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Memory as a way of knowing

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Shinichiro Yoshii

on 27 March 2014

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Transcript of Memory as a way of knowing

Memory as

a way
of knowing

Knowing through memory
Procedural Memory
Declarative Memory
Eyewitness testimony
A convincing evidence
Media reports
Social research
Courts of law
Daily conversations
All memories are treated in our brain in different ways
Memory and intuition: some common biases
We seem to have been purposely constructed with a mechanism for erasing the tape of our memory, or at least bending the memory tape, so that we can live and function without being haunted by the past.

Elizabeth Loftus, cognitive
psychologist & memory expert.
The suggestibility of memory
The role of forgetting
Memory... is knowledge from the past. It is not necessarily knowledge about the past.

Avishai Margalit
Semantic memory
Hindsight bias
It's a cognitive bias, looking back in time.
We tidy up the past to create the narrative that leads to the present as we know it. Also known as the 'I-Knew-it-all-along fallacy'.
Consistency bias
We interpret our own past in a way that is consistent with how we are now. We edit our memories actions that we would condemn as foolish or hurtful.
Availability heuristic
We assess how
it is for something to happen based on how
examples can be retrieved. We are very bad at using our memory to calculate the probability of something happening.
What do we edit out of our memories in a normal process of forgetting?

Are emotional events more likely to be remembered?

Method of Loci
Memory does not operate on its own as a way of knowing, it also interacts with sense perception, and emotion, intuition and language.
Wrong memory can be enforced into one's mind as long as they believe in it.
Introduction to Memory
Selective memory and forgetting
Negative memories
Unimportant events
Associated memories
Salomon Shereshevskiy
Memory is a constructive, dynamic and selective process which we use every day and we rely on significantly.
Shared Knowledge
Sense of identity and of self
Collective memory and cultural history
"When we have mastered the false memory recipes, we will need to worry about who controls them. What brakes should be imposed on police, lawyers, advertisers? More than ever, we'll need to constantly keep in mind that memory, like liberty, is a fragile thing."

Elizabeth Loftus
Memory can be entirely created by suggestion, meaning that memory can be entirely created or changed through suggestibility.

Have you been convinced by someone about something?
Memory may have been a dream or from a film or a book?

Posed questions
Memory, sense perception, and emotion:
History and language both transmit memory and combine into culture which is essentially collecting experiences and memories and influencing the knowledge and behavior of a person
Mass Memory Techniques
Episodic memory

Imagining a storyline or objects
Memory: a TOK way of Knowing
False, enforced Memory
Example: Tiananmen Square Massacre on 4th June 1989
BBC. (1989). BBC ON THIS DAY |4|1989|: Massacre in Tiannmen Square. Available: http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/june/4/newsid_2496000/2496277.stm. Last accessed 25th March 2014.
Eileen, D., Lena, R. and Mini, B. (2013) Theory of knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University press 2013.
Shared memory and knowledge
Mind-Expanding-Techniques (2014) Mind Expanding techniques. Available at: http://www.mind-expanding-techniques.net/method-of-loci.html. (Accessed: 27 March 2014).
Mind Tools (2014). Available at: http://www.mindtools.com/memory.html. (Accessed: 27 march 2014).
Zimmermann, K. A.. (2014). Semantic memory: Definition & Examples|LIvesciences. Available: http://www.livescience.com/42920-semantic-memory.html. Last accessed 25th March 2014.
It could be argued that all knowledge is largely knowledge of the past.
Sequence of connection
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