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GCSE PE The Skeletal System

GCSE PE Units 32-35
by

Daniel Yates

on 25 August 2015

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Transcript of GCSE PE The Skeletal System

Support
Functions
Supporting framework
The skeleton supports your body when walking, running, doing somersaults or just sitting down
Soft tissue "hangs" off skeleton
Protection
Bones protect what's inside
Skull protects?
Breastbone/ribs protect?
Bones (especially long bones) protect?
Movement
Muscles pull on bones to allow both course and fine movement.
Tendons allow muscles to do this as they attach bone to muscle.
Blood Production
Making blood cells
Happens in red bone marrow
Skeletal System
Joints
Structure
joint capsule
joint cavity
articular cartilage
Basic Parts
Joint capsule
Made from fibrous connective tissue
Lined with synovial membrane
Fits over ends of the two bones
Holds bones together securely
Allows movement at joint
Joint Cavity
Articular Cartilage
Covers ends of bones
Absorbs jolts (like rubber heel on shoe)
Creates a smooth surface = reduces friction
Synovial fluid also helps reduce friction
Space inside joint capsule
Between/around ends of joining bones
Filled with synovial fluid
Attaches to bone shaft, forming the periosteum
Ligaments grow out of periosteum hand lash two bones together
Ball-and-Socket
Hinge
Pivot
Structure
Ball shaped head of one bone fits into concave socket of another
Location
Movement
shoulder
hip
Widest range of movements
forward
backward
out
in
circular
Location
Location
Movement
Movement
Structure
Structure
Like hinges on a door
Elbow
Knee
Fingers
Bending and extending
Small projection of one bone pivots in an arch of another bone
1st two cervical vertebra
radius & ulna
rotating
Fine Movements
Can you think of any?
This can be anything from adjusting your hand position during a game of snooker to adjusting your grip during a game of squash or badminton.

They are basically all of the smaller movements needed in sport.
Coarse Movements
Can you think of any?
Of course you can!

These are the bigger sporting movements such as throwing a javelin or kicking a football.
What types of movement are available at joints?
Now try to label the joints and movements at each joint on this athlete
Movement at Joints
Flexion
Extension
Abduction
Adduction
Rotation
How to work each movement out
Flexion - the angle of the joint gets smaller
Extension - the angle of the joint increases
Abduction - movement away from the body
Adduction -movement towards the body
Rotation - movement around the body
Unit 33: Joints and Movement
Unit 34: Exercise and the Skeletal System
Unit 32: The Skeletal System
The Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal System
Bones continue to grow until you are 18, when most people have attained their adult height. Regular exercise helps bones to develop and become strong. It also increases bone Density. Heavier bones = Stronger bones.
Bone Growth
Ligament Strength
Not only do bones become stronger but ligaments and
tendons become stronger
and more flexible as a result
of regular exercise.
However...
young people (you!) should not do too much of certain types of training such as
Weight Training
and
Long Distance Running
as it can cause the bones of people who are growing to develop unevenly. So stay away from big irons and marathons until you are old enough!
The Importance of Weight Bearing Exercise
There is nothing good about getting old! Bones become lighter with age and their
Density
and
Strength
are gradually reduced. This is a natural occurrence, however it can become a problem if too much bone is lost, resulting in
Weak Skeleton
and
Bones
which can break easily. This condition is called osteoporosis. But do not fear exercise can help! In particular weight bearing exercises such as walking, running, tennis and aerobics are good as they put weight and pressure on certain bones, increasing their
Strength
.
Finally: A few facts about BONES!
•They are alive! A child’s skeleton is replace cell by cell every two years.
•They stop growing in length by the age of around 16-18. They do however continue to increase in density.
•They deteriorate from the age of 35. As I said there is nothing good about growing old!
Unit 35: Injuries to the skeletal system and the importance of diet.
Objectives
By the end of this unit you will need to know:
the potential for injuries such as fractures and joint injuries.
Common treatment (RICE)
The importance of diet including the effect of calcium on bones.
Injuries
Injuries to Bones
Fractures
A fracture is a broken or cracked bone. This can occur through impact or severe twisting of a joint.
Symptoms include:
Pain around the area
If the injury is a limb an inability to move the limb.
Deformity is another symtom
Closed Fractures
The skin over the break is not damaged
Compound Fractures
The broken bone petrudes through the skin. This presents a risk of infection.
Simple Fractures
Fractures take place in one line, with no displacement of the bone.

Green stick fractures are also included in this category. This means that only part of the bone is broken.
Stress Fractures
Overuse injuries!
These can happen as a result of muscle fatigue which means they are unable to absorb shock. However they can also occur when playing on different surfaces or through a sharp increaase in intensity.
Stress Fractures
They are common in repetitive activities played on hard surfaces usch as basketball, tennis and road running.
People that suffer stress fractures have been proven to be more susceptible to osteoporosis in old age.
Injuries to joints
RICE
Dislocation
This is when a bone is forced out of its normal position.
Tennis and Golfers Elbow
Both are overuse injuries to tendons at the elbow joints.
Tennis - Outside
Golfers - Inside
Sprains
Torn Cartilage
This is a tear to the elastic substance found at the ends of bones of a synovial joint.
STOP! Stop playing, training, stop everything!
Cold provides pain relief and limits swelling (this prevents the healing process).
Use pressure to hold the ice pack on. It also limits swelling. Tidy!
Raise the injury. This reduces swelling. Bonus!
This is basically a damaged ligament.

The most common sprain occurs in the ankle (twisted ankle). This is because this injury is usually sustained during invasion games and net wall games where agility is a key component of the sport.

The injury occurs as a result of an individual inverting their ankle inwards or outwards. Can you think of any other areas of the body that can be sprained in other sports?
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