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The History of Quantum Mechanics

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Mike Makmur

on 10 June 2013

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Transcript of The History of Quantum Mechanics

The History of Quantum Mechanics Double-Slit Experiment 1827 1900 Plank's Quantum Theory Black Body Radiation 1860 Wave-Particle Duality 1924 Schrodinger's Cat 1926 Uncertainty Principle 1935 Mike Makmur, Mikhail Soumar, Montu Patel What is Quantum Mechanics? Thomas Young shone a light through a sheet of metal with two small slits
PREDICTED: Two spots of light
REALITY: Multiple bands of light
Proved that light acts as a wave
Wave interference is CONSTRUCTIVE where bands of light appear
Wave interference is DESTRUCTIVE where bands of light do not appear Max Plank theorized energy was released in INTEGER AMOUNTS (quanta)
Energy in quanta is directly proportional to frequency of the item releasing the energy
6.626 x 10 J s (Plank's Constant)
Led to the creation of Quantum Mechanics -34 Blacksmiths noticed heated metal turned a bright red
Signified that the metal emitted RED light
Scientists heated metal to higher and higher temperatures
Metal turned from RED to YELLOW to BLUE to WHITE
Math predicted an "Ultraviolet Catastrophe"
PREDICTED: Energy would approach infinity as temperature rose
RESULTS: Energy decreases at a certain temperature Bohr's Atomic Model Proved light acts as a particle
Electrons "jump" from energy level to energy level, releasing energy in the form of PHOTONS Obvious contradiction in behavior of light
Louis de Broglie hypothesized that light acts as BOTH a wave and a particle
Proven through Double Slit Experiment
Rather than using light, Scientists used ELECTRONS Quantum particles, by definition, do not have set outcomes
Quantum particles rely on PROBABILITY
This probability allows for quantum particles to exist in multiple states at once: a SUPERPOSITION
Schrodinger's thought experiment tests the effect of observation on Quantum Superposition
Radioactive material with 50% chance of decaying is put into a box with a hammer, poison, and cat
If radioactive material DECAYS, hammer breaks glass of poison, cat dies
If radioactive material does NOT decay, cat stays alive
Meant to test the superposition of QUANTUM PARTICLES and its effects on an object ruled by CLASSICAL PHYSICS Created by Werner Heisenberg
Studies the effects of observation on quantum particles
You can only know EITHER position or speed of a quantum particle
Observation needs photons to interact with the observed particle
Some energy from the photons affects the position and speed of the particle 1960 Leptons The Standard Model Particle colliders found a multitude of new particles in the quantum world via particle accelerators
1960- Sheldon Gloshow creates the original standard model by combining the ELECTROMAGNETIC and the WEAK forces.
1967- Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam incorporate the Higgs mechanism to modernize the theory Standard Model describes the dynamics between elementary particles; Fermions and Bosons; as well as three of the four forces: Electromagnetism, Weak, and Strong Nuclear Force Quarks Fermions All matter is made out of fermions
Two types of fermions: QUARKS and LEPTONS
Six different "flavors" of each fermion
Classified into three generations
Lightest fermions on left (Gen I), heaviest fermions on right (Gen III)
Gen II and III quickly decay down to Gen I Cannot exist alone, obey the Strong Force*
Bonded quarks are called HADRONS
Bond into doublets called MESONS
Bond into triplets called BARYONS
Quarks must have integer electric charge
Up and Down Quarks discovered 1968, other four discovered in years afterwards Exist in solitude
Electron, Muon, and Tau all have mass and charge
Neutrinos have no mass or charge Describes actions of matter and energy at microscopic scale
Based off of probability rather than gaining exact results
"As I have said so many times, God doesn't play dice with the world." -Albert Einstein
Defines the fundamental particles of the universe The Future Bosons and Forces Bosons serve as "force-carriers"
Bosons are able to occupy the same space at the same time
Gauge bosons account for three of the four fundamental forces - gravity is unaccounted for
Higgs boson and the field it creates is responsible for objects having mass
Higgs boson was predicted in 1964 and its existence almost completely confirmed in November 2012 Composite Particles Various interactions of fermions and bosons give us more common particles
Two common baryons are protons and neutrons
In the 1950's, unstable particles called hyperons were found
Some atoms, by definition, are bosonic (Carbon-12) since their particles have integer spin New Bosons? Theoretical particles are being searched for by CERN and others
Graviton is the proposed boson for the force of gravity
Two more bosons to connect the weak and electomagnetic forces? Grand Unified Theory A grand unified theory would be able to consider the electromagnetic, weak and strong forces as a single force (using the same principles and constants)
Most scientists consider this an intermediate step to a Theory of Everything, which would include all four forces What's in it for us? While all these particles are simply being discovered for the sake of being discovered, they will almost certainly be practical later on
Quantum mechanics began to take form by the 1920's, but only towards the end of the 20th century had the effects been realized - MRI machines, computers, lasers and phones all take advantage of advances in quantum mechanics
Sometimes the effects have nothing to do with the discovery
The World Wide Web was created by physicists, including the ones working for CERN
Cloud computing (i.e. smartphones) made huge leaps in progress as a result of the work on the Large Hadron Collider - Higgs field makes a very good Internet model Also Al Gore THE END Any questions?
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