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The Skeletal System

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Lauren Awaya

on 31 July 2014

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Transcript of The Skeletal System

The Skeletal System
General Bone Structure
"The spinal cord is a long bundle of nerves found within the vertebral Column"
"Muscles provide the force to move the bone"
"The lungs of the respiratory system are protected and kept in place by the rib cage"
The Human Skeleton
The skeletal System and the Respiratory System
The skeletal system protects the trachea, vocal cords, diaphragm, and protects the lungs for the respiratory system to inhale and exhale.
The tissue in the upper respiratory tract is provided structure by the skeletal system
The Skeletal system and the Muscular System
Gives skeletal muscle something to pull against so skeletal muscle can move (muscles connects to bones to produce movement)
Gives support to the body
Muscles are joined to bones by tough connective tissues called tendons
There are usually several muscles surrounding each joint to pull it in different directions
Major Functions of the Skeletal System
The major functions of the skeleton include supporting the body, protecting internal organs, providing for movement, storing mineral reserves, and providing a site for blood cell transformations
The Skeletal system and the Nervous system
The Skeletal System protects the brain and the spinal cord.
By controlling muscles, the brain regulates the position of bones
The skeletal system works with the nervous system by providing movement by taking signals from the nervous system.
Joints have sensory receptors that send signals about body position to the brain
Bones provide the calcium necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system
There are four types of freely moving joints

Hinge joints, like the knee, allow for back and forth movement
Pivot joints at the base of the skull allow one bone to rotate around another
Saddle joints in the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb consist of one bone being able to slide in two directions
Ball and socket joints, like the shoulder, allow movement in many directions.
There are more bones in a human baby than a human adult
A joint can be classified as immovable, slightly movable, or freely movable
Hinge Joint
Ball-and-Socket Joint
Pivot Joint
Bones are solid networks of living cells and protein fibers surrounded by deposits of calcium salts. A tough layer of connective tissue, called the periosteum, surrounds the bone. Beneath the periosteum is a thick layer of dense, non-solid compact bone. In the inner layer of the compact bone is the spongy bone, whose latticework structure helps to add strength without adding mass. Bone marrows are a soft tissue within the cavity of bones. Yellow marrow is made of mostly fat cells. Red marrow produces red blood cells, some types of white blood cells, and platelets.
Haversian canals contain blood vessels and nerves
Blood vessels passing through the periosteum carry oxygen and nutrients to the bone
Together, the bones within the hands and feet make up more than half of the bones in the human skeletal system
Ounce for ounce, bone is stronger than steel, since Steel weighs four to five times as much as a bone does
over A period of seven years, each bone in the body is slowly replaced until it becomes a new bone
Every second, the bone marrow produces two million red blood cells
radius- the shorter of the two long bones on the forearm, on the thumb side of the arm
carpals- consist of eight bones that make up the wrist
metacarpals- five bones that connect from the carpals (wrist) to phalanges (fingers)
phalanges- the bones of the fingers and toes
pelvis- a sturdy ring of bones that protects the organs of the abdominopelvic cavity and anchors the muscles of the hip, thigh, and abdomen. Pelvis bones include the sacrum, coccyx (tail bone), and the left and right coxal bones (hip bones).
femur (thigh bone)- longest, heaviest, and strongest bone in the body. supports the whole body’s weight during many activities including walking, standing, and running.
patella (knee cap)- protects the knee joint
tibia (shin bone)- a thick, inner bone located in the lower leg
fibula- stabilizes the ankle and supports the muscle of the lower legs
tarsals- seven short bones that make up the foot
metatarsals- make up the central skeleton of the foot in a slight arch

Cranium (Skull)- the housing for the brain.
Clavicle (Collarbone)- long horizontal bone between the scapula and sternum.
Humerus- largest & only bone in upper arm.
Scapula (shoulder blade)- serves as attachment for muscles/tendons of the arm, neck, chest and back
Sternum (breastbone)- keystone of the ribcage
Rib- protects vital organs such as the lungs and the heart
Vertebra- Protection of the spinal cord; also provides stiffening for the body and attachment for the pectoral and pelvic girdles and many muscles.
Ulna- supports movement of the extremities, creates insertion points for muscles, produces blood cells in bone marrow, and store some minerals, such as calcium and phosphorus.
Major Parts of the Human Body
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