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Transcript of Kristen Swanson
Theory of Caring
Origin of Theory
Kristen M. Swanson, RN, PhD, FAAN
BSN from University of Rhode Island
MSN Adult Health and Illness Nursing from University of Pennsylvania
PhD Psycho-Social Nursing from University of Colorado
Completed postdoctoral work at the University of Washington
Taught at Trenton State University, University of Pennsylvania, University of Colorado
Inducted into the American Academy of Nursing
Holds University of Rhode Island College of Nursing Distinguished Alumni Award
Currently Dean and Alumni Distingushed Professor at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Associate Chief Nursing Officer for Academic Affairs at UNC Hospitals
20 Women who miscarried interviewed
Question 1: Are concepts clearly defined and logically connected?
Is the theory congruent with current nursing practice?
Promote a practical application of caring theory
Middle-range Theory of Nursing
Purpose and Level
Studying and Data Gathering from studies:
Swanson's Theory of Caring
Five Processes/Spheres of Caring
Knowing- understanding how others' lives have meaning; avoids assumptions and centers on the person receiving care
Being with- genuinely present to others to convey that their experience has significance; enduring with, listening, attending, sharing feelings
Doing for- nursing behaviors that preserve the other's wholeness; comforting, anticipating, protecting, teaching, coaching, etc.
Enabling- assisting individuals to acquire the tools they need to care for themselves; explaining, informing, supporting, allowing
Maintaining belief- personal faith in the capacity of others and provide nurses with foundation for commitment to serve; believing in, realistic optimism, hope-filled attitude
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) caregivers
8 of 68 socially at-risk mothers who received public, long-term health interventions
Question 2: Is there a model or diagram that contributes to theory?
Question 3: Are concepts measureable (operationally defined)?
Question 4: Can you understand it well enough to apply it to practice or research?
Originally, no. "Awkward and tied to miscarriage"
Required three studies
Caring categories futher refined by phenomenological inquiry; define caring
Miscarriage Caring Project which led to
Swanson's Caring Professional Scale
Of course, what nurse hasn't applied this!
Has it been tested?
Evident through component usage in
many acts, policies, statements
Infusing Swanson's Theory of Caring into an Advanced Practice Nursing Model for an Infectious Diseases Anal Dysplasia Clinic
Is the theory culturally relevant?
Does the theory contribute to the discipline/science of nursing
Would I find this theory useful? How? In what context/setting?
Not yet..."work is limited by self study and
lack of diversity in research participants.
(Middle-class, married, educated, caucasian women)"
But this will change...
Andershed and Olsson (2009) Study
Nine studies applied Swanson's Theory- diverse populations
"Theory was effective and sensitive in guiding clinical practice"
"Way of encouraging individual approach to care"
Discuss four main foci of nursing: person, health, environment, nursing...sound familiar?
Soapbox, comments, questions