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Transcript of STEAM Education
What is STEM?
STEM is the integration of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics into a new trans-content instructional format in schools.
STEM education offers a chance for students to make sense of their world through
rather than learn content in individual silos.
Clarifying the Purpose of STEM Education
"STEM literacy includes the conceptual understandings and procedural skills and abilities for individuals to address STEM-related personal, social, and global issues. STEM literacy involves the integrations of STEM disciplines and five interrelated and complementary components. STEM literacy refers to the following:
(1) Acquiring scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical knowledge to identify new knowledge and using that knowledge to identify issues, acquire new knowledge and apply the knowledge to STEM-related issues. (Bybee, 2010)
Why is STEM Education so Important?
"For a society so deeply dependent on technology and engineering, we are largely ignorant about technology and engineering concepts and process, and we have largely ignored this incongruity in our educational system. (Bybee, 2000)"
Looks Like a Perfect Fit, Almost...
Schooling is not relevant to many of our youth today. In 2009, about 1.25 million students left high school without a high school diploma. (National Dropout Prevention Center, 2009)
seeks to understand the natural world.
is the modification of the natural world to meet human wants and needs.
- Oxford American Dictionary
How will we successfully address the needs of male and female learners via STEAM Education?
is the branch of science and technology concerned with the design, building, and use of engines, machines, and structures
- Oxford American Dictionary
is the expression or application of human creative skill and imagination, typically in a visual form such as painting or sculpture, producing works to be appreciated primarily for their beauty or emotional power.
- Oxford American Dictionary
is the abstract science of number, quantity, and space. Mathematics may be studied in its own right (pure mathematics), or as it is applied to other disciplines such as physics and engineering (applied mathematics).
- Merriam Webster Dictionary
"(2) Understanding the characteristic features of STEM disciplines as forms of human endeavors that include the processes of inquiry, design, and analysis.
(3) Recognizing how STEM disciplines shape our material, intellectual, and cultural world.
(4) Engaging in STEM related issues and with the ideas of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics as concerned, affective, and constructive citizens. (Bybee, 2010)"
"Translating the above description of STEM literacy into school programs and instructional practices requires a way of organizing education so the respective disciplines can be integrated and instructional materials designed, developed, and implemented. (Bybee, 2010)"
This is no small task, but I know
The National Science Board in 2008 reported that the U.S. is currently experiencing a chronic decline in homegrown STEM talent and is increasingly dependent upon foreign scholars to fill the workforce and leadership voids.
STEM can help school become more relevant. Quality school experiences that are built around science, technology, engineering, and mathematics will improve engagement and prepare high school students to enter into STEM college programs.
On the 2012 PISA (Program in International Student Assessment) U.S. students ranked 36th in math and 28th in science out of the 65 participating economies.
NAEP (National Assessment of Academic Progress) results indicate no significant change in achievement score gaps of different ethnicities in the past decade.
Minorities and women are significantly underrepresented in STEM college & university programs and STEM employment fields.
Change STEM into STEAM, what does that mean?
High-level skills and content in context (rigor + relevance)
Making cross-curricular, social and neural connections (relevance)
+ Cooperative learning to develop ideas (relationships)
Meaningful Learning Experiences and college/career ready students!
How is STEAM Different?
By adding the application of ART to the STEM framework, we create a well-rounded learning experience. "Art" includes fine arts, but also language arts, liberal arts and physical movement. (Yakman, 2010)
are the subjects (as reading, spelling, literature, speaking, and composition) that aim at developing the student's comprehension and capacity for use of written and oral language.
- Merriam Webster Dictionary
We already understand how critical these skills are for our students success. Traditional STEM programs make assumptions about a student's language arts skills and proficiencies.
cannot make those assumptions.
At Francis Reh everyone teaches reading!
When multiple modalities are used in the learning process, new knowledge and skills are often grasped easier and more quickly.
By bringing science and math concepts to life thru art, technology and engineering, and encouraging movement and cooperative learning, students will be more engaged. Passive learning is a thing of the past.
The person doing the work is the person who is learning!
"STEM Education provides a bridge for students, education providers, and the business community to more effectively develop learning pathways in technology-driven careers. (Gomez & Albrecht, 2014)"
Teaching Students to Think
While content exposure is incredibly important, even more important is the skill of thinking. Problem solving is a fun and engaging format for teaching 'thinking skills'.
"Reviewing best practices of teaching students how to think produced the list of what students need in their studies:
1. Students need to think more deeply about how technology can be managed so that they control it rather than the other way around.
2. Students should discuss and think systematically about personal, national, and global decisions, interactions and consequences.
3. Students need to recognize and identify the rights and responsibilities of citizens and help set directions for public policy and participate in community services. (Gomez & Albrecht, 2014)"
"4. Students should build on their prior knowledge, learning more varied and more sophisticated problem-solving techniques.
5. Students should increase their ability to visualize, describe, and analyze situations in mathematical terms.
6. Student-designed tasks should explore a range of contexts, including both those immediately familiar in the homes, school, and community of the students and those from wider regional, national global contexts.
7. Successful completion of design problems requires that students meet criteria while addressing conflicting restraints.
8. Students need to be given the freedom to investigate possibilities and not relegated to the expectation of what is to be known as the correct answer. (Gomez & Albrecht, 2014)"
"Art, like engineering, is concerned with finding answers to problems and seeking visual solutions using the design process. (Bequette & Bequette, 2012)"
Brain Processing Differences
Language processing areas
are different in the male and female brain. Males tend to have their language processing areas centralized in the left hemisphere; females tend to have multiple language processing areas in both hemispheres. As a result, females have more access to verbal resources that males and develop language earlier than males (Gurian, Stephens & Daniels, 2009)."
"Spatial Processing Areas
of the brain are significantly different in the male and female brain. Testosterone, the primary architect of the male brain, is believed to create more and denser neural connections in the right hemisphere of the male brain, with the result that males have increased resources for spatial reasoning, abstract reasoning, and the like. With less testosterone at work during fetal development, females tend to have less right hemisphere area devoted to spatial resources. Although boys in general test higher in spatial manipulation tests, there is a smaller gender gap in mathematical calculation. Girls tend to be so good at literacy skills that they don't get enough opportunity to practice using their spatial capacities - and when they need them to be sharp, they're not as ready to engage. (Gurian, Stephens & Daniels, 2009)"
Sensory System Differences
"Females tend to process more sensory data across the senses. They tend to see better in more kinds of light, and have better senses of reading and smell, and to take in more information tactility.
that girls will likely include more sensory detail in their writing and conversation. They will generally us more varied color in their artwork, Boys will tend to use fewer sensory descriptors in their writing, and this is an area in which those of us are working with boys must be quite vigilant. Boys may also have a more difficult time hearing sound, especially from their usual, self-selected seat in the back of the room! (Gurian, Stephens & Daniels, 2009)"
Of course, the information listed above cannot serve as across the board 'truth'. There are students of both genders that can fall anywhere in the spectrum of brain differences. But, it is helpful to understand some big picture generalizations as we plan for success.
Learning Style Differences
Keeping Student Interest in Mind
What Does This Mean for Students with Disabilities?
Learning styles group the common ways that people learn. An individual's learning style influences the way they understand information and solve problems. Having a solid grasp of our students dominant learning styles will help us provide the most effective environments and strategies for learning. (Kulturel-Konak, D'Allegro & Dickinson, 2011)
Student interest plays a large role in their engagement and motivation, this can impact their success. Math and science curriculum at the elementary, middle and high school level often lacks real-world application and connection to other content areas. By using a STEAM Education framework, we can effectively bring abstract math and science concepts to life.
As a school, we will also need to remain vigilant about building the background knowledge and vocabulary of our students. We'll need to provide meaningful experiences, such as field trips, guest speakers and STEAM related after school opportunities to prepare our elementary students and foster motivation and engagement in our middle and high school students. (Fang, 2013)
" Most often, STEM education represents four intertwined but separate disciplines that are generally associated with structured academic learning, complex theoretical, and students who are high-achievers. This representation of STEM education is generic and neglects to identify the roles and symbiotic nature of science, technology, engineering, and math in a global society. Moreover, this representation overlooks the diversity of the student population and continues to support the same practices that initiated our current difficulties. Given what is at stake, it behooves us to consider a new perspective that supports the needs of all students and provides a more authentic understanding of the content. (Basham, Israel & Maynard, 2010)"
Key Considerations for Students with Disabilities
* Are scaffolds necessary for the challenging expository text? Can we provide audio textbooks and additional, intensive vocabulary instruction?
* What background knowledge do we need to build so that
students can connect to the challenging grade-level concepts? (Basham, Israel, Maynard, 2010)
that girls tend to have significantly more access to verbal resources when they start school, and throughout life. On average, females use more words than males do (this includes writing and reading). Because of where they are developmentally, it is easier for girls to learn to read and write in kindergarten and first grade. Many boys find these tasks more frustrating at the same age, and though they can perform well once they are developmentally ready, they often develop negative attitudes about reading and writing as a result of the early period of frustration. Because literacy is the foundation of learning, this difference often results in gender gaps that show up in elementary school and persist throughout middle and high school. (Gurian, Stephens & Daniels, 2009)"
that boys tend to need more space in which to function while they are learning, and are generally more interested in and often better at spatial tasks than girls. This shows up more in science and technology class (a crucial area for those of us teaching girls and working towards parity). Girls will often be tolerant when we ask them to sit still and be quiet at their desks while doing seat work, but they may not gravitate as quickly to spatial games, engineering or architectural designs or computer languages. We may need to provide extra encouragement for them in these areas. (Gurian, Stephens & Daniels, 2009)"
With Knowledge Comes Responsibility...
Now that we understand that boys and girls tend to have some core learning differences, what are we going to do about it? How can we...
* Arrange learning space differently in the classrooms and throughout the school building?
* Build on student strengths, while building up their weaker areas.
* Redirect behavior differently.
* Energize their brains gender effective strategies.
* Use the most effective strategies to engage both boys and girls in STEAM Education.
Catherine, Scott. "An Investigation of Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Focused High Schools in the U.S." Journal of STEM Education 13.5 (2012): 30-39. Print.
Clark, Barbara, and Charles Button. "Sustainability Trans-disciplinary Education Model: interface of arts, science, and community (STEM)." International Journal of Sustainability in Higher Education 12.1 (2011): 41-54. Print.
Basham, James, Maya Israel, and Kathie Maynard. "An Ecological Model of STEM Education: Operationalizing STEM FOR ALL." Journal of Special Education Technology 25.3 (2010): 9-19. Print.
Slovacek, Simeon, Jonathon Whittinghill, Susan Tucker, Alan Peterfreund, and Kenneth Rath. "Minority Students Severely Underrepresented in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math." Journal of STEM Education 12.1&2 (2011): 5-16. Print.
Myers Spencer, Roxanne, and Jeanine Huss. "Playgrounds for the Mind: Invention Conventions and STEM in the Library." Children and Libraries Dec. 2013: 41-45. Print.
Smith, Karianne, and Williams Hughes. "Parabolic Mirror: Focusing on Science, Technology, Engineering and Math." Technology and Engineering Teacher Nov. 2013: 36-39. Print.
Barak, Moshe, and Yair Zadok. "Robotics projects and learning concepts in science, technology and problem solving." International Journal of Technology Education 19 (2009): 289-307. Print.
Degenhart, Shannon H., Gary J. Wingenbach, Kim E. Dooley, James R. Lindner, and Diana L. Mowen. "Middle School Students' Attitudes towards Pursuing Careers in Science, Technology, Engineering and Math." NACTA Journal 51.1 (2007): 52-59. Print.
Fang, Nina. "Increasing High School Students' Interest in STEM Education Through Collaborative Brainstorming with Yo-Yos." Journal of STEM Education 14.4 (2013): 8-14. Print.
Keller, Thomas E., and Greg Pearson. "A Framework for K-12 Science Education: Increasing Opportunities for Student Learning." Technology and Engineering Teacher Feb. 2012: 12-18. Print.
Bybee, Rodger W. "Advancing STEM Education: A 2020 Vision." Technology and Engineering Teacher Sept. 2010: 30-35. Print.
Gomez, Alan, and Bryan Albrecht. "True STEM Education." Technology and Engineering Teacher Jan. 2014: 8-16. Print.
Bequette, James W., and Marjorie Bullitt Bequette. "A Place for ART and DESIGN Education in the STEM Conversation." Art Education Mar. 2012: 40-47. Print.
Kulturel-Konak, Sadan, Mary Lou D'Allegro, and Sarah Dickinson. "Review of Gender Differences in Learning Styles for STEM Education." Contemporary Issues in Education Research Mar. 2011: 9-18. Print.
Hynes, Morgan. "Middle-School teachers' understanding and teaching if the engineering design process: a look at subject matter and pedagogical content knowledge." International Journal of Technology Education 22 (2012): 345-60. Print.
Pinnell, Margaret, James Rowly, Sandi Preiss, Rebecca Blust, and Renee Beach. "Bridging the Gap Between Engineering Design and PK-12 Curriculum Development Through the use of the STEM Education Quality Framework." Journal of STEM Education 14.4 (2013): 28-35. Print.
Gurian, Michael, Kathy Stevens, and Peggy Daniels. Successful Single-Sex Classrooms. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Teacher, 2009. 21-41. Print.
How Are We Currently Addressing Learning Styles in our Classrooms?
* Small Group Instruction
* Learning Centers/Stations
* Cooperative Learning Experiences
* Hands-On Learning
* Incorporating Movement & Music
Next Steps for Francis Reh
Examples of STEAM Learning
The Parabolic Mirror - Park Forest Middle School (Smith & Hughes, 2013)
Invention Conventions - West Kentucky University Center for Gifted Studies (Myers Spencer & Huss, 2013)
Provide concrete, functioning examples of STEM/STEAM Education programs.
* What do the programs entail (physical space, curriculum, planning, materials)?
* Schedule site visits for staffing groups.
* What scheduling requirements do we need to keep in mind?
Next Steps for Francis Reh
Foster College/University and professional partnerships to support STEAM implementation.
Potential partnerships include:
* Saginaw Valley State University
* Kettering University
* University of Michigan - Flint
* Dow Chemical
* Dow Corning
Next Steps for Francis Reh
How will STEAM Education in grades 7-12 impact our elementary instruction program?
* Instructional Formats & Methods
* Incorporation of Project Based Learning
* Building Background Knowledge & Vocabulary
Francis Reh Academy - Saginaw, Michigan