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Swimming Pool Treatments Science Project

Grade 10 Science

Arkin Sampath

on 23 October 2012

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Transcript of Swimming Pool Treatments Science Project

Grade 10 SNC2D1
Mrs. Choudhury
Group Members: Arkin Sampath and Nicholas Piluris Chlorine vs Bromine in
Pool Water What Are The Chemical
Reactions Involved? Name and Chemical Formulas of the Compounds Involved 1."Common Menu Bar Links." Swimming Pool Chemicals : OSH Answers. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/chemicals/swimming.html>.

2.Richards, Bailey Shoemaker. "Bromine vs. Chlorine for a Pool." EHow. Demand Media, 17 Feb. 2010. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.ehow.com/facts_6006176_bromine-vs_-chlorine-pool.html>.

3."The Effects of Pool Chlorine on the Environment." LIVESTRONG.COM. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.livestrong.com/article/135829-the-effects-pool-chlorine-environment/>.

4."Disinfectants Chloramines." Chloramines as a Disinfectant. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.lenntech.com/processes/disinfection/chemical/disinfectants-chloramines.htm>.

5."Swimming Pool Sanitation." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swimming_pool_sanitation>.

6."How to Properly Maintain Swimming Pool Water Chemistry." WikiHow. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.wikihow.com/Properly-Maintain-Swimming-Pool-Water-Chemistry>. Compounds And Their Reaction •Chlorine-based and bromine-based products are used to sanitize pools
•When you add chlorine to water, it releases hypochlorous acid
•When you add bromine to water it produces hypobromous acid, which are the main chemical compounds used for cleaning pools
•In a swimming pool, chemicals that are involved are disinfectants and sanitizers that are usd to prevent the growth of bacteria and algae in pool water
•A product example of disinfectants are “chlorinating agents” which release the chemical Chlorine when it dissolves in water

•TWO types of chlorinating agents: inorganic and organic
Inorganic being calcium hypochlorite (2CaOCl2CaCl2+CaCO3+Cl2O). Calcium hypochlorite reacts with carbon dioxide to form calcium carbonate and release dichlorine monoxide
•Organic being trichloroisocyanuric acid (C3Cl3N3O3), potassium dichloroisocyanurate (C3HCl2N3O3K), sodium dichlorocyanurate(C3-H-Cl2-N3-O3Na). •Chlorine - Cl2
- chemical element with symbol Cl and atomic number 17 and is the second halogen element
•Bromine - Br2
- is a chemical element with the symbol Br and atomic number 35 and is the third halogen element
•Chlorine and Bromine are both diatomic elements and exist in pairs
•Hypochlorous acid is a weak acid and the chemical formula is HClO; it forms when chlorine dissolves in water
•Hypobromous acid is a weak, unstable acid and the chemical formula is HBrO

•Calcium hypochlorite(2CaOCl2CaCl2+CaCO3+Cl2O) (inorganic chlorinating agent)
•Trichloroisocyanuric acid (C3Cl3N3O3), Potassium dichloroisocyanurate (C3HCl2N3O3K), Sodium dichlorocyanurate (C3-H-Cl2-N3-O3Na)
•Br2 + H2O <--> HBrO + HBr (Reaction with Bromine and water)
•2Cl2+2H2O --> 4HCl+O2 (Reaction with Chlorine and water)
•Chloramines NH2Cl (formed between Chlorine (Cl2) and the polyatomic ion Ammonia (NH3) Safety Hazards With Using Chlorinating Agents •Organic and inorganic chlorinating agents are not compatible with each other, due to the fact that they can create an explosive mixture when mixed/cross contaminating with each other
•Some of these chemicals can be oxidizers and corrosives
•An example of an oxidizer is calcium hypochlorite that has the ability to chemically react with materials that are oxidize combustible (burnable material), which increases the chances of a fire or explosion. This can occur at either room temperature or a slightly heated temperature
•The corrosive materials attack and destroy body tissues chemically on contact. They can also eat away metal. The effects always vary on the type of corrosive agent used. Physical and Chemical Properties •Chlorine
- Two chlorine atoms form the diatomic molecule Cl2
- It is a yellow-green gas that smells like bleach
- It is highly reactive
- Boiling point is approximately −34 ˚C
- Available as chemical tablets, pucks or liquids

- It is a reddish-brown liquid at room temperature
- Also, it smells like chlorine
- Reacts with metals
- Available as chemical tablets, pucks or liquids How Are They Formed? •Chlorine is usually produced by the electrolysis of sodium chloride dissolved in water
•Chlorine is produced by passing an electric current through a solution of brine (common salt dissolved in water) called electrolysis
•Bromine can be produced through the reaction of solid sodium bromide with concentrated sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
•Bromine is produced from salt brines in the US, China, Japan and from the Dead Sea

•Organic chloramines are disinfectants that are formed between chlorine (Cl2) and ammonia (NH3)
•Inorganic chloramines are formed during the reaction between the compounds. The three different kinds chloramines formed are monochloramine (NH2Cl), dichloramine (NHCL2) and trichloramine (NCl3) Uses and Application •Chlorine
- Chlorine kills bacteria through a chemical reaction
- Chlorine breaks down into hypochlorous acidand hypochlorite ion
- It kill microorganisms and bacteria by attacking the lipids in the cell walls and destroying the enzymes and structures inside the cell

- Bromine destroys bacteria and remains the pool
- Bromine will bind with bacteria and keep working until it's fully deactivated
- Produces less of a chemical odor than chlorine does

•Both chemicals are used to kill growth in bacteria and algae in swimming pool water Terrible Accidents •Chlorine
- It is a toxic gas that irritates the respiratory system
- It is heavier than air and accumulates at the bottom of poorly ventilated spaces
- Chlorine gas is a strong oxidizer and reacts with flammable materials
- If contact is made with chlorine, it could burn eyes, skin, throat and can be fatal
- Bromine is toxic and causes burns
- It smells like bleach and is very irritating to the mucous membranes
- If contact is made with bromine, it could burn eyes, skin, throat and can be fatal

•Some chloramines can be explosive, have a high chance of catching on fire Importance of the chemical compound Chlorine and bromine are disinfectants used in swimming pools to keep them clean, control algae, kill bacteria and to keep everyone safe ,from any viruses in the water in case of contamination. Main environmental problem that the chemical causes •Chlorine evaporates quickly, and contributes to hydrochloric acid rainfall
•This could also be a factor in destroying the troposphere ozone layer which creates smog
•Swimming pools cause very little damage unless they are over chlorinated
•In some cases chloramines could cause asthma in children, which leads to the belief that they could be just as toxic as chlorine gas itself Solutions For Environmental Challenge •Instead of chlorine and bromine based products, use salt water chlorination
•It is a process that uses dissolved salt
•It uses electrolysis to break down the salt (NaCl)
•It is not chlorine-free but it uses a chlorine generator instead of adding chlorine directly to the pool References A What Are The Chemical
Reactions Involved? There are many chemical reaction involved while treating swimming pool water. First we will tell you what compounds are involved, along with their reactions. 7."Common Menu Bar Links." Your Swimming Pool and Spa (fact Sheet) [Health Canada, 2011]. N.p., 11 May 2011. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/cps-spc/pubs/pest/_fact-fiche/pool-spa-piscine/index-eng.php>.

8."Chlorine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chlorine>.

9."Bromine." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 16 Oct. 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bromine>.

10."Salt Water Chlorination." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 10 Nov. 2012. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Salt_water_chlorination>.

11."Learn About Chemicals Around Your House." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.epa.gov/kidshometour/products/cjug.htm>.

12."Swimming Pool Chemicals." - Transport Canada. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012. <http://www.tc.gc.ca/eng/canutec/articles-pool-259.htm>. References B
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