peter Zenger Trails -
he criticized the governor and was accused if "seditious libel" but he claimed what he printed was the truth and help establish the ideas of freedom of the press. Bacon's Rebellion -
was a revolt in 1674 which occurred in the colony of Virginia and it was the first revolt in the American colonies and consisted of frontiersmen and protested against Native American raids; the farmers did not win. Anne Hutchinson -
was a colonist that settled in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York, she declared her own interpretations of the bible and was banished from Massachusetts and she is key in the development of religious freedom in the colonies. William Bradford -
was a leader of Massachusetts and he was a signer of the Mayflower compact and is credited to starting the American tradition of Thanksgiving. John Locke -
was an English philosopher during the 17th century he argued that people could learn everything through senses; that power of government comes from the people, not the divine right of kings and he offered possibility of a revolution to overthrow tyrants. Thomas Paine/Common Sense -
one of the founding father of the United States and on 1/10/1776 he first published a persuasive argument that Americans should become independent and it was written in a style that the common person could read. Crisis Papers -
A series of works by Thomas Paine written between 1776 and 1783 during the American Revolution. These papers were written in a language common people could understand it increase American morale. Stamp Act Congress -
A meeting held October 1765 in NYC with delegates from 9 out of the 13 colonies. There the Declaration of Rights was written which told the that only the colonies could tax themselves, they had the right to trail by jury, all Rights of Englishmen, and the Parliament could not tax the colonist. Boston Tea Party -
Was a reaction by the colonists of the British. The colonist disguised as Indians boarded a British ship and threw tea into the harbor on December 16, 1773. Sons of Liberty -
A group of American Patriots during the Revolutionary War. They rebelled by using violent attacks against the British crown and Loyalists. First Continental Congress -
Met in response to the Intolerable Acts and involved 12 out of 13 colonies. They organized boycott and wrote the Declaration of Rights. Paxton Boys -
A group of frontiersmen that murdered Native Americans. This group took law into their own hands because they didn't feel the Pennsylvania government was protecting. Battle of Saratoga -
Turning point of the American Revolution that determined the British fate. The Americans defeated the British. The French began an open alliance with the Americans. "No taxation without representation"
a slogan that abridged the main complaint of the British North American colonies. They felt if Britain was going to tax them, they needed direct representation in Parliament or it denied their rights. Gaspee Affair -
a British ship that enforced the unfair British trade regulation was looted and burned by American patriots. Monroe Doctrine -
policy of the United States that the United States would view Europe efforts to colonize the Americas as an act of aggression. Annapolis Convention -
The counties of Maryland joined to gather in an assembly as a united whole during the revolutionary period to form a revolutionary war. Hartford Convention -
During the war of 1812 the New England states joined in this convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. Republicanism/Democracy -
A type of government where the governing is carried out by the people or the people decide who has the power to govern. Loose Construction -
a broad interpretation of the Constitution Strict Construction -
a narrow interpretation of the Constitution War Hawks -
The term used by the House of Representatives to define the people who wanted to go to war against Britain in the War of 1812. Articles of Confederation -
The original Constitution of the US. It was written in 1777 and ratified in 1781. The states were still free and loosely governed by a central government. Declaration of Independace - The statement written by the continental congress, specifically Thomas Jefferson. It said that the is colonies were free independent states not part of the British Empire Lowell Girls - A nickname given to the females that were working in the textile factories in Lowell, Massachusetts. The factories were 75% female and had social effects of women's behavior and work. Shay's Rebellion - A revolt that occurred in Massachusetts between 1786 and 1787. They were rebelling against what they felt a unfair taxes and debtor's prisons. Yeomen Farmers - A farmer who farms his own lands. They did not own slaves nor did they labor on other people's farms or Southern plantations. Senca Falls Convention -
an early american convention for women's rights held in senca fall, new york. the declaration of sentiments was written there. Dorothea Dix -
an influential american reformer that worked for the mentally ill to help create mental asylums that helped work with the ill. John C. Calhoun -
vice president of the united states under adams and jackson, from south carolina who fought slavery, state's rights, and nullification. Maine Laws -
the first legislative implements the emerged the temperance movement. it banned the sale and manufacturing of alcohol. John Slidell -
an american politician in the 19th century who moved to Louisiana and was a strong influence on southern rights. William Lloyd Garrison -
the founder of radical abolitionism in america. Through his newspaper the Liberator, he was the founder of the American Antislavery Society. Popular Sovereignty -
the people are the source of all the political power and that states are created with the will of the people. It was a key in the argument that people should vote on the issue of slavery. American Anti-slavery Society -
a society established to work to abolish slavery. It was founded by William Lloyd Garrison; Frederick Douglass was an influential speaker at these meetings. Abolitionist -
a person that followed the movement to end the slave trade in america or europe. Commonwealth v. Hunt -
court decided that unions were not conspiracies and it gave workers the right to protest and strike against companies. Apologist's View of Slavery -
thought that the bible did not say slavery was wrong because there was slavery of the israelites, negro servant of canaan, and no prophets condemned it. Lucretia Mott -
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. Free Soilers -
political party that joined with the northern Democrats and Whigs to stop the spread of slavery. Cult of Domesticity -
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house. Alexis de Tocqueville -
He wrote a two-volume Democracy in America that contained insights and pinpointed the general equality among people. He wrote that inequalities were less visible in America than France. William Seward -
Senator and Secretary of State who believed in a "higher law" above the constitution and was staunchly anti-slavery. Manifest Destiny -
a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Sumner Brooks Affairs -
During an antislavery speech, a Senator named Sumner insulted another congressman named Butler who was related to another Congressman named Brooks. Brooks beat Sumner with his cane as Sumner sat writing at his desk in the Senate Chamber. It showed how far southerners were willing to go to protect slavery as well as tarnishing the image of the South. 1607 - 1763 Trade and Navigation Acts -
the were a series of laws which limited foreign trade in the colonies as well as the use of foreign ships starting in 1651. Proprietary Colony -
a colony were private land owners maintain rights that are usually the rights of the state. Royal Colony -
a colony were the king directly rules the colony. Charter Colony -
a colony chartered to an individual or group by the British Crown. Mercantilism -
an economic theory which a colony or nation exists for the benefit of a mother country because the capital of a country is best increased through a favorable balance of trade and a mother country can advance these goals by encouraging exports and discouraging imports.
Headright System -
a grant of land to settlers in the colony by the Virginia Company and Plymouth Company and these were given to anyone would pay the costs of an indentured servant to come to the New World and land grants consisted of 50 acres.
1763 - 1775 Stamp Act Congress -
A meeting held October 1765 in NYC with delegates from 9 out of the 13 colonies. There the Declaration of Rights was written and told the hat only colonies could tax themselves, they had the right to trail by jury, all Rights of Englishmen, and the Parliament could not tax the colonist. Olive Branch Petition -
Written during the Second Continental Congress. It claimed that the colonies did not want to break free from Britain but wanted to discuss trade and tax regulations. The king rejected the regulations. Townshend Act -
Were a series of acts imposed by the British on their North American colonies. They were to get the revenue needs to pay for the colonial royal governors and judges. The Boston Massacre was a result of these taxes. Coercive/Intolerable Acts -
Two names used to describe the laws enforced by the British Parliament against the colonies in response to the Boston Tea Party, It shut down the harbor. Boston Massacre -
An event that killed five Boston colonist by British troops. It was sparked by a colonial rebellion in result of British taxes and the British opened fire.
Tea Act -
A tax on tea by the British Parliament on the colonies passed in 1773 because the British East India company was facing bankruptcy.
"No taxation without representation"
a slogan that abridged the main complaint of the British North American colonies. They felt if Britain was going to tax them, they needed direct representation in Parliament or it denied their rights. Stamp Act -
Many paper goods needed to have a tax stamp. It was imposed by the British on the colonies. The revenue went to pay for the troops station in the colonies. Non-importation Agreements -
the colonies agreed to not import certain items, including tea from the British of the British East India Company to cause hardships on the British economy.
Virtual Representation -
when the colonies argued that the British couldn't tax them without direct representation in Parliament the British government argued they were virtually represented by the king and charter holders
Gaspee Affair -
a British ship that enforced the unfair British trade regulation was looted and burned by American patriots.
Sugar Act of 1764 -
A tax imposted by the British Parliament, which was enforced indirectly. It was used to raised money so that colonist could help pay off the debt of the French and Indian War. 1775 - 1825 Embargo Act of 1807 -
created by Thomas Jefferson it requested a banning on trade wit Europe to avoid American involvement in the Napoleonic Wars. Louisiana Purchase -
the French sold the territory of Louisiana in 1803 to the US for 15 million dollars. It doubled the size of the United States and gave them control of the Mississippi. Whiskey Rebellion -
Began in 1791 in objection to a tax on whiskey to help pay off national debt under Hamilton's financial plan during Washington's administration. Order in Council -
In 1807 the British Privy Council specifically used this order to make a sanction during the Napoleonic Wars. It blockaded French ports until ships went to British port.
Interchangeable Parts -
Parts that are created identically for easy assembly and easy repair. It lessened the need for skill of the person assembling or repairing it. Henry Clay -
An American bureaucrat in the ninteenth century. He was a war hawk, created the American System and the Missouri Compromise.
Barbary Pirates -
Were Muslim Pirates that came from North Africa to the coast of Morocco. They caused two wars against the US in the 19th century on "the shore of Tripoli." Gibbons v. Ogden -
A 1824 Supreme Court Case under John Marshall's term as Chief Justice which granted the Congress the right to regulate interstate commerce.
Cotton Gin/Eli Whitney -
A machine that is used to effectively and efficiently separate cotton and the seeds which was previously done by hand. The inventor was one of the key inventors of the Industrial Revolution Full Funding/Assumption -
Under Hamilton's financial plan in which the federal government took over the states' debt. Samuel Slater -
known as the "father of the American Industrial Revolution" because he brought the knowledge of how to make textiles to the Americas Bank of the United States -
Part of Hamilton's financial plan. It caused controversy on whether or not it was constitutional. It was created for the financial needs of the new central government. Shay's Rebellion -
A revolt that occurred in Massachusetts between 1786 and 1787. They were rebelling against what they felt a unfair taxes and debtor's prisons. Erie Canal -
A man-made canal in New York that connects the Hudson to the Great Lakes so there was a navigable water route from the Atlantic to the Great Lakes American System -
Created by Henry Clay it was an economic plan similar to Hamilton's. It included a tariff, a bank of the US and infrastructure improvements. Undeclared Naval War - The period of overseas conflict between the British and the US navies prior to the declaration of war in 1812 1825 - 1865 John Deere -
founder of john deere and company the biggest manufacture of agricultural equipment in the world. he was an american blacksmith and invented the steel plow. Hinton Helper -
lived in the south and was an anti-slavery supporter. he wrote the impending crisis of the south which showed slavery in fact hurt the southern economy. Bank War -
a conflict over the bank of the US. andrew jackson wanted to demolish it and hated its influences over the economy and refused to recharter it. Cyrus McCormick -
an american inventor from virginia who founded the McCormick harvesting machine company after his father patented the reaper. Gadsden Purchase -
the lower region of the present day arizona and new mexico it was purchased by president pierce as part of the treaty of guadalupe-hidalgo. Independent Treasury -
the economic system of the US treasury in which governmental funds and subtreasuries are not connected with the government's national banking of financial system. Charles River Bridge Case -
Supreme court decision that struck down the antiquated concept of state charters being allowed to establish monopolies in the building of a country's infrastructure. Removal of Deposits -
an order of president jackson to remove deposits from the second bank of united states and but them in pet banks parts of ending the bank war. Specie Circuluar -
an order by president Jackson and continued by president Van Buren. It stated that the government would no accept anything bu gold or silver for public land. American Diversity 1607-1763
Indentured servants were usually those of the lower class, so their passage to the colonies was paid by their masters they would eventually serve; most were males, generally in their late teens and early 20s, but thousands of women also entered into these indentures and worked off their debts as domestic servants; their masters maintained their right to prohibit their servants from marrying and had the authority to sell them to other masters at any time Demographic Changes 1607-1763 1763-1775
1775-1825
1775-1825 Shays's Rebellion occurred in MA between 1786 and 1787; New England farmers and merchants were revolting against the wealthy/elite politicans for what they felt were unfair taxes, unjust court actions, an unstable currency, debtor's prisons, and most of all for the fact that poorer lower classes didn't have the rights to vote. Within the rebellion's aftermath, a newly-elected Massachusetts Legislature began the work of reform. 1763-1775 1825-1865 1825-1865 Tariff of Abominations -
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South. National Banking Act -
a federal law that established a national charter for banks which supported a national currency and it also established the national treasury. 1607 - 1763 New England Confederation -
a political and militaristic alliance of the New English colonies and was established in 1643, in order to establish an alliance of colonies against the Native Americans and serve as a place to settle colonial disputes.
Proprietary Colony -
a colony were private land owners maintain rights that are usually the rights of the state.
Royal Colony -
a colony were the king directly rules the colony. Charter Colony -
a colony chartered to an individual or group by the British Crown.
King Philip's War -
was a war between the Native Americans that occupied the southern parts of North England and the colonies and their Native American allies between 1675 and 1676. French and Indian War -
was colonial war fought in North America in 1754 - 1763 between France and England and resulted in the English conquest of Canada and confirmed England's place in controlling colonial North America.
Salutary Neglect -
a long standing English policy of not enforcing parliamentary laws that were created in order to keep the colonies obedient to England. Albany Plan -
was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 and was one of the first attempts at achieving independence, during the French and Indian War.
Headright System -
a grant of land to settlers in the colony by the Virginia Company and Plymouth Company and these were given to anyone would pay the costs of an indentured servant to come to the New World and land grants consisted of 50 acres. 1763 - 1775 Proclamation of 1763 -
issued of October 7, 1763 and was created to alleviate relations with natives after the French and Indian War and started that Americans were not permitted to passed the Appalachian Mountains.
Stamp Act Congress -
A meeting held October 1765 in NYC with delegates from 9 out of the 13 colonies. There the Declaration of Rights was written and told the hat only colonies could tax themselves, they had the right to trail by jury, all Rights of Englishmen, and the Parliament could not tax the colonist. Olive Branch Petition -
Written during the Second Continental Congress. It claimed that the colonies did not want to break free from Britain but wanted to discuss trade and tax regulations. The king rejected the regulations. Pontiac's Rebellion -
Began in 1763 with Natives in the Great Lake region after their victory in the French and Indian War. The British won and created the Proclamation of 1763 to prevent further conflict. Quartering Act -
Was an act enforced by the British on their North American colonies. It required colonist to provide adequate housing and basic necessities like food to the troops. Townshend Act -
Were a series of acts imposed by the British on their North American colonies. They were to get the revenue needs to pay for the colonial royal governors and judges. The Boston Massacre was a result of these taxes.
Boston Tea Party -
Was a reaction by the colonists of the British. The colonist disguised as Indians boarded a British ship and threw tea into the harbor on December 16, 1773. Coercive/Intolerable Acts -
Two names used to describe the laws enforced by the British Parliament against the colonies in response to the Boston Tea Party; It shut down the harbor. Loyalist/Tories -
The group of American colonist that remain loyal to the king during and after the American Revolution. When the British lost the war many left the United States. Sons of Liberty -
A group of American Patriots during the Revolutionary War. They rebelled by using violent attacks against the British crown and Loyalists. First Continental Congress -
Met in response to the Intolerable Acts and involved 12 out of 13 colonies. They organized boycott and wrote the Declaration of Rights. Second Continental Congress -
Involved all 13 colonies and was a response to Lexington and Concord and wrote the Olive Branch Petition, the Declaration of Independence, and the Articles of Confederation. Boston Massacre -
An event that killed five Boston colonist by British troops. It was sparked by a colonial rebellion in result of British taxes and the British opened fire. Paxton Boys -
A group of frontiersmen that murdered Native Americans. This group took law into their own hands because they didn't feel the Pennsylvania government was protecting. Tea Act -
A tax on tea by the British Parliament on the colonies passed in 1773 because the British East India company was facing bankruptcy. Battle of Saratoga -
Turning point of the American Revolution that determined the British fate. The Americans defeated the British. The French began an open alliance with the Americans. Stamp Act -
Many paper goods needed to have a tax stamp. It was imposed by the British on the colonies. The revenue went to pay for the troops station in the colonies. Non-importation Agreements -
the colonies agreed to not import certain items, including tea from the British of the British East India Company to cause hardships on the British economy. Virtual Representation -
when the colonies argued that the British couldn't tax them without direct representation in Parliament the British government argued they were virtually represented by the king and charter holders Gaspee Affair -
a British ship that enforced the unfair British trade regulation was looted and burned by American patriots. 1775 - 1825 Monroe Doctrine -
policy of the United States that the United States would view Europe efforts to colonize the Americas as an act of aggression. Jay's Treaty -
A treaty with the United States and Britain trying to avoid the start of a war. It resulted in opposition from the democratic-republicans. It tried to insure obedience to the Treaty of Paris.
Annapolis Convention -
The counties of Maryland joined to gather in an assembly as a united whole during the revolutionary period to form a revolutionary war.
Order in Council -
In 1807 the British Privy Council specifically used this order to make a sanction during the Napoleonic Wars. It blockaded French ports until ships went to British port Hartford Convention -
During the war of 1812 the New England states joined in this convention to discuss New England's possible secession from the United States. Republicanism/Democracy -
A type of government where the governing is carried out by the people or the people decide who has the power to govern, began in Greek city-states like Athens. Henry Clay -
An American bureaucrat in the ninteenth century. He was a war hawk, created the American System and the Missouri Compromise.
Washington's Farewell Address -
The speech given at the end of Washington's term as President of the United States. He warned about the danger of sectionalism, political parties, and permanent foreign alliances. Great Compromise -
An agreement between large and small states during the Constitutional Convention. It proposed a bicameral legislature. Undeclared Naval War -
The period of overseas conflict between the British and the US navies prior to the declaration of war in 1812. Treaty of Alliance 1778 -
An alliance between the US and France after the American Revolution. It was annulled after the death of the King during the French Revolution. Treaty of Paris 1783 -
Formal end of the American Revolution which was fought between the US and Britain. Neglected from the treaty were France, Spain, and the Netherlands. Corrupt Bargain -
In the election of 1824 no candidate got the required amount of electoral votes. The outcome left up to the House of Representatives who chose John Quincy Adams. Loose Construction -
a broad interpretation of the Constitution
Strict Construction -
a narrow interpretation of the Constitution Treaty of Ghent -
Formally ended the War of 1812 between the US and Britain. It was signed of December 24, 181 in the Netherlands. It was signed prior to the Battle of New Orleans. Critical Period -
The time after the American Revolution when the states were faced with foreign and domestic problems. It was coined by John Quincy Adams. XYZ Affair -
A scandal that occurred when three French agents demanded $250,000 from the US for negotiations. Later an apology to John Adams was made. Articles of Confederation -
The original Constitution of the US. It was written in 1777 and ratified in 1781. The states were still free and loosely governed by a central government. Revolution of 1800 -
The Presidential election of 1800 in which Thomas Jefferson defeated former President John Adams. It was the first change of parties moving to Democratic-Republican from Federalists. Virginia Plan -
wanted a national legislature based on population. New Jersey Plan -
wanted a legislature based on equal rights. First American Party System -
A term that defines the period of time when the Federalists and Democratic-Republicans competed for the presidency. It was ended with the Era of Good Feelings. Virginia/Kentucky Revolutions -
Two similar pieces of legislation by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison that were political statements in support of States' rights and strict construction. Declaration of Independence -
The statement written by the continental congress, specifically Thomas Jefferson. It said that the is colonies were free independent states not part of the British Empire Missouri Compromise -
An agreement between the North and South over the balance of power in Congress. Missouri would become a slave state, Maine would be free. The 36/30 parallel would divide slaving and non-slaving. Adams-Onis Treaty -
A treaty between the US and Spain to settle border disputes in North America. Florida was added to the US. Bill of Rights -
The first ten amendments to the Constitution written by James Madison. The anti-federalists demanded it in order for ratification of the constitution. Judicial Review -
A democratic theory under which legislative and executive branches can be invalidated by the judiciary branch. It's part of the idea of checks and balances. Era of Good Feelings -
A period in the US after the federalist party faded away and there was only one political party the democratic-republicans Citizen Genet -
A French ambassador that came to the US to get American support in France's wars against Spain and Britain. He didn't go to the president. He jeopardized American neutrality. Alien and Sedition Acts -
Act passed by John Adams' federalist administration in order to quiet attacks about the government and were considered unconstitutional. Pinckney Treaty -
A treaty that worked to establish a friendship between the US and Spain. It gained the US the rights to the Mississippi River. 1825 - 1865 Stephen Douglas -
a democrat from illinois who lost the presidency to republican abraham lincoln. He was called "the little gaint" because of his small stature but his gaint influence in politics. Wilmot Proviso -
a seed of the civil war, it wanted to ban slavery in the territory of the mexican cession. it increased conflict over the issue if slavery. Mexican American War -
a war between the U.S and Mexico that took place between 1846 and 1848. It was caused by the U.S annexation of Texas and desire to purchase California. Emancipation Proclamation -
issued by president abraham lincoln during the civil war, it stated that all slaves in confederate states that were in rebellion into 1863 would be freed. Bank War -
a conflict over the bank of the U.S; Andrew Jackson wanted to demolish it and hated its influences over the economy and refused to recharter it. Mexican Cession -
the region of the land the southwestern U.S that the U.S gained from mexico after the mexican american war. Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo
a peace treaty between the U.S and Mexico which ended the mexican american war, it gave the U.S the lands of the Mexican cession. John Slidell -
an American politician in the 19th century who moved to Louisiana and was a strong influence on southern rights. Compromise of 1850 -
a compromise between the slave states and free states in extended the Missouri compromise, divided Texas, slavery was allowed in New Mexico and Utah and a stronger fugitive slave act. Nullification -
a state invalidates it because they view it as unconstitutional. Jackson created the ordinance of nullification in result of South Carolina nullifying the tariff of 1828. Spoils System/Rotation in Office -
when there is a change in political parties and the governmental jobs are given to voters to reward them for their help in the victory; Many of times this refers to the victory of Jackson. Popular Sovereignty -
the people are the source of all the political power and that states are created with the will of the people. It was a key in the argument that people should vote on the issue of slavery. Irish Immigration -
many irish moved into the US during the "irish diaspora." They moved into cities and competed with free blacks for menial jobs. Tent Affair -
a diplomatic event that took place during the Civil War. A U.S naval ship stopped a british ship with 2 captured american diplomats, Mason and Slidelll. Bleeding Kansas -
was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" elements that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state. Commonwealth v. Hunt -
court decided that unions were not conspiracies and it gave workers the right to protest and strike against companies. Webster-Ashburton Treaty -
1842 between the US and the Britain, settled boundry disputes in the North West, fixed most borders between US and Canada, talked about slavery. Lincoln Douglass debates -
Lincoln was a member of the republican party and faced off against democrat Douglass rounning for the state of Illinois. Lincoln opposed slavery and stephen douglass stood for popular sovereignty. Freeport Doctrine -
Lincoln tried to force Douglas to choose between the principle of popular sovereignty and the United States Supreme Court case of Dred Scott v. Sanford, which stated that slavery could not legally be excluded from the territories. James K. Polk -
the 11th president of the U.S and the last strong president leading up to the Civil War and was successful in foreign affairs. Nashville Convention -
meeting of representatives of nine southern states in the summer of 1850 to monitor the negotiations over the Compromise of 1850; it called for extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific Ocean and a stronger Fugitive Slave Law. The convention accepted the Compromise but laid the groundwork for a southern confederacy in 1860-1861. Compact Theory -
The national government got its power from the states without the states there would be no national government therefore the states have the power to nullify any bad laws issued by the national government. Free Soilers -
political party that joined with the northern Democrats and Whigs to stop the spread of slavery. Third American Party System -
a period in American political history between 1854 and the 1890s with the emergence of the Republican Party that focus on unions and abolition. Second American Party System -
a period in American political history between 1828 and 1854 and saw rising levels in votes and the major parties were he Democratic led by Jackson and the Whigs led by Clay. Crittenden Compromise -
an unsuccessful suggestion from Kentucky senator john j. crittenden to end the sectional tensions in the U.S that would amend the constitution and ending the fugitive slave law. Lecompton Constitution -
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election. Perpetual Union -
an important part of the articles of confederation, it secured state's rights and the federal government should be monitored by the states. Know Nothing Party -
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party. Prigg v. Pennsylvania -
Supreme Court case that decided federal law superseded state law. Clayton Bulwer Treaty -
between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to canal across Isthmus of Panama; Abrogated by U.S. in 1881 Gag Rule -
1835 law passed by Southern congress which made it illegal to talk of abolition or anti-slavery arguments in Congress. Ostend Manifesto -
a document drawn up in 1854 that instructed the buying of Cuba from Spain, then suggested the taking of Cuba by force. It caused outrage among Northerners who felt it was a Southern attempt to extend slavery as states in Cuba would be southern states. Sumner Brooks Affairs -
During an antislavery speech, a Senator named Sumner insulted another congressman named Butler who was related to another Congressman named Brooks. Brooks beat Sumner with his cane as Sumner sat writing at his desk in the Senate Chamber. It showed how far southerners were willing to go to protect slavery as well as tarnishing the image of the South. American Identity Manifest Destiny in 1839 appealed to many people after the increase of the U.S. population due to the rise in European migration and the increase of family sizes; several believed this "mission" could extend freedom to others by sharing idealism and democratic institutions--- this excluded Indians since they were seen as a self-governed nation and were not part of European origin; western expansion also offered opportunites like owning new land and commerce that could bring wealth to many Manifest Destiny was the beginning of the end for thousands of Native Americans, as the number of settlers grew and pushed them from their own land to walk the Trail of Tears (1838-1839) --from Georgia to Oklahoma (gold was recently discovered in Georgia); the Cherokee called this voyage the "Trail of Tears," because of its tragic results ---the migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march and nearly 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died
The Trail of Tears (1838-1839) is one of the more tragic events in history, as Native American men, women, and children were taken from their land, then forced to march 1,000 miles under horrible conditions; this is one of the prime examples of the constant clash of cultures that began when European settlers arrived in America Dorothea Dix (April 4, 1802-July 18, 1887)was, in her unique role as an advocate for improvements in the treatment of mentally ill patients, the most visible humanitarian reformer of the 19th century; she helped create mental asylums that helped work with the ill in much better conditions than before; By 1880, Dix had a direct hand in founding 32 of 123 mental hospitals in the country—an increase of 110 since the year 1843
Between 1846 and 1848, the United States and Mexico, went to war; it proved to be a significant event for both nations, transforming a continent and creating a new identity for its peoples; by the end of the war, Mexico lost close to half of its territory, the current American Southwest from Texas to California, and the United States became a continental power Signed on February 2, 1848, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo ended the U.S.-Mexican War; as a result of the treaty, the United States acquired from Mexico the regions of California, Nevada, and Utah, most of Arizona and New Mexico, and parts of Colorado and Wyoming, and emerged as a world power in the late 19th century. Aside from the territorial gains and losses, the treaty has been vital in shaping the international and domestic histories of both Mexico and the U.S.; because of its military win the United States controlled the terms of the settlement and they viewed the gaining of almost 1/2 of Mexico's territory as a fulfillment of Manifest Destiny to spread the benefits of U.S. democracy to the lesser peoples of the continent; though the Treaty marked the end of a war, it also marked the beginning of a long U.S. political debate over slavery in the newly acquired territories
The Homestead Act of 1862 was a landmark in the evolution of federal agriculture law, passed by Congress, its goal was to shape the U.S. West by populating it with farmers; it stated that anyone who was at least 21 years of age, the head of a family, or a military veteran was qualified to claim land, citizens and immigrants both were allowed to participate; the Act arose from the struggle between the North and the South that culminated in the Civil War; during this struggle, the nation followed two competing paths of agricultural development: the industrialized North favored giving public lands to individual settlers, while the South stuck to slave labor; the Northern supporters of the law had pursued a dream of taming the rough frontier for numerous years, as a means to create an agrarian base there and to break the institution of slavery;
the Homestead Act offered a plan to achieve the goals of the North: western states would be populated with homesteaders— whose hard labor would create a new agricultural industry;
but in the end, the law failed in many ways--- the most damaging being that it was exploited by railroads and other popular interests for profit The 102 passengers aboard the Mayflower were divided into 2 groups-- only 41 of them were Pilgrims--religious dissenters called Separatists, they sought a new life in the New World where they could practice their religion in any way they chose; the rest of the passengers, called "strangers" by the Pilgrims, included merchants, craftsmen, skilled workers, a few indentured servants, and several young orphans; all were common people; about 1/3 of them were children The Pilgrim leaders soon realized that they needed a temporary government authority, so while aboard the Mayflower, by necessity, the Pilgrims and "Strangers" made a written agreement or compact among themselves; The Mayflower Compact was most likely composed by William Brewster, and was signed by nearly all the adult male colonists, including two of the indentured servants; under these agreements, the male adult members of each church decided how to worship God, they also elected their own ministers and other church officers; this pattern of church self-government served as a model for political self-government in the Mayflower Compact; the Pilgrims also knew that the English settlement founded a just years earlier at Jamestown in Virginia had basically failed due to the lack of an organized form of government and leadership; so they wouldn't make that mistake, and agreed that once a government had been established, they would follow the orders of its leaders;
the Compact created the idea of a social contract-- a compact between the ruled and their rulers that defines the rights and duties of each William Bradford (1589 - 1657) was one of the drafters of the Mayflower Compact and leader of the Puritan movement to the New World, he then served as the head of the Plymouth government; Bradford managed the court system, colony finances, correspondence with investors and neighbors, policy preparation, and had a very dynamic role in the running of the whole colony In 1635, Roger Williams, a minister in New England, was a vocal separatist (advocated for the complete separation of church and state), and was expelled from the church and placed under an order of expulsion from Massachusetts; fustrated officials decided to send him back to England, but Williams left on his own terms and spent 3 months living with local Indians. In 1636, he and many followers established the settlement of Providence on Narragansett Bay, which provided a safe haven for religious minorities; it's a colony noteworthy for the fact that the Indians were paid for the title to their lands; the Puritan leaders of MA greatly opposed Williams’ views, but were observant enough to recognize that the Rhode Island colony provided an important service Throughout the Salem Witch Trails of 1692, generally widowed, lower class women over the age of 40 were continuously accused of being witches, but another pattern arose when the more frequently accused were relatively wealthy or powerful -- this would challenge the gender norms of the community; the event has come to represent religious extremism and the government’s invasion of personal rights and as a result 18 people were hanged as witches; most of those involved confessed that the trials and executions had been a terrible mistake Anne Hutchinson, (1591–1643) was a New England Puritan whose honesty gave inspiration to New England Transcendentalists; her beliefs, including her favoring the primacy of grace over works in one’s salvation and her opposition to predestination, caused trouble among the Puritan religious establishment; she defended her views with such spiritual authority that several ministers began to fear her leadership;
The fact that she was a woman who refused to submit to the prearranged role of women in the colonial period— that of having no will or mind of her own— didn't help matters; she's key in the development of religious freedom in the colonies New England Confederation, established in 1643, it was a political and militaristic alliance of the New England colonies as a defense against the threat of Native American attacks and served as a place to settle colonial disputes; the Confederation was a small first step toward formal cooperation among the colonies The Albany Plan was proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 and was one of the first attempts at achieving independence during the French and Indian War; it was also the colony's attempt to set up a united defense against the Indians in America, but none approved it; this decision reflected the disunity among the colonies Phyliss Wheatly;
the first American poet to be published, she was also the first African American woman and she helped create the genre of African American Literature and she was made an American slave at 7 but was taught to read and write. John Locke:
an English philosopher during the 17th century he argued that people could learn everything through senses; that power of government comes from the people, not the divine right of kings and he offered possibility of a revolution to overthrow tyrants. Freedom of Conscience:
The freedom to have opinions on a fact, and have viewpoints or thought that are different than another person's. Roger Williams:
an English theologian and had a philosophy of religious toleration and separation of church and state and he created Rhode Island in 1644 and provided a refuge for religious minorities. Thomas Hobbes:
an English philosopher and his book Leviathan created a foundation for most of western political philosophy and he also influenced history, geometry, theology, ethics, philosophy, and political science. Published in 1776, Thomas Paine's Common Sense challenged the authority of the British government and the royal monarchy, and argued for a republican form of government. The plain language that Paine used spoke to the common people of America and was the first work to openly ask for independence from Great Britain. Soon after it's publication, the spirit of Paine's argument found importance in the Declaration of Independence. Written at the start of the Revolution, Common Sense became the leaven for the uproar of the times. It encouraged the colonists to strengthen their tenacity, resulting in the first successful anticolonial action in modern history.


Pontiac's Rebellion~ After the French and Indian War, colonists started moving westward and settling on Indian land. This migration led to Pontiac's Rebellion in 1763, when a large number of Indian tribes joined together under the Ottawa chief Pontiac in order to keep the colonists from taking over their land. Pontiac's Rebellion led to Britain's Proclamation of 1763, which stated that colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains Intolerable Acts, passed in 1774, were the combination of the four Coercive Acts, meant to punish the colonists after the 1773, Boston Tea Party and the unrelated Quebec Act. The Intolerable Acts were seen by American colonists as a blueprint for a British plan to deny the Americans representative government. They were the impetus for the convening of the First Continental Congress. "Cult of Domesticity" was a term used to suggest that women were still predestined to be housewives. Although many women began working at this time, most of those who did were single women, and married women did tend to stay home. The Great Awakening was a religious revival that emerged in Northampton Massachusetts and exploded during the 1730s and 1740s. It Emphasized on direct, emotional spirituality that undermined the older clergy. It also created rifts in denominations that increased the numbers and the competitiveness of American churches; it even encouraged missionary work among Indians and black slaves. It was the first impulsive mass movement of the American people, it also increased overall religious involvement, gave women more active roles in religion, and more ministers sprouted up throughout the country The Alien and Sedition Acts consisted of 4 laws passed by the Federalist Congress in 1798, as an atttempt to hurt Democratic Republicans.They increased the waiting period for an immigrant to become a citizen from 5 years--to 14 years; they authorized the president to arrest and deport any dangerous aliens, as well as citizens of countries that were at war with the U.S. And the Acts made it illegal to publish slanderous statements about the federal government or its officials. The controversy surounding them also had enormous implications on the Federalist party's later history and ultimately contributed to its demise. The Sedition Act ended when the term of President Adams concluded in 1801.
In the end the Acts backfired against the Federalists. The yeomen farmer who owned his own modest farm and worked it mainly through family labor was the embodiment of the ideal American: honest, hardworking, and independent; these values made yeomen farmers vital to the republican image of the new nation. The representatives elected to the new republican state governments during the Revolution reflected the remarkable rise in significance of independent yeomen. They made up the vast majority of the white male population, and they were the biggest recipients of the American Revolution
In 1800, 25-year-old Gabriel Prosser arranged plans for a slave uprising, today known as Prosser’s Rebellion; His plan was an attack on Richmond, VA where the slaves would snatch the arsenal and kill all the white people except Quakers, Methodists, and Frenchmen, whom Prosser considered "friendly to liberty.” Gabriel's army of nearly 1,000 slaves gathered outside Richmond on the night of August 30, 1800; but a black informer revealed the plan to white authorities. Upon orders from Gov. James Monroe, the state militia rounded up suspected slaves and put them on trial. Prosser and about 34 of his followers were convicted and hanged. The event, the first major slave insurrection in U.S. history- deeply worried white Americans and resulted in a tightening of slave controls. New policies weakened slaves' freedom of movement, and many states passed laws that made educating slaves illegal Environment 1607-1763 1763-1775 1775-1825 1825-1865 The Second Great Awakening was largely driven forward by middle-class women who were its earliest converts and who filled evangelical churches in numbers far beyond their proportion in the general population. The Louisiana Purchase of 1803 increased American migration to the west that was already in progress. the chief population centers of early North America were clumped on the coast or along major inland waterways. In 1790 the rising population of the US was 3.9 million, but only 5% of Americans lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. But by 1820, the total U.S. population had already reached 9.6 million and 25% of them lived west of the Appalachians in 9 new states and 3 territories. Western migration had become essential to the American way of life and almost 2/3 of all western families moved every decade.



But this new surge of internal migration due to the Louisiana Purchase required better transportation. So private companies received special legal privileges from states to build roads bridges, and canals for they provided a service that could benefit a broad sector of the population. The establishment of roads and canals, and later, railroads, was a serious feature in the settlement of the West.
Yet, many people disliked these special benefits as challenging republican notions of equal prospects for all. These new transportation projects remodeled the landscape, but the better economic promise for the new western lands laid in the massive inland rivers of the Ohio, Tennessee, and Mississippi, all of which ultimately flowed south to New Orleans. Tecumseh, an Indian political and military leader, traveled to east-central Indiana where he led a group of combative young warriors. He then traveled to Tukabatchi to try to recruit Natives to join the Indian Confederacy, but he was met with opposition. His younger brother Tenskwatawa initiated a much broader Indian social movement--he called for a pan-Indian resistance against American intruders from the east. He explained that when native peoples united and rejected all contact with Americans and their ways, like alcohol or private property, God would return Indian power.




In 1808, they founded Prophetstown at the intersection of the Tippecanoe, where they built a strong Indian alliance that openly challenged the U.S. government. This growing Indian strength threatened American plans to move west and seemed particularly dangerous since it was given economic and military support from the British in Canada. In November 1811, the U.S. destroyed Prophetstown during the Battle of Tippecanoe, under the leadership of future president William Henry Harrison.Tecumseh's thriving military resistance persisted and threatened white settlements all over the northwest. Tecumseh had so deeply challenged U.S. plans in the northwest that when he was finally killed at the Battle of the Thames in October 1813 it was seen as a major American victory even though it meant relatively little strategically
' In the 1840s, when Mormons in Utah softened their brittle soils by blocking a creek, and prospectors in California realized that water diverted to gold mining sluices produced abundant plant growth in the desert, the benefits of irrigation were discovered. Congress passed many laws throughout the next few decades to lend a hand to western states in developing extensive-- and expensive-- irrigation systems 1763-1775 Thomas Paine/Common Sense:
one of the founding father of the United States and on 1/10/1776 he first published a persuasive argument that Americans should become independent and it was written in a style that the common person could read. Crisis Papers:
A series of works by Thomas Paine written between 1776 and 1783 during the American Revolution. These papers were written in a language common people could understand it increase American morale. "No Taxation Without Represenation" :
A slogan that abridged the main complaint of the British North American colonies. Colonists had no direct representation in British Parliament, and believed the laws taxing them were unconstitutional as a result. 1775-1825 Republican Motherhood:
Mothers were expected to teach their children the beliefs of republicanism. George Washington's Farewell Address:
Warned America of getting involved in foreign affairs. The Era of Good Feelings:
1817-1825. The federalist party had dissolved, so there was in effect only one party so partisan bitterness was abated. Benjamin Banneker:
African American publisher who wrote Almanacs. 1825-1865 Transcendentalism:
philosophical and literary movement that emphasized living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination. Cult of Domesticity:
the ideal woman was seen as a tender, self-sacrificing caregiver who provided a nest for her children and a peaceful refuge for her husband, social customs that restricted women to caring for the house. Uncle Tom's Cabin:
Written by Harriet Beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced views across the world on the American Deep South and slavery with strong Biblical imagery. It convinced many about the true hardships of a slave. (2) Manifest Destiny:
a belief shared by many Americans in the mid-1800s that the United States should expand across the continent to the Pacific Ocean. Hinton Helper:
lived in the south and was an anti-slavery supporter. He wrote the impending crisis of the south, which showed slavery in fact hurt the southern economy. William Lloyd Garrison:
He is best known as the editor of the abolitionist newspaper The Liberator. The newspaper earned nationwide notoriety for its uncompromising advocacy of "immediate and complete emancipation of all slaves" in the United States. Culture Trade & Navigation Acts:
a series of laws, which limited foreign trade in the colonies as well as the use of foreign ships starting in 1651. 1607-1763 Harvard College:
established in 1636 by vote of Massachusetts Bay Colony and is the oldest institution of higher learning in the US and it was created in order to train Puritan ministers. Mayflower Compact:
the first governing document of Plymouth Colony. It was written by the colonists, later together known to history as the Pilgrims, who crossed the Atlantic aboard the Mayflower. Almost half of the colonists were part of a separatist group seeking the freedom to practice Christianity according to their own determination and not the will of the English Church. 1763-1775 Proclamation of 1763:
issued of October 7, 1763 and was created to alleviate relations with natives after the French and Indian War and started that Americans were not permitted to passed the Appalachian Mountains. Intolerable Acts:
Two names used to describe the laws enforced by the British Parliament against the colonies in response to the Boston Tea Party, It shut down the harbor. Sugar Act of 1764:
A tax imposed by the British Parliament, which was enforced indirectly. It was used to raised money so that colonist could help pay off the debt of the French and Indian War Tea Act:
A tax on tea by the British Parliament on the colonies passed in 1773 because the British East India company was facing bankruptcy. Townshend Act:
Were a series of acts imposed by the British on their North American colonies. They were to get the revenue needs to pay for the colonial royal governors and judges. The Boston Massacre was a result of these taxes. 1775-1825 Northwest Ordinance:
Established the precedent for how the U.S. would expand westward. Slavery was banned in the territory, and the ordinance created the system for the admission of new states and the creation of territorial governments. Bill Of Rights:
The first 10 amendments to the constitution. They protect individual freedom. Treaty of Paris 1783:
Formally ended the Revolutionary war between Great Britain and the U.S. Lousiana Purchase:
Jefferson purchased a massive amount of land west of the Mississippi from France. American Colonization Society:
American society that sought to return freed blacks to Africa, and helped in founding Liberia. Articles of the Confederation:
Established the first government of the U.S. The Articles were created by the representatives of the states in the Second Continental Congress out of a perceived need to have "a plan of confederacy for securing the freedom, sovereignty, and independence of the United States." 1825-1865 Reform Seneca Falls Convention:
an early American convention for women's rights held in Seneca fall, New York. The declaration of sentiments was written there. Dorthea Dix:
an influential American reformer that worked for the mentally ill to help create mental asylums that helped work with the ill. John C. Calhoun:
vice president of the United States under Adams and Jackson, from South Carolina who fought slavery, state's rights, and nullification. Wilmot Proviso:
a seed of the civil war, it wanted to ban slavery in the territory of the Mexican cession. It increased conflict over the issue if slavery. Emancipation Proclamation:
issued by president Abraham Lincoln during the civil war, it stated that all slaves in confederate states that were in rebellion into 1863 would be freed. Treaty of Guadelupe Hidalgo:
a peace treaty between the US and Mexico which ended the Mexican American war, it gave the US the lands of the Mexican cession. Compromise of 1850:
a compromise between the slave states and free states in extended the Missouri compromise, divided Texas, slavery was allowed in new Mexico and Utah and a stronger fugitive slave act. William Lloyd Garrison:
a prominent American abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. As one of the founders of the American Anti-Slavery Society, he promoted "immediate emancipation" of slaves in the United States. Garrison was also a prominent voice for the women's suffrage movement. Horace Mann:
United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859). Lucretia Mott:
Quaker activist in both the abolitionist and women's movements; with Elizabeth Cady Stanton, she was a principal organizer of the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848. 1607-1763 Great Puritan Migration:
the migration of English people from England to the New World between the years of 1630 and 1640 because King James opposed the growing Puritan population of England. City on a Hill:
a phrase that became part of American vocabulary with John Winthrop's sermons in order to warn the colonist that would found Massachusetts, that it would be a "city upon a hill." George Whitefield:
was a minister of the Church of England and helped spread the Great Awakening in Europe and the colonies and his ministry had a big influence on American ideology. Great Awakening:
was a period of rapid and dramatic religious revival in American religious history, which began in the 1730s. Roger Williams:
was an English theologian and had a philosophy of religious toleration and separation of church and state and he created Rhode Island in 1644 and provided a refuge for religious minorities. Anne Hutchinson:
was a colonist that settled in Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and New York, she declared her own interpretations of the bible and was banished from Massachusetts and she is key in the development of religious freedom in the colonies. Walfway Covenant:
was created to give partial church membership in New England in 1662 because some ministers felt that the people of the colonies were drifting away from the original religious purpose. Jonathan Edwards:
a minister and missionary to Native Americans and he played an important role in the Great Awakening of oversaw revivals at his church in Massachusetts; he was president of Princeton. 1763-1775 Quebec Act:
It recognized the religion freedom of Canada's largely Catholic population; the American colonists saw this as a British attempt to disregard the colonies' western land claims and surround them with Catholic allies of the British Crown. 1775-1825 Deism:
Belief that a supreme being created the universe, and that this can be determined through reason and observation without organized religion. Proposed Seal for the US:
On July 4, 1776, Congress appointed Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and John Adams "to bring in a device for a seal for the United States of America." Franklin's proposal adapted the Biblical story of the parting of the Red Sea (left). Jefferson first recommended the "Children of Israel in the Wilderness, led by a Cloud by Day, and a Pillar of Fire by night. . . ." He then embraced Franklin's proposal and rewrote it (right). The committee presented Jefferson’s revision of Franklin’s proposal to Congress on August 20. Although not accepted these drafts reveal the religious temper of the Revolutionary period. Franklin and Jefferson were among the most theologically liberal of the Founders, yet they used Biblical imagery for this important task. Morality in the Navy:
Congress particularly feared the navy as a source of moral corruption and demanded that skippers of American ships make their men behave. The first article in Rules and Regulations of the Navy (below), adopted on November 28, 1775, ordered all commanders "to be very vigilant . . . to discountenance and suppress all dissolute, immoral and disorderly practices." The second article required those same commanders "to take care, that divine services be performed twice a day on board, and a sermon preached on Sundays." Article 3 prescribed punishments for swearers and blasphemers: officers were to be fined and common sailors were to be forced "to wear a wooden collar or some other shameful badge of distinction." Northwest Ordinance:
In the summer of 1787 Congress revisited the issue of religion in the new western territories and passed, July 13, 1787, the famous Northwest Ordinance. Article 3 of the Ordinance contained the following language: "Religion, Morality and knowledge being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, Schools and the means of education shall be forever encouraged." Scholars have been puzzled that, having declared religion and morality indispensable to good government, Congress did not, like some of the state governments that had written similar declarations into their constitutions, give financial assistance to the churches in the West. 1825-1865 Emancipation Proclamation:
issued by president Abraham Lincoln during the civil war, it stated that all slaves in confederate states that were in rebellion into 1863 would be freed. Second Great Awakening:
Rise of Evangelical sects; focused on charity and missionary work; camp meetings; blacks welcomed. Harriet Beecher Stowe:
Stowe's puritanical religious beliefs show up in the Uncle Tom's Cabin's final, over-arching theme, which is the exploration of the nature of Christianity and how she feels Christian theology is fundamentally incompatible with slavery. Religion Motivated mainly by religious concerns, most Great Migration immigrants traveled to Massachusetts in family groups. In fact, the majority of Great Migration immigrants who traveled in family groups is the highest in American immigrant history. New England retained a normal, multi-generational structure with relatively equal numbers of men and women. At the time they left England, many husbands and wives were in their thirties and had 3 or more children, with even more on the way. This situation differs with that of the southern colonies, which were greatly populated by single young men. In the Chesapeake Bay area, even at the end of the 17th century, the men significantly outnumbered women.


Great Migration colonists shared other typical characteristics. New Englanders had a high level of literacy, and were highly skilled; over half of the settlers had been artisans or craftsmen. Only about 17% came as servants, mostly as members of a household. In contrast, 75% of Virginia’s population arrived as servants. Unlike colonists of other regions, the Great Migration colonists were mostly middle class-- few were rich or poor. English emigrants in search of economic success were unlikely to settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony; the potential rewards were not great. Similarly, those already rich saw little chance to increase their wealth in a rough region with no cash crop. Emigrants seeking to realize the greatest economic opportunity would choose to go elsewhere. The result of this exclusion was a remarkably uniform population, with colonists sharing similar backgrounds, outlooks, and perspectives.The colonists first occupied land cleared by previous Native inhabitants. After these more desirable lands were taken, settlers moved into the more difficult terrain. 23 towns in Massachusetts were founded in the 1630s, which provided a consistant and secure land distribution system for immigrants.


Another important aspect of life in New England was the remarkable health and longevity of the population. Many colonists lived to the age of 70, and an ample number lived to be 80. Both male and female settlers in New England lived a good bit longer than their English counterparts. This longevity is no doubt due to numerous factors: dispersed settlement patterns, lack of epidemic disease, the helpful effects of a “little ice age,” clean air and water, possibly a better diet, and the original good health of many immigrants. Also, infant and childhood death rates were lower in New England, and the settlers produced large and healthy families — most having 7 or more children. Naturally, New England experienced enormous population expansion within the lifetime of first generation settlers.
Phyllis Wheatley (1754-1784) was the first African American, the first slave, and the third woman in America to publish a book of poems. Phyllis's place was chosen by her white world, and she was virtually cut off from her own people, but she was undeniably still a slave, and a privileged one. Though she was more advanced than most in her intellectual and literary accomplishments, she was never their social equal. At the time of her death she had written over 100 poems, but nearly 30 poems were evidently lost.
The French and Indian War (1754-1763), as it was referred to in the colonies, was the beginning of open hostilities between the colonies and Gr. Britain. England and France had been building toward a conflict in America since 1689. These efforts resulted in the remarkable growth of the colonies from a population of 250,000 in 1700, to 1.25 million in 1750 (1725-1750) The Great Awakening's biggest significance was the way it prepared America for its War of Independence. In the decades before the war, revivalism taught people that they could be bold when confronting religious authority, and that when churches weren't living up to the believers' expectations, the people could break off and form new ones. Through the Awakening, the Colonists realized that religious power resided in their own hands, rather than in the hands of the Church of England, or any other religious authority. After a generation or two passed with this kind of mindset, the Colonists came to realize that political power did not reside in the hands of the English monarch, but in their own will for self-governance (consider thewording of the Declaration of Independence). By 1775, even though the Colonists did not all share the same theological beliefs, they did have a similarvision of freedom from British control The English philosopher Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) is best known for his political thought. His main concern was the problem of social and political order: how human beings can live together in peace and avoid the danger and fear of civil conflict. He created bleak alternatives: we should give our obedience to an inexplicable sovereign (a person or group empowered to decide every social and political issue); or else, what lies ahead for us is a “state of nature” that closely resembles civil war –where all have motive to fear brutal death, and where gratifying human teamwork is not viable. Thus, the extreme speculative positions defended by Hobbes lead to a noticeably conservative political result, supporting the paternalistic view. Hobbes argued that the commonwealth secures the liberty of its citizens. Genuine human freedom, he maintained, is just the ability to carry out one's will without interference from others. Bacon's Rebellion of 1676 in Tidewater, Virginia, was brought on by land shortage and the colony's complex relations with Indian tribes. The rebellion pitted wealthy planters against the rising numbers of the poor--landless men. Virginia had already gone through 2 deadly Indian uprisings in 1622, 1644, and 1675. Then governor William Berkeley made a policy that honored alliances with friendly tribes. And soon after, Nathaniel Bacon led a group of angry men in a series of deadly Indian attacks; then they demanded a commission to clear tribes from the remote outlying areas of the colony. After Berkeley refused this, Bacon and his men gathered slaves and servants to join their protest. In the wake of the rebellion, the planter elite continued to rule Virginia's politics--who now saw the threat posed by the lower classes. As a result, the frontier of Indians was cleared, and it expanded the franchise among white freemen. Bacon's Rebellion accelerated the codification of chattel slavery in VA, and slavery was then viewed more favorably, for it was thought to ensure a more stable controlled society. Middle Passage did not begin with the transatlantic voyage, but with the capture and sale of Africans, and ended with their forced ‘adjustment’ to life in the Americas. The voyage usually took between 6 and 8 weeks. The enslaved Africans were chained together by the hand and the foot, and packed into tiny compartments. Within these ships, Africans from different countries, regions, cultures and with different languages learned to communicate with each other; many conspired to overthrow their captors together. Despite the captain's desire to keep as many slaves as possible alive, Middle Passage death rates were high. Though it's difficult to determine how many Africans died en route to the new world, it is now believed that between 10 and 20 percent of those transported lost their lives.
The American Colonization Society, founded in 1816 to assist free black people in emigrating to Africa, was the idea of the Reverend Robert Finley, a Presbyterian minister from New Jersey. Finley believed that blacks would never be fully integrated into American society and that they would only be able to realize their potential in Africa, the "land of their fathers." He saw colonization as a charitable work that would benefit American blacks and Africans alike through the spreading of Christianity to Africa. He also thought that it would begin a gradual end to slavery.
Finley saw the presence of blacks in America as a threat to the well-being and the quality of life for whites. He said that free blacks were "unfavorable to our industry and morals" and that removing them would save Americans from difficulties like interracial marriage and having to provide for poor blacks. The motives of the ACS members varied considerably. Some were genuine allies of free blacks, and were concerned for their well-being. Some hoped that colonization would end slavery. Others wanted to maintain the institution of slavery but to rid the country of free blacks, who they believed posed a serious threat as potential leaders of slave rebellion.

The 3/5 Compromise stated that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted for purposes of representation.The states with large populations wanted representation based only on the population, while the states with small populations wanted each state to have equal representation. The Three-Fifths Compromise did not change the plight of the slaves. The slaves lived a miserable life. The compromise was just a mathematical formula which was a way of saying that slaves should not be counted as individuals. The southern states wanted to count slaves as 'persons' not for their improvement, but for dramatically increasing their representation in the House. Three-Fifths Compromise was not for ending slavery-- it was merely a political strategy The slavery issue was also greatly effected by Eli Whitney's invention, the cotton gin. Prior to this invention, slavery had become less favorable with Americans. Because of the huge numbers of new immigrants to the United States, labor had become cheap enough that many farmers found it necessary to pay. Suddenly, as the gin made dramatically improved ways to produce cotton, the need for labor was made more important to the lives of those who grew the crop. The influx of immigrants to America had produced many more laborers for the task, but they were hesitant to take on such terrible and difficult work; they could find easier and less painful ways to earn a living. So once again, slave labor was sought by land owners.

A majority of Irish immigrants came to America due Ireland’s Potato Blight in 1845 launching the 2nd wave of Irish immigration to America. The fungus which destroyed potato crops created overwhelming famine. Starvation plagued Ireland and within 5 years, a million Irish were dead while 1/2 a million had arrived in America to begin a new life. Between 1820 and 1860, the Irish constituted over 1/3 of all immigrants to the United States. In the 1840s, they comprised nearly half of all immigrants to this nation. Interestingly, pre-famine immigrants from Ireland were predominately male, while in the famine years and their aftermath, entire families left the country. In later years, the majority of Irish immigrants were women. Many immigrants found themselves unprepared for the industrialized, urban centers in the US. Though they were not the poorest people in Ireland, by American standards, they were destitute. In time, the sum total of Irish-Americans exceeded the entire population of Ireland. Irish immigrants often settled into homes that were intended for single families, living in tiny, cramped spaces. A lack of adequate sewage and running water in these places made cleanliness virtually impossible. Disease of all kinds --including cholera, typhus, tuberculosis--resulted from these miserable living conditions. Irish families moved into neighborhoods, other families often moved out fearing the social problems of violence, alcoholism and crime, that were heavily associated with the immigrants.

Irish immigrants often entered the workforce at the bottom of the occupational ladder and took on the menial and dangerous jobs that were often avoided by other workers. Many Irish women became servants or domestic workers, while many Irish men labored in coal mines and built railroads and canals. As Irish immigrants moved inland from eastern cities, they faced intense competition for jobs. The Irish often endured subtle job discrimination. Some businesses took advantage of Irish immigrants’ willingness to work at unskilled jobs for low pay. Employers were known to replace uncooperative workers and those demanding higher wages, with the Irish laborers. Mistreatment toward Irish immigrants was often exacerbated by religious conflict. Centuries of tension between Protestants and Catholics found their way into US cities and verbal attacks increasingly led to mob violence. Anti-immigrant and anti-Catholic sentiments in the 1840s produced groups like the nativist American Party, which fought foreign influences and promoted "traditional American ideals." American Party members were later given the nickname, "Know-Nothings," because their common reply to questions about their activities was, "I know nothing about it."
During much of the 19th century large numbers of Irish and Blacks were present-- pushing them into competition. There are surprising parallels in the culture and history of the 2 groups. They began their life in America with low social and economic status. Over time, they advanced in common fields such as religion, writing and publishing, and politics. They even had similar social pathologies—alcoholism, violence and broken homes. Rather than being united by their similarities, they were divided by the need to compete. Both the Irish and Blacks had reason to feel they were mistreated in the workforce, and often at each other's expense. In the South, where slaveholders viewed slaves as valuable property, black people weren't allowed to participate in hazardous, life-threatening work. And so several of the dangerous jobs were left to the Irish who did not have the same protection.
Their organizational ability combined with the large population of Irish living in U.S. cities, made the Irish a powerful political force. They transformed politics in American cities by putting local power in the hands of men of working class origin. Building on principles of loyalty to the individual and the organization, they built powerful political machines capable of getting the vote. Though remembered mostly for their corruption, these political machines created social services long before they were politically mandated by national political movements. Irish-American political clout led to increased opportunities for the Irish-American. Looking out for their own, the political machines made it possible for the Irish to get jobs and to deal with naturalization problems. The political machines also rewarded their own through political appointments. In 1855, nearly 40% of New York City's policemen were immigrants, and about 3/4 of these immigrants were Irish.


The Louisiana Purchase brought on much migration toward the western territories in the United States. This massive movement eventually led to overpopulation, something fairly common in other regions. But a harmful effect caused by rising population growth is the overall consumption of The huge influx of Irish immigrants provided enough needed labor to build canals and railroads, as well as working in coal mines. The completion of the railroads to the West opened up large areas of the region to settlement and economic development. Settlement from the East transformed the Great Plains. The huge herds of American bison that inhabited the plains were virtually wiped out, and farmers plowed the natural grasses to plant wheat and other crops. Driven by a wealth of natural resources and risk-taking industrialists, the nation's industries grew dramatically during the late 1800s. As industries grew, so did the towns and small cities in which they were located. Small cities and towns became booming industrial centers with thousands of workers. The Mexican-American War, led to the annexation of Texas. This expansion of territory put a strain on wildlife and the natural resources in Texas as more and more Americans began to move to the newly acquired state. Most white immigrants that arrived in Colonial America came as indentured servants, as a way to enter into the New World. And throughout the 17th century, about 2/3 of European settlers came to the colonies as servants. However, because of the high death of the time period, many of them did not live to the end of their terms. In the aftermath of the colossal migration to Oregon Territory, America's railroad expansion greatly affected frontier settlement patterns and further stimulated the growth of cities in the Midwest and west. Forests were logged; plains and prairies were constantly used for grain production and livestock, and nature was quickly becoming a commodity. An increasing problem of growing tobacco was that it was extremely exhausting to the soil. After three years of being harvested, the tobacco had exhausted the soil of its nutrients, as a result left much of the land worn out and practically useless to farmers. The Free Soilers opposed slavery's expansion into any new territories or states. They basically believed that the government could not end slavery where it already existed but that it could restrict slavery in new regions. A big reason for opposing slavery's expansion was a fear of competition with Southern slaveholders. Northerners who wanted to own land in the West feared that they would not be able to compete economically with slave labor. This led to the party's call for free labor. Some abolitionists joined the Free Soil Party, but the majority of the party's members were not abolitionists. Some Free Soilers believed that African Americans were inferior to white people. These Free Soilers had no intentions to provide African Americans with equal political, economic, and social rights. In March of 1857, the United States Supreme Court declared that all blacks -- slaves as well as free -- were not and could never become citizens of the US. The court also declared the 1820 Missouri Compromise unconstitutional-- permiting slavery in all of the country's territories.The case before the court was that of Dred Scott v. Sanford. Dred Scott, a slave who had lived in the free state of Illinois and the free territory of Wisconsin before moving back to the slave state of Missouri, had appealed to the Supreme Court in hopes of being granted his freedom. But the Court's majority opinion was that because Scott was black, he was not a citizen and had no right to sue. So naturally, abolitionists were infuriated by the decision.






Bleeding Kansas” was a term used in the New York Tribune to describe the violent hostilities between pro and antislavery forces in the Kansas territory during the 1850s. The federal government relocated a number of Native American tribes to the Plains as further testimony to the area’s lack of appeal to white settlers. Opinions began to change as people moved westward across the Santa Fe Trail and discovered the region's richness. But the most important factor that brought Kansas into the national awareness was the conflict that erupted following the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act. Under the terms of the act, 2 territories were to be formed, Kansas and Nebraska. One would become a slave state and the other a free state. Popular sovereignty would be used and it was assumed that slave-owning Southerners would occupy Kansas and make it a slave state, while free state advocates would settle Nebraska. Things worked out as planned in Nebraska, but not in Kansas. National reaction in Kansas showed how divided the country had become. Both sides had resorted to fraud and violence, but it was clear the prevailing sentiment in Kansas was antislavery. In1859, a new constitution was drafted and approved-- Kansas entered the Union as a free state in January 1861.

The purchase of the Oregon Territory allowed for migration to the west in growing numbers year to year. Also, it unified many different people migrating and several states in the Oregon Territory. The journey was an intense test of endurance; settlers had to cross flooded rivers. Indians attacked the wagon trains; but, of the 10,000 deaths that occurred from 1835 to 1855, only 4% were from Indian attacks. Cholera, smallpox, and firearms accidents were the chief causes of death on the trail. By connecting states together, the purchase encouraged westward migration. The United States paid Mexico $15 million for the land, which became known as the Mexican Cession. From 1803 to 1848, America gained 2,204,984 square miles of land. This created temporary unity in the nation bringing together many states and people. The Louisiana Purchase, the purchase of the Oregon Territory, and the Mexican War all helped unify the nation. During the period of national migration to the West, overland emigrants jumped at the chance to settle in the Oregon territory, the Great Basin, and the California gold fields. The Mormons were a unique part of this migration. Their move was not voluntary, but to retain a religious and cultural identity it was essential to find a remote area where they could permanently settle and practice their religion in peace. In 1846, when the church moved past the Rocky Mountains into unsettled Mexican territory, Mormon leaders hoped to be protected from further harassment and persecution. From 1830 to 1845, as the church flourished, it was surrounded by hostility, fear, and controversy. The rapid growth of church membership, religious values that were outside typical Christian tradition, the practice of polygamy, and the opinion by some non-Mormons that the church was a threat all increased intolerance. Conflicts soared, and on June 27, 1844, Joseph Smith and his brother Hyrum were killed by an angry mob while jailed in Carthage, Illinois. By 1845, the Mormon population in and around Nauvoo had grown to more than 11,000, making it one of the largest cities in the state. In September of that year, foes burned more than 200 Mormon homes and farm buildings outside Nauvoo in an attempt to force the Mormons to leave. The Paxton Boys refers to a mob of Pennsylvania frontiersmen led by the Paxtons who massacred a group of non-hostile Indians. Sons of Liberty was a radical political organization for colonial independence that formed in 1765 after the passing of the Stamp Act. They started riots and burned the custom's houses where the stamped British paper was kept Brigham Young was a Mormon leader that led his oppressed followers to Utah in 1846 to escape persecution. Under Young's management, his Mormon community became a prosperous frontier and a cooperative commonwealth. He eventually became the territorial governor in 1850. Unable to control the hierarchy of Young, Washington sent a federal army in 1857 against the harassing Mormons. Brigham Young led the Mormons to their freedom establishing a home in Utah. But, his radical beliefs caused many controversies and forced Washington to march a military campaign in order to contain the Young who was becoming to powerful. Seneca Falls Declaration of Sentiments A women's rights convention where feminists met and argued that all men and women are created equal. Demanded voting rights for females. Launches for women's rights movements it was the 1st big convention for women. Barbary Pirates were the pirates of the Barbary states on the North Coast of Africa that made a national industry of plundering and holding for ransom the merchant ships sailing into the Mediterranean. The conflict with these people led Jefferson to dispatch an infant navy to the shores of Tripoli. Lucretia Mott helped organize women's abolitionist societies, since the anti-slavery organizations would not admit women as members. In 1840, she was selected as a delegate to the World's Anti-Slavery Convention, which she found controlled by anti-slavery factions opposed to public speaking and action by women. Elizabeth Cady Stanton later credited conversations with Lucretia Mott, while seated in the segregated women's section, with the idea of the holding a mass meeting to address women's rights. Itn 1848, Lucretia Mott and Stanton and others began the Seneca Falls Convention, an assembly of fellow feminists. Frederick Douglass was a prominent leader of the abolitionist movement that fought to end slavery within the US in the years prior to the Civil War. Douglass was asked by the American Anti-Slavery Society to engage in a tour of lectures, and which led to him being recognized as one of America's first great black speakers. Douglass served as an adviser to President Abraham Lincoln during the Civil War and fought for the adoption of constitutional amendments that guaranteed voting rights and other civil liberties for blacks. Douglass provided a powerful voice for human rights and is still revered today for his contributions against racial injustice. In 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering Act which stated that British troops in America would be housed in barracks and in public houses unless and until the number of troops inundated the facilities, at which time, the troops could be housed in private commercial property, such as inns and stables, and in uninhabited homes and barns. The quartering would be without payment and owners would be required to provide soldiers with certain provisions such as food, liquor, salt, and bedding – also without reparation. As tensions rose in late 1773 and early 1774, the old quartering act was added-on with the Quartering Act of 1774. This act passed on June 2, 1774, required colonists to house troops not only as previously required, but also in their own private homes. The Act is one of the Intolerable Acts that lead to dissent in the American colonies and to the creation of the Declaration of Rights and Grievances in 1774.
On September 5, 1774 the First Continental Congress met in Carpenters Hall in Philadelphia. The main figures of the meeting included: George Washington, Samuel Adams, his cousin John Adams, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and John Jay. Their main goal for the meeting was to come up with formal complaints against Britain like the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. All of the colonies attended except Georgia. The Second Continental Congress met with greater intentions. Their overall goal was to secede from Britain and to form a new nation. John Hancock. was elected the president of this congress. A new post office and printing press were formed and given to Ben Franklin to control and Jefferson was asked to write the constitution. In July of 1775, The Oak Branch Petition told King George III that the colonies wanted peace in return for their rights. But because the King said no, the Revolution started.
Other consequences of more and more people migrating to Oregon Territory included the boost in public demand for beef, corn, and timber that grew sharply; large sewer systems were developed that dumped wastewater into freshwater resources; industry was consuming clean water and disposing dirty water; coal was burned, darkening city skies. Solid waste removal became a challenge in urban areas. Fur trapping and sport hunting were diminishing wildlife resources. Little by little it became clear that some of these resources were limited. But it was not until shortages in resources such as water and timber arose that individual Americans and the government responded to conserve and preserve certain commodities. Environmentally, the Erie Canal (as well as all canals) was more than a long ditch; it collected water from one place and took it to another; it received and transported sediments and pollutants; it affected land use in the area influenced by its commerce; it may have enhanced or detracted from the landscape. Since the water level of a canal stood higher than the countryside through which it passed, bank seepage occurred generally over the entire length of the canal. The effects of the leakage from the canal suggests that it did not create a significant external problem, at first, but the major problems did emerge later. As a means of transport of goods and persons, the canal helped in the speed with which infectious disease was spread, like when cholera spread along the canal in 1832 while it was still used for passenger travel. The canal opened new markets to the port of New York, as it exported the natural resources extracted from the west and imported manufactured products and finished commodities that would be shipped up the canal. European colonies were deliberately planned to settle the so-called New World. The European presence introduced at least a dozen strange diseases during this era that American Indians had no natural immunity against. The native population suffered massive losses. Even the earliest railroads, constructed as America began to expand, may have had their own effects on the environment, including producing nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, and matter that can contribute to air pollution and negative health effects. The construction and use of railroads also contributed to the division and crumbling of ecosystems and wildlife habitats-- like a physical barrier animals are unable to cross to get to their usual habitats. [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [12] [10] [11] [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12] Soil exhaustion was a huge problem in New England agriculture and cotton production. Farming with oxen did allow the colonist to farm more land but it increased erosion and decreased soil fertility. This was due to deeper plow cuts in the soil that allowed the soil more contact with oxygen causing nutrient depletion. In grazing fields, the large number of cattle in the soil was being compacted by the cattle and this didn’t give the soil enough oxygen to sustain life.
Economic Transformations Politics & Citizenship [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10] [11] [12]
Full transcript