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Fatoumata Magassa Exit Project

This is my Exit Project that I did between the years 2012-2013 and it is on Decompositon. I hope you enjoy!
by

Fatoumata Magassa

on 5 June 2013

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Transcript of Fatoumata Magassa Exit Project

Background Research Data Table Graphs By: Fatoumata Magssa Exit Project 2013:
Decomposition Procedure There are 24 different parts to the experiment - two different types of soil (rich in organic matter and sand) and 6 different types of material being studied in two different environments which is either dry or moist.
Place a small amount of gravel at the bottom of 12 containers which will have sand in them.
Fill 12 of the flower pots with sand up to 1cm from the top packing the sand tightly, or with the soil rich in organic matter up to 1cm from the top.
Place one of the following materials in four of the flowerpots( two sand and two soil) covering no more than 50% of the surface.
Processed foodstuffs. plastic fragments
natural fibers(cotton). dried plant animal
synthetic fibers(polyester)f. animal material Procedure Continued press the material lightly into the soil or sand then separate the flowerpot into two groups, in each group, there should be one of the samples being used for each type of environment ( soil and sand).
Put the two groups in different trays and label the first one Tray 1 and and second one Tray 2. In tray 2, you will be giving 10 ml of water to the samples every day and making any new observations.
Once you give 10 ml of water to each flowerpot in tray 2, cover every flower pot in tray 1 with a clear plastic dish.
Place the first tray with clear plastic dishes in a darkened area where its very dry and cannot be affected by wind but by heat.
Place the second tray without the clear plastic dishes near a window that should stay open so that the samples can be affected by wind,heat, water and light.
Observe your trays every Monday and Friday for a period of up to 2 months and record your observations and rating in the data table.
1 (Extreme decomposing)
there is nothing left in the pot of soil or sand the material/substance has decomposed all the way.

2
most of the substance in the pot of soil or sand is gone there is only a little bit left of the material/substance would not take much more time to decompose all the way.

3
some of the material/ substance is still in the pot but about half of it has decomposed all the way

4
it might take a few more weeks to decompose all the way.a little bit of the substance/material in the pot of soil is gone everything else is intact and would take more time to decompose all the way

5( not decomposed at all)
he substance looks brand new. no signs of breaking down
everything seems to be intact would take a lot more time to decompose. Scale:This will be the scale I will be using to observe each of the environments I will have Decomposition is the natural act or process of when the parts of a compound body or substance breaks down due to the invertebrates which are fungi, bacteria, bugs or worms. I will be investigating how the environment affects the rate of decomposition and I will be doing this by using substances in different environment and measuring the rate in which it breaks down by using a scale that I would be creating.
Decomposition in soil is a key ecosystem function that determines the productivity and health of the plants growing there. The waste requires oxygen, a certain temperature, moisture content and a certain amount of bacteria populations to break down organic matter. Decomposition is apart of the global carbon cycle and there are two kinds that break down dead plants and animals by making organic nutrients that will be available to the ecosystems which are scavengers and decomposers. Many decomposers are microscopic and cannot be seen while scavengers are usually flies, wasps and cockroaches Decomposition of an organic matter is a process that can take from weeks to to years, depending on the environment and the climate of the area. Living organisms are composed of cells and tissues but upon death, soil organisms such as worms and flies break down the large pieces of tissue until all that is left is simple molecules such as carbon dioxide and water. Decomposition is very dependent on the environment in where the material is decomposing. Dry air and whether the waste is exposed to air or buried in a landfill are factors that can slow down decomposition. Environments are also dependent on decomposition because decomposition is a process that gives the soil nutrients that works like fertilizers to help make things grow. Analysis According to the data that was collected, the hypothesis was proved right which stated that If the environment in which the materials are in is moist and in soil, then the rate of decomposition will increase because the waste requires oxygen, a certain temperature, a certain amount of moisture content and bacteria populations to break down organic matter. The material that decomposed the quickest in the dry soil is the animal material and the processed foodstuff in the moist soil. The materials that appeared not to have decomposed in both the moist and dry soil was the plastic fragments. This occurred because when observing the plastic fragments after the experiment was already over, I noticed that there was still air compacted inside of it so unless there air found its way out, it would not decompose for a very long time. Out of all the materials that were used, none of them decomposed all the way based on the scale I creates for the 8 weeks that was spent observing each of the pots in the trays. None of the materials started decomposing until the third week for both the moist and dry soil. For the tray with the soil that was given the same amount of water weeks, the natural fibers decomposed faster than the synthetic fibers even though by the end of the 8 weeks, they ended at the same rating as a result of the scale I created. Conclusion Pictures Bibliography " Decomposition - Process, Organic, Soil, and Humus - JRank Articles ." Science Encyclopedia - JRank Articles . N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://science.jrank.org/pages/1967/Decomposition.html>.

"Decomposition." Offwell Woodland & Wildlife Trust, British Wildlife & Countryside.Environmental Education. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://www.countrysideinfo.co.uk/decompos.htm>.

"Decomposition and Soil CO2 Emission (Description)." TIEE - Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://tiee.esa.org/vol/v6/experiment/soil_respiration/description.html>.

"Decomposition and Soil CO2 Emission (Description)." TIEE - Teaching Issues and Experiments in Ecology. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://tiee.esa.org/vol/v6/experiment/soil_respiration/description.html>.

"How long does X take to break down? | Green Living Tips." Green living tips - a more eco friendly existence. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://www.greenlivingtips.com/articles/waste-decomposition-rates.html>.

PAWahid. "Decomposition - definition from Biology-Online.org." Life Science Reference - Biology Online. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Dec. 2012. <http://www.biology-online.org/dictionary/Decomposition>.

"Soil Carbon Center at Kansas State University." Soil Carbon Center at Kansas State University. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://soilcarboncenter.k-state.edu/carbcycle.html>.

"The Environmental Literacy Council - Soil Ecosystems." The Environmental Literacy Council. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://www.enviroliteracy.org/article.php/700.html>.

"What is a decomposer?." Welcome to QRG. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Dec. 2012. <http://www.qrg.northwestern.edu/projects/marssim/simhtml/info/whats-a-decomposer.html>.

MLA formatting by BibMe.org. What is Decomposition? Background Research Background Research Question:How does the environment affect the rate of decomposition? Hypothesis: If the environment in which the materials are in is moist and in soil, then the rate of decomposition will increase because the waste requires oxygen, a certain temperature, a certain amount of moisture content and bacteria populativity to break down organic matter Manipulated: the environment in which the substance is in.



Responding: the rate in which it takes for the substance inside the environment to decompose according to the scale I will be creating.



Controlled: the amount of water that will be given to the environment that are moist, the plastic /clear trays or cups, Variables This is my data table which shows the data I collected over the 8 week time period. This is my first graph which shows decomposition in dry soil for the 8 week time period. This is my second graph which shows decomposition in moist soil for the 8 week time period. Real world Connections Landfills: Americans generate trash at a rate of 4.6 pounds (2.1 kilograms) per day per person, which translates to 251 million tons (228 million metric tons) per year. This is almost twice as much trash per person as most other major countries. Some of the trash gets recycled or recovered and some is burned, but the majority is buried in landfill. A landfill is a carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil. A sanitary landfill uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment. The purpose of a landfill is to bury the trash in such a way that it will be isolated from groundwater, will be kept dry and will not be in contact with air. Under these conditions, trash will not decompose much less than it would if it was in a different environment.Trash put in a landfill will stay there for a very long time. Inside a landfill, there is little oxygen and little moisture. Under these conditions, trash does not break down very rapidly. This connects to the data I collected because there are many things inside a landfill that are not biodegradable(capable of being broken down) so the landfills contain so much garbage that they have to be closed down but there's not enough space left. Further Studies If I were to do some further study on this topic of decomposition, I would do an experiment where I compare waste from different landfills all around the world and find out why maybe some of them decomposed faster then others and find out the factors that were included i the process. Another further study can be on decomposition reactions which are one of the most common types of chemical reactions. In a decomposition reaction a compound is broken into smaller chemical species.They are the opposite of combination reactions. In this experiment I can test different reactions.
Decomposition is the natural act or process of when the parts of a compound body or substance breaks down due to the invertebrates which are fungi, bacteria, bugs or worms. when started this project, I was investigating how the environment affects the rate of decomposition and this would have been done by using substances in different environment and measuring the rate in which it breaks down by using a scale that I would be creating. Decomposition in soil is a key ecosystem function that determines the productivity and health of the plants growing there. The waste requires oxygen, a certain temperature, moisture content and a certain amount of bacteria populativity to break down organic matter. Decomposition is apart of the global carbon cycle and there are two kinds that break down dead plants and animals by making organic nutrients that will be available to the ecosystems which are scavengers and decomposers. Many decomposers are microscopic and cannot be seen while scavengers are usually flies, wasps and cockroaches.
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