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The Middle Ages
Transcript of The Middle Ages
The nobles hired knights who fought on horses.
Knights fought in tournaments.
Epics told the story of famous heroes like Charlemagne.
Knights had to speak the truth, fear God, maintain his church, live by honor and truth, and to never turn back on a foe. Sources
Chapter 13 Summary in Brief, European Middle Ages, 500-1200
http://novaonline.nvcc.edu/eli/evans/Student/BlackPlague/BlackPlague.html From 800 - 1000 A.D., Europe was threatened by attacks from Muslims, Magyars, and Vikings.
The Vikings that came from Scandinavia attacked villages by taking anything of value.
Around the year 1000 A.D., the Vikings adopted Christianity and stopped attacking and have became farmers and traders for the society.
The Magyars and Turkish nomads came attacked from the east and reached up to Italy and France. Therefore, the citizens in Western Europe suffered without a strong government which caused the feudalism system to begin.
The feudalism came from rights and commitments. For example, a lord gave land to vassal if the the vassal promised to supply soldiers when the lord needed them.
The structure of the feudal systems had a king at the top, then nobles and bishops, then the knights, and then peasants at the bottom.
Peasants were the largest group and they toiled the land.
Lord's supported peasants with a home if the peasants promised to give the lord a share of the crop for the year. End of the fourth century, invasions from Germanic ethnic groups took rule in the western Roman Empire. This caused trade to stop and the Roman government to decline.
From 400-600 A.D., Germanic kingdoms fought each other for rule, Roman rule got substituted for Germanic ideas, and the Catholic Church was the only sense of order.
The church made efforts to bring people to Christianity, monasteries (monks/men and nuns/women lived lives devoted to God).
Charlemagne became king of all the Franks in 771. With military skill, he widened the kingdom to the size of Ancient Rome. Pope Leo III gave him the title emperor because of this. Charlemagne also reduced the powers of nobles and gave himself for authority.
After his death, his empire soon perished. Magna Carta (England)
Archbishop Stephen Langton drafted the Magna Carta of England in 1215
The Magna Carta is a document that King John of England signed forcing him to give up a substantial amount of his power to create the British Parliament
Magna Carta became basis for English citizens rights
Magna Carta was a collection of 37 English laws to show the King's power can be controlled Estates General (France)
The Estates General was a representative body made up of three 'estates' or groups
The first estate contained clergy, the second estate contained nobility, and the third estate contained everyone else
It was developed during the time in which Monarchs needed support and developing across centuries
It never formed into a true representative intsitution and was considered unhelpful The main thing that united European society was the church.
The pope was in charge of spiritual matters while the emperor took charge of politics.
The church structure included the priests at the bottom, then the bishops in the middle, and the pope as the leaders of the church.
The church involved a social center and a religious center for the community.
The church law was known as canon law which applied to all Christians which set standards such as marriage.
The most harsh punishment was getting kicked out of the church or excommunication. The Pope used this as a threat on a ruler to try to get their way.
Later, the pope and the emperors came into conflict on who could appoint the bishops who led the church. The final solution to this was that the pope could appoint the bishops, but the emperor could turn down any bishop he didn't like. Commercial Revolution
Economic expansion led to the rise of new towns and private banking
Expansion of the commercial industry was guided by technical advancements in seafaring
This new technology in seafaring led to an abundance of exploration of Africa, Asia, and the New World starting in 1450
European prices and economic activity took a steep rise once gold and silver came in from the New World
Chartered companies arose and the continent adopted mercantilism which led to the abolishing of trade barriers
Fast commercial activity gave way to economic specialization which led to changes in production which are similar to today's modern capitalism The Hundred Year's War was fought between England and France which lasted from 1338-1453
The two empires were fighting over who should control the French and English Land
In1328 Charles IV, the King of France died with no son to take over the throne which led to be one of the causes of the hundred years' war
Edward III, King of England led an attack into French territory in 1338 to defend his claim as rightful King and declared himself the true King of France two years later
This attack marked the start of a violent war that contained bloody battles and lasted one hundred years The crusades were a series of Holy wars with Christian States versus the Saracen Muslims.
There were 9 main crusade wars and a children's crusades adding up to 10 in all.
The main cause of the crusades was that the Turks from Persia took the Holy land of Jerusalem from the Christians.
The effects of the crusades includes: 2 to 6 million deaths, more power and wealth towards the Catholic Church, more exports of men and supplies for wars in Eastern Europe, and it helped the king and the people stand out. 25 million people died from the black death plague in Europe from 1347-1352
The bubonic plague or "black death" is belived to have originated in China and spread through rodents carrying the disease
The Italian writer Boccaccio said "ate lunch with their friends and dinner with their ancestors in paradise."
During the winter the disease ceased momentarily because of the carriers and spreaders of the disease went dormant
One third of Europe's population died during the 1347-1352 five year span
The plague never disappeared until the 1600's