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Transcript of Identity
Analyze how migration patterns to, and migration within, the United States have influenced the growth of racial and ethnic identities and conflict over ethnic assimilation and distinctiveness.
How have gender, class, ethnic, religious, and other group identities changed in different eras?
Analyze how U.S. involvement in international crises such as the Spanish-American War, World Wars I and II, the Great Depression, and the Cold War influenced public debates about American national identity in the 20th Century.
Definition Provided By College Board:
This theme focuses on the formation of both American national identity and group identities in U.S. history. Students should be able to explain how various identities, cultures, and values have been preserved or changed in different contexts of U.S. history, with special attention given to the formation of gender, class, racial, and ethnic identities. Students should be able to explain how these subidentities have interacted with each other and with larger conceptions of American national identity
In other words...
Identity is the accumulation of various factors including, but not limited to,
. One should be able to identify both
How and why have debates over American national identity changed over time?
Explain how conceptions of group identity and autonomy emerged out of cultural interactions between colonizing groups, Africans, and American Indians in the colonial era.
Analyze the role of economic, political, social, and ethnic factors on the formation of regional identities in what would become the United States from the colonial period through the 19th century.
Analyze how changes in class identity and gender roles have related to economic, social, and cultural transformations since the late 19th century.
Explain how civil rights activism in the 20th century affected the growth of African American and other identity-based political and social movements.
Assess the impact of Manifest Destiny, territorial expansion, the Civil War, and industrialization on popular beliefs about progress and the national identity of the United States in the 19th Century.
Jane Addams, Hull House
Social reformer who worked to improve the lives of the working class. In 1889 she founded Hull House in Chicago, the first private social welfare agency in the U.S., to assist the poor, combat juvenile delinquency and help immigrants learn to speak English.
The popular name of the "People's Party," formed in the 1890's as a coalition of Midwest farm groups, socialists, and labor organizations. It attacked monopolies, and wanted other reforms, such as transportation regulation, the 8-hour work day, and income tax.
Sharecropping, Crop Lien System
Sharecropping provided the necessities for Black farmers. Storekeepers granted credit until the farm was harvested. To protect the creditor, the storekeeper took a mortgage, or lien, on the tenant's share of the crop. The system was abused and uneducated blacks were taken advantage of. The results, for Blacks, was not unlike slavery.
Federalists: favored a strong central government and the abandonment of the Articles of Confederation. Ex; wealthy, educated men; George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Alexander Hamilton
Anti-federalists: favored a weak central government and more states' rights, supported Bill of Rights, and amendment of the Articles of Confederation. Ex: lower classes, farmers, debtors; Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Thomas Jefferson
Ch. 9, 10, 11
Compromises of 1820: In an effort to preserve the balance of power in Congress between slave and free states, the Missouri Compromise was passed in 1820 admitting Missouri as a slave state and Maine as a free state.
Compromise of 1850: the Fugitive Slave Act was amended, the slave trade in Washington, D.C., was abolished, California entered the Union as a free state, a territorial government was created in Utah, a boundary dispute between Texas and New Mexico was settled, establishing a territorial government in New Mexico.
Ch. 12, 18
2) Gilded Age
3) Progressive Era
7) The 1950s
Analyze how competing conceptions of national identity were expressed in the development of political institutions and cultural values from the late colonial through antebellum periods.
The relocation of millions of African Americans during the 20th century from the rural South to the West, Midwest, and Northeast.
Second Great Awakening: Religion was separated from politics, resulting in religious revivals from the 1790s-1830s. By 1800, Evangelical Methodism and Baptists, were becoming fasting-growing religions in the nation.
-best known for its large camp meetings that led extraordinary numbers of people to convert through an enthusiastic style of preaching and audience participation.
Courtesy of apstudent.com
Manifest Destiny: American expansion; belief that the United States was destined to stretch from coast to coast. This attitude helped fuel western settlement, Native American removal and war with Mexico.
Mexican-American War: Mexico against the expansionist-minded U.S. President James K. Polk. U.S. victory. Mexico lost one-third of its territory (California, Utah, Nevada, Arizona and New Mexico).
13th Amendment: abolished slavery
14th Amendment: citizenship rights to African Americans
15th Amendment: voting rights to African Americans
Dust Bowl: severe dust storms that greatly damaged the ecology and agriculture of the US prairies during the 1930s; severe drought and a failure to apply dryland farming methods to prevent wind erosion.
Executive Order 9066: In an atmosphere of World War II hysteria, President Roosevelt authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan.
McCarthyism: Senator Joseph McCarthy rose to national prominence by removing communists from America. He capitalized on national paranoia by proclaiming that communist spies were omnipresent and that he was America's only salvation.
Domino Theory: U.S. foreign policy 1950-1980; held that a communist victory in one nation would quickly lead to a chain reaction of communist takeovers in neighboring states. It sparked national fear and hysteria in America.
Platt Amendment: stated that the United States would not establish permanent control over Cuba
Teller Amendment:1898; asserted that the United States could not annex Cuba but only leave "control of the island to its people." The U.S. would help Cuba gain independence and then withdraw all its troops from the country.
1. Powhatan Wars
2. Penn's Treaty
3. African Slavery
4. Columbian Exchange
The Anglo-Powhatan Wars:
Three wars fought between English settlers of the Virginia Colony, and Indians of the Powhatan Confederacy in the early seventeenth century. (Ch. 2)
The Columbian Exchange:
The widespread transfer of animals, plants, culture, human populations, communicable diseases, technology and ideas between the American and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres in the 15th and 16th centuries. (Ch. 1)
Part of the Triangle Trade in which Africans were transported to the Americas, where they were traded for sugar and tobacco. (C. 4)
The Mayflower Compact:
A simple agreement drawn up by the Pilgrim leaders that formed a crude government, but a promising step towards self-government. (Ch. 3)
1. Missouri Compromise
2. Rise in Immigration
3. The Two Party System
4. Gold in the West
The Missouri Compromise:
a federal law created by Henry Clay that regulated slavery in the country's western territories. (Ch. 12)
A notion that the sovereign people of a given territory should decide whether to allow slavery. (Ch. 18)
The large-scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area. (Ch. 14)
A train route across the United States, finished in 1869. It was the project of two railroad companies: the Union Pacific built from the east, and the Central Pacific built from the west. (Ch. 24)
Chinese Exclusion Acts: The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882, prohibiting all Chinese Immigration. (Ch. 23)
N.I.N.A. "No Irish Need Apply": Signs placed in windows of establishments that had jobs or apartments available for everyone that wasn't Irish.
The Great Migration: the relocation of more than 6 million African Americans from the rural South to the cities of the North, Midwest and West from 1916 to 1970.
"White Flight": the large-scale migration of whites to suburbia in the 1950's after World War II. (Ch. 36)
1) Black Nationalism
2) Gay Pride Parade
3) Rise of Feminism
4) Conservative Counterrevolution
1) American Revolution Ch. 7-8
2) Political Parties
Ch. 9, 10, 11
3) Missouri Compromise Ch. 12, 18
4) Slavery divides the nation Ch. 16, 19, 20, 21
1) Manifest Destiny
2) Land Acquisition after Mexican-American War Ch. 17
3) Civil War and Reconstruction
1) Spanish- American War Ch. 27
2) Great Depression Ch. 33
3) WWI Ch. 30
4) WWII Ch. 35
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
Helping Blacks to find jobs and homes, it was founded in 1966 and was a social service agency providing facts about discrimination.
Courtesy of apstudent.com
Patriots, Fence-Sitters, and Loyalists:
-American Revolution, the Patriots wanted independence, the majority were undecided (but later persuaded by Patriot propaganda), 20% was loyal to the royal British government