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Verbs

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Transcript of Verbs

CLASSIFICATIONS OF VERBS
What are verbs?
I. According to Agreement

Verbs
Shearwater Health
Pre-Process Training
Thea Banderlipe

According to agreement
According to tenses
According to forms
BASIC RULE:
Subjects and verbs must
AGREE
with one
another in number (singular or plural).

Singular
Plural
The dog chases the cat.
The dogs chase the cat.
-s
+s
+s
-s
In the
present tense
,
NOUNS
and
VERBS
form plurals in opposite way!
1.
At Yellowstone Park grizzly bears
(doesn’t, don’t)
have names; they have numbers. 

2.
In the meeting between human and bear, a wild-card factor
(throws, throw)
all calculations and studies to the wind.

3.
The Yellowstone authorities should
(has, have)
kept thorough records on each bear. 

4.
When some bears
(encounters, encounter)
people, it is the bear who runs. 

5.
The great national parks
(holds, hold)
about 200 grizzlies, with possibly 30 of them being breeding females. 
A phrase or clause
between
subject and verb
does not change the number of the subject.
A can of lima beans sits on the shelf.
The women who went to the meeting were bored.
_____________
prepositional phrase
S
V
_______________________
dependent clause
S
V
1.
One of the many cultures studied by anthropologists
(is, are)
the Kwakiutl Indians. 

2.
This group of Indians
(lives, live)
on the Canadian Coast. 

3.
Often the leader of the Kwakiutl
(dances, dance)
,
(foams, foam)

at the mouth, and
(tosses, toss)
burning ashes into the crowd. 

4.
Wealth, like cedar bark blankets, canoes, and large sculptured copper pieces,
(is, are)
important to the Kwakiutl. 

5.
To the Kwakiutl, one of the copper pieces
(equals, equal)
a thousand cedar bark blankets. 
INDEFINITE PRONOUNS AS SUBJECTS
Singular
indefinite pronoun subjects
 take
singular
verbs.
Everybody has gone to the movies.
Each does a good deal of work around the office.
Nothing seems right around here.
Another is on the way.
singular
singular
singular
singular
singular
singular
singular
singular
one someone anyone

no one everyone each

somebody anybody nobody

everybody (n)either something

anything nothing everything
Plural
indefinite pronoun subjects take
plural
verbs.
Both do a good deal of work around office.
Many have answered the invitation for Friday evening.
Several indicate that they will be late.
plural
plural
plural
plural
plural
plural
both few many

several others
Some indefinite pronouns may be
either singular or plural
: with uncountable, use singular; with countable, use plural.
Some of the sugar is on the floor.
Some of the marbles are on the floor.
______________
_______________
singular
singular
plural
plural
S A N A M
Some
Any
None
All
Most
1.
Among the animals, turtles cling to their basic structural design, while many others
(is, are)
experimenting their way to extinction. 

2.
Turtles are unique; each
(has, have)
eight cervical vertebrea, compared with seven of most mammals. 

3.
Turtles are honored in many countries; in China, for example, everyone
(worships, worship)
the legendary turtle named Dwei who created the universe. 

4.
Turtles have specific characteristics; all
(displays, display)
two plated decks: the upper, called the carapace, and the lower, known as the plastron. 

5.
Of the female turtles, some
(has, have)
been found to be twice the size of the males. 
If two subjects are joined by 
and
, they
typically
require a plural verb form.
The doctor and the nurse are helping the patient eat.
A pencil and an eraser make writing easier.
Honey and tea
is/are
 my mother’s favorite drink.
Bread and butter

is/are
my favorite breakfast.
The teacher and principal
is/are
attending the conference.
The teacher and the principal
is/are
attending the conference.
________
_________
plural
plural
__________
_________
plural
plural
Subject-Verb Agreement Rules 1 - 6
With compound subjects joined by 
or/nor
, the verb agrees with the subject nearer to it.
PROXIMITY RULE
Neither the director nor the actors are following the lines.
Neither the actors nor the director is following the lines.
The ranger or the campers see the bear.
singular
singular
singular
plural
plural
plural
The rangers or the camper sees the bear.
The rangers, the explorers, or the camper sees the bear.
_
_
_
_
_
_
singular
singular
singular
singular
singular
plural
plural
plural
plural
plural
1.
Both Democrats and Republicans
(is, are)
electing a new leader. 

2.
Neither threats nor hostile action
(scares, scare)
the enemy. 

3.
The actors and the director
(understands, understand)
the lighting problems. 

4.
The surfer or the swimmers
(is, are)
responsible for the littered beach. 

5.
A good diet and a realistic exercise plan
(combines, combine)
to help one lose weight.

6.
Either my brother or you
(is, are)
going to get it.

7.
Either you or my brother
(is, are)
going to get it.
INVERTED SUBJECTS
must agree with the verb.
Waiter, there is a fly in my soup.
There are four flies in my soup.
How are the relatives taking the bad news?
singular
plural
plural
plural
plural
1.
There
(is, are)
two classes of pure matter: elements and compounds. 

2.
What
(does, do)
scientists know today about elements? 

3.
Occurring naturally
(is, are)
over 100 elements, or substances that cannot be separated into different kinds of matter. 

4.
There
(is, are)
however, numerous elements that are man-made as well.
 
5.
There
(continues, continue)
to be much research to add new elements. 
Collective nouns
may be
singular or plural, depending on meaning.
The jury has awarded custody to the grandmother.
The jury have been arguing for five days.
The team is heading for practice this afternoon.
The team are eating with their families tonight.
singular
singular
plural
plural
crowd
team
gang
bunch
herd
flock
swarm
pride
jury
class
pile
pack
Is it acting as a unit or are they acting as individuals?
1.
In the Peace Corps, an American group
(goes, go)
into an underprivileged country to help the people develop skills. 

2.
The family members
(learns, learn)
a variety of different skills that are valuable in the market. 

3.
The U.S. Senate
(has, have)
made several individual proposals for starting the Peace Corps. 

4.
On October 4, 1960, at the University of Michigan, a young crowd
(listens, listen)
to John Kennedy propose the Peace Corps. 

5.
The tribe members
(is, are)
expressing their individual thanks to members of the Peace Corps.
Subject-Verb Agreement Rules 7 - 13
Titles of single entities
 (books, organizations, countries, etc.) are always 
singular
.
The Game of Thrones takes a long time to watch.
Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets is my favorite book.
How to Get Away with Murder and BBC's Sherlock are both exciting to watch.
PLURAL FORM SUBJECTS
Plural form subjects
with a singular meaning 
take a
singular verb

Mumps is a contagious disease.
Billiards is a game which connects mathematics and football.
news
measles
mumps
calculus
rickets
billiards
molasses dizziness
Plural form subjects
with a plural meaning
take a
plural verb
.
scissors
pliers
eyeglasses
spectacles
binoculars
forceps
pants
trousers
tweezers
The scissors are on the table.
The pair of scissors is on the table.
The pliers belong to my father.
__________
singular
singular
plural
plural
plural
plural
Plural form subjects
with singular or plural meaning
 take
a singular or plural verb, depending on meaning
.  
Politics is an interesting subject.
The politics of the situation were complicated.
Statistics is offered every year at the college.
The statistics show that the candidate will win.
______________
singular
singular
plural
plural
plural
plural
physics
mathematics
electronics
politics
statistics
ethics
logistics
forensics
mechanics
1.
Students are excited that economics
(is, are)
being taught this semester. 

2.
Unfortunately, dishonest politics
(was, were)
used to win the election. 

3.
Athletics
(provides, provide)
important opportunities for physical development. 

4.
Good news usually
(travels, travel)
fast. 

5.
Because of the mood in the Senate, statistics
(was, were)
compiled quickly for the report. 
Only
the
subject
affects the verb.
My favorite topic is the writings of Florence Nightingale.
The writings of Florence Nightingale are my favorite topic.
singular
singular
plural
plural
A.
With one of those _________ who
,
use a plural verb.
B.
With the only one of those ________ who
,
use a singular verb.
Hannah is one of those people who like to read comic books.
Hannah is the only one of those people who likes to read comic books.
plural
singular
A.
With the number of __________
,
use a singular verb.
B.
With a number of __________
,
use a plural verb.
The number of volunteers grows each year.
A number of people grow tomatoes each summer.
plural
singular
With
every _____ and many a _______
,
use a singular verb.
Every man, woman, and child participates in the lifeboat drill.
Many a child dreams about becoming famous one day.
singular
singular
The singular verb form is
usually
used for units of measurement or time.
Five hundred milligrams of naproxen is needed to ease tendinitis.
One hundred and fifty gallons is the amount of liquid the average living room rug can absorb.
singular
singular
CLASSIFICATIONS OF VERBS
SVA
Exercise
According to agreement
According to tenses
According to forms
Tense System
II. According to Tenses
Simple
Continuous
Perfect
Past
Present
Future
I am walking.
I will be walking.
I have walked.
I will have walked.
The claimant
works
as a general laborer in a factory.

Does
the physician require CT scan on your pelvis?
SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
SIMPLE FUTURE TENSE
A:
 He speaks.
N:
 He does not speak.
Q:
 Does he speak?
action in the present taking place once, never or several times

facts

actions taking place one after another

action set by a timetable or schedule
always, every, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes
I walk.
I walked.
I was walking.
I had walked.
I will walk.
A:
 He spoke.
N:
 He did not speak.
Q:
 Did he speak?
SIMPLE PAST TENSE
1
To express the idea that
an action started and finished
at a specific time in the past.
The patient
reported

an extreme pain on the left knee yesterday.


did not see
 
the vehicular accident which happened last week.

Last year, I
 
traveled
 to Japan with my family.
Examples:
COMPLETED ACTION IN THE PAST
To list a
series of completed actions
in the past. These actions happen 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
The lady
arrived
at the clinic,
looked
for the physician and
consulted
her numbness.

He 
arrived
 at the hospital at 8pm, 
checked
 into the room at 9pm, and 
saw
 the doctor at 10pm.

Did
 you 
add
 flour, 
pour
 in the milk, and then 
add 
the eggs?
Examples:
A SERIES OF COMPLETED ACTIONS
Used with a duration which starts and stops in the past.
A duration is a longer action
often indicated by expressions such as: for two years, for five minutes, all day, all year, etc.
Shauna 
studied
medicine for six years.

They 
sat
 at the clinic all day.

They 
did not stay
 at the party the entire time.
Examples:
DURATION IN PAST
3
5
4
2
To describe
a habit which stopped in the past
.
It can have the same meaning as
"used to"
. We often add expressions such as: always, often, usually, never, when I was a child, when I was younger, etc.
Did
 you always
go
 to the dentist when you were a kid?

She 
worked
 at the movie theater when she was diagnosed with aneurysm.
Examples:
HABITS IN THE PAST
Used to describe
past facts or generalizations which are no longer true
. This is quite similar to the expression
"used to"
.
She 
was
 shy as a child, but now she is very outgoing.

Did
 you 
live
 in Texas when you 
were
 a kid?
Examples:
PAST FACTS OR GENERALIZATIONS
U
S
E
S
ago, in 2011, in 1999, last month, last week, last year, yesterday, etc.
To form a question:
Did
 the patient
take
Augmentin in 2011?

Dr. Abel
did provide
additional medication to Melissa last week for her oral surgery.
“did” + subject + infinitive
will
going to
action in the future that cannot be influenced

spontaneous decision

assumption with regard to the future
Example:
The doctor
will
prescribe lorazepam for anxiety.
in a year, next …, tomorrow

Assumption:
I think, probably, perhaps
Signal words:
A:
 He will speak.
N:
 He will not speak. 
Q: 
Will he speak?
decision made for the future

conclusion with regard to the future
A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
in one year, next week, tomorrow
Signal words:
The patient is
going to
return to work on 08/25/2018.
Example:
PAST PROGRESSIVE TENSE
A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
1
The boy
was writing
an essay when the phone
rang
.
Examples:
2
To describe two past actions that were both in progress.
I
was preparing
dinner while Melanie
was working
upstairs.
Examples:
3
With words such as
"always" or "constantly"
that expresses an idea of something irritating, often happened in the past. The concept is very similar to the expression
"used to" but with negative emotion
.
Examples:
Uses:
Talks about something that was happening before, but for a period of time.
To describe an action that started in the past and was
interrupted
by another action (incomplete action).
The patient
was sleeping
when the doctor
entered

the room.
I
was crying
while I
was talking
to my mother.
The employee did not like the boss because he 
was always complaining.
I got bothered because she
was constantly whining
.
A:
 He had spoken.
N:
 He had not spoken.
Q:
 Had he spoken?
PAST PERFECT TENSE
Signal words:
when, while, as long as
after, before, just, when
Used to emphasize that
one event happened before another
in the past.
Signal words:
The medical officer
had finished
the report before the attending physician
arrived
.

The claimant
had experienced
delusions when he
took
amphetamines.
CLASSIFICATIONS OF VERBS
Simple Past Tense
Exercise
According to agreement
According to tenses
According to forms
III. According to Forms
Regular Verbs
Irregular Verbs
Other Verb Forms
Form their past participle with ‘d’, ‘t’, or ‘ed’ are regular verbs. They do not undergo substantial changes.
If the verb ends with a consonant, ‘ed’ is added.

If the verb ends with a vowel, only ‘d’ is added.
REGULAR VERBS
Present Tense
Past Tense
Want
Wanted
Shout
Shouted
Kill
Killed
Present Tense
Past Tense
Share
Shared
Scare
Scared
Dare
Dared
IRREGULAR VERBS
They undergo substantial changes.
Present Tense
Past Tense
Go
Went
Run
Ran
Think
Thought
connects the subject with a word that gives information about the subject, such as a condition or relationship.
LINKING VERB
The patient
appeared
fatigued and in pain.

The claimant
seemed
calm when given Valium by the GP.
indicates existence, temporary condition, or permanent status.
THE VERB "BE"
Affirmative:
It
is
really hot today.
Question:
Is
the patient pale?

With noun:
His father

is
a podiatrist.
With adjective:
Your friends

are
funny.
In progressive form:
He
is writing

a letter to his brother.
The verb be takes on different forms in the present and past.
Present

am

is

are
Contraction

'm

's

're
Past

was

was

were
In passive form:
The people
were surprised
by the news.
In prepositional collocation:

Tracy
is
fond of
chocolates.
Negative:
Cheska
is not
afraid of snakes.
Helps the main verb in a sentence by extending the meaning of the verb. They add detail to how time is conveyed in a sentence.
HELPING/AUXILIARY VERB
Dr. Michaels
had submitted
the medical report when the consultant
came
.
Verbs that can alternatively be added with –d, -ed or -t:
Verb
Past Simple
Past Participle
burn
burned or burnt
burned or burnt
dreamed
dreamed or dreamt
dreamed or dreamt
kneel
kneeled or knelt
leaped or leapt
learned
learned or learnt
learned or learnt
smell
smelled or smelt
smelled or smelt
Verbs that have the same form in Present, Past, and Past Participle:
Verb
Past Simple
Past Participle
Seek
Sought
bet
bet
bet
broadcast
broadcast
broadcast
cut
cut
cut
hit
hit
hit
hurt
hurt
hurt
let
let
let
put
put
put
quit
quit
quit
read
read
read
CLASSIFICATIONS OF VERBS
According to agreement
According to tenses
According to forms
PRESENT PERFECT
Signal words:
PAST SIMPLE
Examples:
Specific times
in the past
Vague times
in the past
yesterday, five minutes ago, in 2000, the other day, last month
ever/never, not yet, already, so far,
to date, till now, up to the present
I
went
to the park yesterday.
I
studied
in China in 2010.

I
have
never
gone
to the park.
I
haven't been
to China yet.
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