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Battle of Stalingrad

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Robyn Lin

on 9 March 2013

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Transcript of Battle of Stalingrad

German Army BATTLE F STALINGRAD The Luftwaffe presence over the Volga River proved to be an advantage for the Germans. The Luftwaffe not only destroyed buildings within Stalingrad, but they also made crossing the Volga river extremely difficult for the Soviets, preventing the Soviets from getting any reinforcements or supplies to Stalingrad When the “Soviet 24th and 66th Armies organized a massive attack against XIV Panzerkorps on September 5th, the Luftwaffe helped the German forces repulse the offensive by subjecting Soviet artillery positions and defensive lines to heavy attack. Prior to the arrival of the South Army Group B, Luftwaffe bombers terrorized Stalingrad. NAZI Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945): USSR ARMY Joseph Stalin -de facto leader of the Soviet Union

-under Stalin's rule, the concept of "socialism in one country" became a central tenet of Soviet society

-Stalin was determined "not to lose!" the battle

-issued the policy of “Not a Step Back” as part of his Order 227, of July 27, 1942, which ordered soldiers and commanders to never retreat and doing so would result in being shot. Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov(1896 – 18 June 1974):

-Soviet career officer in the Red Army
-played a pivotal role in leading the Red Army drive through much of Eastern Europe to liberate the Soviet Union
-most decorated general officer in the history of the Soviet Union and Russia
-placed at the top in the respect of number, scale of victories, and his talent in operational and strategic command
-served in World War I, Russian Civil War, Soviet-Japanese Border War, Great Patriotic War
-combat achievements became valuable heritages in humanity's military knowledge, exerted great influence on both the Soviet and the whole world's military theory Konstantin Rokossovsky (1896 – 3 August 1968):

- Soviet officer of Polish origin who became a Marshal of the Soviet Union, a Marshal of Poland and served as Poland's Defence Minister
-part of the Don Front, 1st Belorussian Front, 2nd Belorussian Front, Polish Armed Forces, World War I, Russian Civil War, World War II
-won the follow awards: Order of Victory, Order of Lenin, Order of the Red Banner, Order of Suvorov, Order of Kutuzov, Virtuti Militari, Cross of Grunwald, Order of the Bath, Legion d’honneur, Cross of St. George
-Orphaned at 14, earned a living by working in a stocking factory, and later became an apprentice stonemason Filipp Ivanovich Golikov, (July 30, 1900 - July 29, 1980):

-Soviet military commander, promoted Marshal of the Soviet Union
-commanded the 6th Army during the Soviet invasion of Poland
- was later in charge of the Soviet Main Intelligence Directorate (1940–41), personally leading Soviet military missions in Great Britain and United States
-during World War II, he commanded the Bryansk Front (1942) and Voronezh Front (1942–43)
- held various offices in the Ministry of Defense after the war PROPAGANDA Vasily Grigoryevich Zaytsev
(23 Mar. 1915 – 15 Dec.1991)

-Soviet sniper during World War II

-Used as a propaganda tool to boost Soviet troop morale

-notable particularly for killing over 225 soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht and other Axis armies, including 11 enemy snipers

-awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union POLITICAL CARTOON Adolf Hitler- smaller soldier being kicked
Josef Stalin-soldier kicking Hitler

-Represents the victory of the Soviets over the Germans in the Battle of Stalingrad

-The scene resembles a play or a stage production, as there is a pit band on the bottom playing music and a stage where the Soviet soldier is standing. The play is WWII

-Hitler, who thought he could take over USSR, is being kicked out of the country. The soldier is kicking Hitler while doing the Cossack dance, a very traditional Russian dance. The battle of Stalingrad marked the retreat and end of the German army

-"The Grand Finale" portrays that it is the end of the Battle of Stalingrad and the beginning of the end of the war

-Using the stage analogy, Stalingrad was the German Army's final act, and it saw them depart the stage as the war finished its course -USSR vs. Germany

-Aug. 23 1942- Feb. 2 1943

-One of the major turning point battles of WWII CITY OF STALINGRAD by Robyn Lin, Theo Taam, Daniel Gao, Debby Chiu A Closer Look... Vassili Zaitsev's Mosin Nagant rifle Germany's Panzer III Tank Soviet propaganda poster: "Dad is dead. Complain to Hitler, he is responsible" Bombing of Stalingrad The Heinkel 111 bombers were used by the Germans to bomb Stalingrad. Each bomber carried approximately 4400 pounds of explosives. Willibald Karl Moritz Robert Rudolf Freiherr von Langermann und Erlencamp (29 March 1890 – 3 October 1942):

-Panzer General in the German army during World War II

-recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves

-successfully crossed the Marne-Rhine Canal and advanced to the Swiss border

-given command of the 4th Panzer Division which he led at opening stages of Operation Barbarossa Otto Dessloch(11 June 1889 – 13 May 1977):
-German World War II Luftwaffe general and recipient of the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves(awarded to recognise extreme battlefield bravery or successful military leadership)
-commanded Luftwaffe units in the Eastern Front during World War II
-commanded an air unit which avenged the liberation by bombing the city destroying civilian targets and killing 200 French civilians on September 1944 Günther Angern(5 March 1893 – 2 February 1943):
-highly decorated Generalleutnant in the Wehrmacht during World War II who commanded several panzer divisions
-won the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross award
-committed suicide on 2 February 1943 before the surrender of German forces at Stalingrad
-served in World War I, World War II, Annexation of the Sudetenland, Operation Weserübung, Battle of France, Invasion of Poland, Battle of Arras (1940), Operation Barbarossa, Battle of Białystok–Minsk, Battle of Smolensk (1941), Battle of Stalingrad Wilhelm Adam (28 March 1893 – 24 November 1978):
-career military officer who served in three German Armies and later became an East German politician
-won the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross award
-served in World War I and World War II
-became a Prisoner of War and was interrogated by Nikolay Dyatlenko after the surrender at Stalingrad
-died on 24 November 1978 in Dresden Led by von Paulus and other Generals
-1,011,500 men
-10, 290 artillery guns
-675 tanks
-1,216 planes Led by Zhukov and other Generals
-1,000,500 men
-13,541 artillery guns
-894 tanks
-1,115 planes Soviet army snipers pick their targets. -Snipers played an important role in the battle -They used the ruins of the city to hide from enemies The Germans cross the River Volga on their way to Stalingrad. August 23, 1942 German 14 Panzer Corps broke through the front 62 Army in the area Vertyachego and traveled 72 kms per day, and reached the Volga north of Stalingrad. Some women joined local militias to defend their homes. Case Blue- June 28, 1942

-In 1942, Hitler decided to take the Caucasus oil fields to cut off the lifeblood of the Red Army and provide the Wehrmacht with oil
-In order to do this, the German army had to cut through the Soviet Steppes
-Army Group South was assigned to sprint forward through the Russian steppes to capture the oil fields HOWEVER, Hitler wanted to capture another target: STALINGRAD

This would prove to be one of Hitler's greatest mistakes as Stalingrad held "no military value" and "his forces would have to be split. In order to capture both he risked gaining neither." HIGH NUMBER OF CASUALITIES -Soviets suffered a total of 1,129,619 total casualities; 478 741 men killed or missing and 650,878 wounded
-Between 500,000 and 850,000 Axis troops died
-25,000 to 40,000 civilians died within a single week of Luftwaffe bombing Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Paulus
(23 September 1890 – 1 February 1957):

-officer in the German military from 1910 to 1945
-attained the rank of General Field Marshall during World War II
-known for having commanded the Sixth Army's assault on Stalingrad during Operation Blue in 1942
-fought in the Invasion of Poland, Fall of France, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Blue, Operation Fridericus, Battle of Stalingrad
-was expected by Hitler to suicide after being promoted to field marshal but decided to surrender at Stalingrad - Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party
-chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from 1934 to 1945
-centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe and the Holocaust.
-joined the German Workers' Party (precursor of the NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921
-aim was to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continental Europe (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953): GROUP A

-Under the command of Wilhelm List

- Advanced south towards the Caucasus as planned with the Seventeenth Army and First Panzer Army Group B

-Move east towards the Volga and the city of Stalingrad with Friedrich Paulus’s Sixth Army and Hermann Hoth’s Fourth Panzer Army

-commanded initially by Field Marshal Fedor von Bock and later General Maximilian von Weichs Army Group South was divided into two groups Battles were fought merely to conquer the next block, house or even room. The street to street fighting was given a name by the Germans: Rattenkreig, meaning “Rat War.” Some of the
Arsenal of the battle Russian Howitzer Artillery German Panzer IV 120mm Russian Mortar German MG 34 General Purpose Machine Gun Russian DP Light Machine Gun Stalin's Organ (Katyusha Rocket
Launcher Russian Tokarev Rifle -Germany would not have enough resources to defend itself when the Allies pushed into its borders later in the war due to loss of men and equipment

-This battle would be Germany's second last offensive of the war

-Soviet morale was boosted since they successfully defended the city named after their leader, Stalin.

-The Battle of Stalingrad was a key turning point of the war and a key deciding factor in the eventual Allied victory RESULT OF THE BATTLE

-The German defeat at Stalingrad was a disaster for the Nazis

-The loss prevented the Germans from gaining control of the valuable resources of the Caucasus and the South SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BATTLE OPERATION URANUS -directed by General Georgi Zhukov

-Soviets fired a 3500 gun barrage at the weaker Romanian Third Army situated northwest of Stalingrad

-They then took this opportunity to make a massive attack Nov. 19-30 1942 Operation Saturn Dec. 1942-Feb. 1943 -Luftwaffe’s ability to supply the troops was greatly reduced. The Soviets had captured the airfield at Tatsinskaya.

-The trapped army began to starve

-Originally, Operation Saturn was supposed to include the capture of Rostov, but the Soviets did not reach the city. The operation was called Operation Little Saturn instead. The Germans were running out of supplies. The Luftwaffe tried heroically to keep it going but it stopped when the last airstrip under German control fell. In the above picture, two Germans froze to death. The Germans race towards Stalingrad. August 1942. Part of the German 6th Army advancing on Stalingrad. Stalingrad burning from a bird's eye view. German bombers above the city of Stalingrad. German Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers in the sky. 5 Sep, the Soviet 24th Army and 66th Army launched a counter-offensive against the German XIV Panzer Corps, but it was driven back at the face of superior firepower, particularly from the air, which destroyed 30 out of the 120 tanks that the Soviet forces lost in the attack. 18 Sep, the Soviet 1st Guards Army and the 24th Army launched an offensive against VIII. Armeekorps at Kotluban near Stalingrad. German Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers played an important role in repulsing the attack, destroying 41 out of the 106 Soviet tanks destroyed in the morning. Bf 109 fighters also shot down 77 Soviet fighters By the end of Sep, Chuikov had realized that he could not sustain a battle of attrition, therefore he decided to dig into the cityscape, thus minimizing the German advantage of the control of air. German Panzer III Tank By 21 Nov, the Soviets had already surrounded Stalingrad along with 290,000 Axis troops inside 23 Dec, the Soviet 24th Tank Corps under Major General Vasily Mikhaylovich Badanov captured the airfield at Tatsinskaya, forcing the German aircraft located there to relocate to Salsk, which was 200 miles from Stalingrad and made the resupply mission even more difficult. Jan 1943, Salsk was abandoned after a closer airfield at Zverevo near Shakhty was established, but Soviet forces repeatedly attacked this new location, disrupting flight schedules and damaging or even destroying aircraft. A Soviet sniper bullet. View of the city burning from above.
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