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CHAPTER 15 THE INVERTEBRATES

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by

Clare Murphy

on 17 November 2015

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Transcript of CHAPTER 15 THE INVERTEBRATES

THE UNBELIEVEABLY
HUGE WORLD OF
SIMPLE
INVERTEBRATES!!



CHARACTERISTICS OF ANIMALS
SYMMETRY - arrangement of body parts

asymmetry



radial



bilateral
CHARACTERISTICS -
ASYMMETRICAL - MOSTLY


CELLULAR LEVEL
OF ORGANIZATION - NO TISSUES


NO TRUE GUT, NO GANGLIA


MOSTLY IN OCEANS, SOME FRESHWATER


ADULTS ARE GENERALLY
SESSILE
PHYLUM PORIFERA
THE SPONGES
COLLAR CELLS WITH FLAGELLA

EPITHELIAL CELLS WITH PORES

OSCULLUM
STRUCTURES IN SPONGES
BEHAVIORS
REGENERATION






SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION

FILTER FEEDERS
TYPES OF CELLS
SPICULES


COLLAGEN (SPONGIN)
CLASSIFIED ACCORDING TO TYPE OF CELLS - SPICULES ONLY, COLLAGEN ONLY OR BOTH
PHYLUM CNIDARIA -
THE STINGING CELL ANIMALS
CHARACTERISTICS

MOST HAVE RADIAL SYMMETRY

FIRST PHYLUM WITH

TISSUES!!!

HAVE A GUT AND A SIMPLE NERVE NET

MOSTLY OCEANIC, SOME FRESHWATER
STRUCTURES
TWO BASIC BODY PLANS

MEDUSA
IS BELL SHAPED WITH TENTACLES UNDERNEATH

POLYP
IS A TUBE SHAPE WITH TENTACLES ABOVE - OFTEN SESSILE

NEMATOCYSTS
ARE STINGING CELLS FOUND ON TENTACLES

NEMATOCYSTS ARE TOUCH SENSTIVE - ACTIVATED BY TOUCH
BEHAVIORS
ALTERNATION OF GENERATION
- GO FROM POLYP FORM TO MEDUSA FORM

SOME EXIST IN ONLY ONE FORM OR THE OTHER, NO ALTERNATION

CAN STILL REGENERATE TO REPRODUCE AND REPLACE BODY PARTS

HAVE
BOTH SEXUAL AND ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION
RELEASE OF GAMETES TIMED TO THE PHASES OF THE MOON TO INCREASE CHANCES OF FERTILIZATION
KINDS OF CNIDARIAS
HYDROZOANS
- MOSTLY LIVE IN POLYP FORM LIKE FRESHWATER HYDRAS


JELLYFISH
- HAVE AN ALTERNATION OF GENERATION, FREE-SWIMMING POLYP CHANGES FORM TO MEDUSA SHAPE

CORALS AND ANEMONES
- MOSTLY LIVE AS POLYPS WITH FREE-SWIMMING LARVAL FORMS -
PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES
THE FLAT WORMS

CHARACTERISTICS

BILATERAL SYMMETERY
IMPORTANT EVOLUTIONARY STEP FORWARD - DIRECTION IS IMPORTANT

ONE OPENING
TO DIGESTIVE TRACT

MOSTLY SMALL; SOME PARASITIC

FIRST PHYLUM WITH SIMPLE
ORGANS
STRUCTURES
SIMPLE NERVOUS SYSTEM

SOME HAVE EYESPOTS OR SENSORY LOBES

MOST HAVE A SIMPLE GUT
THREE BASIC KINDS
PLANARIANS
- FRESH WATER PREDATORS, EASY REGENERATION

FLUKES
- PARASITES WITH TINY HEADS AND NO EYESPOTS OR SENSORY LOBES; HAVE SUCKERS AND HOOKS

TAPEWORMS
- PARASITES WITH NO EYESPOTS OR SENSORY LOBES; NO GUT BECAUSE THEY'LL JUST USE YOURS!!

PHYLUM NEMATODA -
THE ROUNDWORMS

CHARACTERISTICS
BILATERAL SYMMETRY

LONG, SLENDER "ROUND" BODY

TWO
OPENINGS IN DIGESTIVE TRACT

MOST VERY TINY

SIMPLE NERVOUS SYSTEM WITH GANGLIA IN A BRAIN

CAN BE PARASITIC OR FREE-LIVING; SOME ARE SAPROPHYTES

HOOKWORMS, WHIPWORMS, TRICHINELLA WORMS, HEARTWORMS
PHYLUM ANNELIDA
CHARACTERISTICS

BILATERAL SYMMETRY

FIRST

CLOSED

CIRCULATORY SYSTEM

COMPLEX NERVOUS SYSTEM - HAS GANGLIA IN EACH SEGMENT CONNECTED TO A BRAIN

FOUND IN FRESH WATER, SALT WATER AND ON LAND
EARTHWORMS
- SEGMENTS HAVE DIFFERENT JOBS, HAVE SETAE (STIFF BRISTLE-LIKE STRUCTURES) TO PULL THEM THROUGH THE SOIL, ARE SAPROPHYTES

POLYCHAETES
- MARINE ANIMALS THAT CAN BE FILTER FEEDERS OR PREDATORS; BRIGHTLY COLORED WITH MANY BRISTLES. CHRISTMAS TREE OR FAN WORMS

LEECHES
- PARASITES WITH SPECIAL HOOKS TO ATTACH TO SUBJECT; INJECT ANESTHETIC INTO WOUND AND ANTI-COAGULANT TO KEEP BLOOD FLOWING; USED IN MODERN MEDICINE
LEECHES
DOCTORS' HELPERS
Full transcript