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The Cell Theory

Cells Unit, Concept 1. Cell theory, plant/animal cells & organelles

Shiley Biology

on 1 May 2014

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Transcript of The Cell Theory

contain chemicals, , that digest a certain material in the cell

The Cell and Organelles


The Cell Theory
1. All living things are made of cells.

2. Cells are the basic unit of structure of all living things.

3.All existing cells arose from previously existing cells
-contains the chromosomes which are made of DNA
-controls the cell, genetically
In this region, ribosomes parts are synthesized. These 'preassembled' parts of ribosomes pass through the nuclear pores to the cytoplasm.
site of cellular respiration
-Contains chlorophyll which absorbs light energy from the sun
-Converts carbon dioxide and water into sugar through a process called photosynthesis.
Cell Shape and Size
-Vary in shape and size.
--flat, rectangular,
circular, branched

-Cellular structure reflects
the functions the cell
--skin cells: flat, shingle-like

-The human body is made
of over 100 trillion different
-Substances that enter and leave the cell must pass through the cell's surface.
--the size of a cell limits the amount of substances that enter the cell.
--Surface Area to Volume ratio

-Cells that are larger uptake and release MORE nutrients and waste in comparison to a smaller cell.
Cell Features
All cells share common features!

Cell Membrane- (AKA plasma membrane) a barrier between the outside environment and
the inside of the cell

Ribosome- prevalent; synthesizes proteins

Cytosol- fluid inside the cell

Cytoplasm-includes cytosol AND all structures inside the cell

Organelle-structures within cells

a unicellular organism with a very simple organelle organization
an organism that is made of one or multiple cells
Eukaryotes are more complex than prokaryotes and can complete many different functions.
--multiple, small vacuoles
-have one large vacuole
-toxic substances
storage tanks for the cell
Large, round, water-
filled sac that is floating
in the cytoplasm
Cells by the Numbers
Uni =
Multi =
unicellular = made of ONE cell
multicellular =made of MANY cells
All cells also have DNA!

This genetic material provides instructions for making proteins, regulates cellular activities and enables cells to reproduce.
Framework of the Cell
Cytoskeleton- a web of protein fibers found in eukaryotic cells
provides support and helps the cell move, keep shape and organize its parts.
(cc) photo by Metro Centric on Flickr
-long, thin fibers that are made of Actin.
-they contract to pull the membrane in and expand to push it out.
"small tubes"
-Thick, hollow fibers that are made of Tubulin
Intermediate Fibers
-Anchors organelles and enzymes to certain parts of the cell
FREE ribosomes
BOUND ribosomes
make proteins that stay inside the cell
help build new organelles or enzymes
make proteins that are exported from the cell.
responsible for making proteins
some are located on the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) and some are free floating
in eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, these are floating in cytosol
attached to the membrane of the ER
Flagella- the whip-like projections responsible for movement of some animal cells, bacteria, or protists
contain ribosomes
lack most organelles
do not have a true nucleus
DO NOT contain mitochondria
Obtain energy from either sunlight or from chemicals
DNA is floating inside the cell, not attached or in a compartment
has multiple organelles
DNA is organized into chromosomes and are stored in the nucleus
cellular respiration: process that supplies the cell with energy
(and also gives plants the green color)
Endoplasmic Reticulum
-a complex network that transports materials throughout the inside of the cell
Rough ER
-has ribosomes attached to the surface
Smooth ER
- has no attached ribosomes
smooth ER
rough ER
Golgi apparatus
-collects, modifies, packages, and distributes molecules inside and outside of the cell
The Plant Cell
The Animal Cell
contain proteins being transported to or from Golgi
-'fluid mosaic model'
-fluid=hydrophobic components can move through the hydrophobic tails of bilayer
-mosaic=contains lots of different components (organelles)

-composed of a phospholipid bilayer
-2 layers of phopholipids that line up...hydrophilic heads facing out and hydrophobic tails facing in.
the bilayer is semi-permeable...meaning it lets some things pass through (small, nonpolar molecules) and restricts the movement of others (large, polar molecules).
forms a boundary between inside and outside of cell
-transports proteins from ribosomes
- produces lipids and breaks down toxins


cell membrane
-tubes made of a cylinder of smaller tubes...help with chromosome division
- form cilia and flagella
small fibers that allow the cell to move
-moves like oars...in unison
- fiber that allows the cell to move
-moves like a propeller through water
*found in both plant and animal cells!
C6H12O6 +O2 --> CO2 + H2O
Cell Wall
-found in plants, bacteria, fungi, algae
-gives a rectangular shape
-NOT found around animal cells
-rigid barrier outside the plasma membrane
-used for support and structure
-plants hold upright shape and take in water without lysis
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