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US History - 25.1 - 25.2 - 25.3 - 25.4 - The United States in World War II

USH 25.1 through 25.4


on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of US History - 25.1 - 25.2 - 25.3 - 25.4 - The United States in World War II

Mobilizing for Defense
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, US mobilized for war.
Americans join War Effort
Japan believed that the US was “Trembling in her shoes” after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Nothing could be farther from the truth.
Americans were trembling, but with rage, not with fear. They united under the battle cry, “Remember Pearl Harbor.”
Selective Service and the GI
Selective Service and the GI
After Pearl Harbor, 5 million men volunteer for military service
10 million more drafted to meet needs of a two-front war
Expanding the Military
Expanding the Military
General George Marshall—Army Chief of Staff—calls for women’s corps
Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)—women in noncombat positions
Thousands enlist; “auxiliary” dropped, get full U. S. army benefits
Recruiting and Discrimination
Minority groups are denied basic citizenship rights
Question whether they should fight for democracy in other countries
Recruiting & Discrimination
A Production Miracle
The Industrial Response
Factories convert from civilian to war production
Shipyards, defense plants expand, new ones built
Produce ships, arms rapidly
use prefabricated parts
people work at record speeds
Dramatic Contributions
300,000 Mexican Americans join armed forces
1 million African Americans serve; live, work in segregated units
13,000 Chinese Americans and 33,000 Japanese Americans serve
25,000 Native Americans enlist
Americans Join the War Effort
The Entertainment Response
Churned out war oriented propaganda films
Created opportunities to escape from the grim realities of war for a few hours
Bob Hope
USO Shows
Selling the War
Labor’s Contribution
Nearly 18 million workers in war industries;
6 million are women
Over 2 million minorities hired; face strong discrimination at first
A. Philip Randolph, head of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters
Organizes march on D.C.; FDR executive order forbids discrimination
Labor's Contribution
Mobilization of Scientists
Office of Scientific Research and Development— technology, medicine
Manhattan Project develops atomic bomb
Mobilization of Scientists
Economic Controls
Office of Price Administration (OPA) freezes prices, fights inflation
Higher taxes, purchase of war bonds lower demand for scarce goods
War Production Board (WPB) says which companies convert production
allocates raw materials
organizes collection of recyclable materials
Economic Controls
-Created to ensure that the armed forces and war industries received the resources they needed to win the war.
-It decided which companies would convert from the peacetime to wartime production and allocated raw materials to key industries.
-It also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags, and cooking fat for recycling into war goods.
The War Production Board
Rationing—fixed allotments of goods needed by military
Section I
The War in North Africa
Allied forces, led by the United States and Great Britain, battle Axis powers for control of Europe and North Africa.
The United States and Britain Join Forces
The Battle of the Atlantic
Hitler orders submarine attacks against supply ships to Britain
wolf packs destroy hundreds of ships in 1942
Allies organize convoys of cargo ships with escort:
destroyers with sonar; planes with radar
Construction of Liberty ships (cargo carriers) speeds up
Allied victory safeguarded Allied shipping of war materials to Europe
The Easter Front and the Mediterranean
The Italian Campaign
Allies decide will accept only unconditional surrender from Axis
Summer 1943, capture Sicily; Mussolini forced to resign
1944 Allies win ―Bloody Anzio‖; Germans continue strong resistance
The Allies Liberate Europe
Allies set up phantom army, send fake radio messages to fool Germans
Eisenhower directs Allied invasion of Normandy on D-Day June 6, 1944
Allies freed the country from four years of occupation
The Allies Liberate Europe
The Battle of the Bulge
October 1944, Allies capture first German town, Aachen
December German tank divisions drive 60 miles into Allied area
Battle of the Bulge—Germans push back but have irreplaceable losses
Liberation of the Death Camps
Allies in Germany, Soviets in Poland liberate concentration camps
find starving prisoners, corpses, evidence of killing
Invasion of Germany
Aachen became the first town taken by the Americans
Berlin would be taken by force by the Russian army at the cost of 250,000 Russian lives
The Allies Liberate Europe
Unconditional Surrender
April 1945, Soviet army storms Berlin; Hitler commits suicide
Eisenhower accepts unconditional surrender of German Reich
May 8, 1945, V-E Day: Victory in Europe Day
Roosevelt’s Death
FDR dies April 12; Vice President Harry S. Truman becomes president
Section 2
The Battle of Stalingrad
Hitler wants to capture Caucasus oil fields and destroy Stalingrad
Soviets defeat Germans in bitter winter campaign
Over 230,000 Germans, 1,100,000 Soviets die
Battle a turning point: Soviet army begins to move towards Germany
The North African Front
General Dwight D. Eisenhower commands invasion of North Africa
Afrika Korps, led by General Erwin Rommel, surrenders May 1943
Placed the Allies in control of North Africa
War Plans
Churchill convinces FDR to strike first against Hitler
Heroes in Combat
African Americans — Tuskegee Airmen, Buffaloes—highly decorated
Mexican-American soldiers win many awards
Japanese-American unit most decorated unit in U.S. history
The Allies Gain Ground
General Omar Bradley bombs to create gap in enemy defense line
General George Patton leads Third Army, reach Paris in August
FDR reelected for 4th term with running mate Harry S. Truman
The War in the Pacific
In order to defeat Japan and end the war in the Pacific, the United States unleashes a terrible new weapon, the atomic bomb.
The Allies Stem the Japanese Tide
Japanese Advances
In first 6 months after Pearl Harbor, Japan conquers empire
Gen. Douglas MacArthur leads Allied forces in Philippines
March 1942 U.S., Filipino troops trapped on Bataan Peninsula
FDR orders MacArthur to leave; thousands of troops remain
The Allied Offensive
Allied offensive begins August 1942 in Guadalcanal
The Allies defeat Japan for the first time on land
October 1944, Allies converge on Leyte Island in Philippines
return of MacArthur
Iwo Jima
Iwo Jima critical as base from which planes can reach Japan
6,000 marines die taking island; of 20,700 Japanese, 200 survive
The Manhattan Project
J. Robert Oppenheimer is research director of Manhattan Project
July 1945, atomic bomb tested in New Mexico desert
President Truman orders military to drop 2 atomic bombs on Japan
The Atomic Bomb Ends the War
Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 6, Hiroshima, major military center, destroyed by bomb
3 days later, bomb dropped on city of Nagasaki
September 2, 1945 Japan surrenders
The Yalta Conference
February 1945, FDR, Churchill, Stalin meet in Yalta
discuss post-war world
FDR, Churchill concession: temporarily divide Germany into 4 parts
Stalin promises free elections in Eastern Europe; will fight Japan
FDR gets support for conference to establish United Nations
The Nuremberg War Trials
Nuremberg trials—24 Nazi leaders tried, sentenced
charged with crimes against humanity, against the peace, war crimes
Establish principle that people responsible for own actions in war
The Occupation of Japan
MacArthur commands U.S. occupation forces in Japan
Over 1,100 Japanese tried, sentenced
MacArthur reshapes Japan’s economy, government
Section 3
Battle of the Coral Sea
May 1942, U.S., Australian soldiers stop Japanese drive to Australia
For first time since Pearl Harbor, Japanese invasion turned back
The Battle of Midway
Admiral Chester Nimitz commands U.S. naval forces in Pacific
Allies break Japanese code, win Battle of Midway, stop Japan again
Allies advance island by island to Japan
Doolittle’s Raid
April 1942, Lt. Col. James Doolittle leads raid on Tokyo
The Japanese Defense
Japan uses kamikaze attack—pilots crash bomb-laden planes into ships
Battle of Leyte Gulf is a disaster for Japan
Imperial Navy severely damaged; plays minor role after
The Battle for Okinawa
April 1945 U.S. Marines invade Okinawa
April–June: 7,600 U.S. troops, 110,000 Japanese die
Allies fear invasion of Japan may mean 1.5 million Allied casualties
The Allies Go on the Offensive
Human Costs of the War
WW II most destructive war in human history
The Home Front
After World War II, Americans adjust to new economic opportunities and harsh social tensions.
Opportunity and Adjustment
Economic Gains
Defense industries boom, unemployment falls to 1.2% in 1944
average pay rises 10% during war
Farmers prosper from rising crop prices, increase in production
many pay off mortgages
Percentage of women in work force rises to 35%
Civil Rights Protests
Racial tensions rise in overcrowded Northern cities
James Farmer founds Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
works on racial segregation in North
1943 racial violence sweeps across country; Detroit riots worst case
Japanese Americans Placed in Internment Camps
Hawaii governor forced to order internment (confinement) of Japanese
1942 FDR signs removal of Japanese Americans in four states
U.S. Army forces 110,000 Japanese Americans into prison camps
1944 Korematsu v. United States—Court rules in favor of internment
After war, Japanese American Citizens League pushes for compensation
1988, Congress grants $20,000 to everyone sent to relocation camp
Section 4
Social Adjustments
Families adjust to fathers in military; mothers rear children alone
Families must get to know each other again after fathers return
Many couples rush to marry before husband goes overseas
1944 GI Bill of Rights or Servicemen’s Readjustment Act:
pays education; loan guarantees for homes, new businesses
Population Shifts
War triggers mass migrations to towns with defense industries
Tension in Los Angeles
Anti-Mexican zoot suit riots involve thousands servicemen, civilians
Discrimination and Reaction
Full transcript