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Ethos, Charisma and Image Managment
Transcript of Ethos, Charisma and Image Managment
Persuasion = Ethos + logos + pathos
The credibility or charisma of the speaker
Places emphasis on the character of the speaker
‘We believe good men more fully and readily than others… his character may almost be called the most effective means of persuasion he possesses’ (Aristotle cited in Perloff, 2008)
The 3 C's (Smith, 2002)
'The attitude toward a source of communication held at a given time by a reciever' (Perloff, 2008)
(Aristotle cited in Perloff, 2008)
Expertise - The source knows what he/she is talking about
Status - Audiences deference to the social position or prestige of a message source
Competence - The ability to remain calm under pressure
Honesty - The source is willing to provide full accurate information - Without bias
'The magnetic appeal or personal charm that some message sources enjoy over an audience.' (Smith, 2009)
Familiarity – The extent to which the audience already knows/thinks it knows the message source
Likeability – The extent to which the audience admires what it knows about the source
Similarity – The extent to which the source resembles the audience
Attractiveness – involves the sources physical looks, demeanour, poise and presence
Authority – The right to rule over or direct the actions of another
Power – The raw and recognised ability to dominate, award or punish
Scrutiny – The ability to examine
‘Describes the set of values and principles employees and managers associate with a company’ (Fombrun, 1996)
‘Captures the commonly understood features that characterise how a company approaches the work it does, the products it makes and the customers it serves.’ (Fombrun, 1996)
Is usually the visual elements used by organisations to communicate their identity - Logos
'A stakeholder’s overall evaluation of a company over time. This evaluation is based on the stakeholder’s direct experiences with the company and any other form of communication and symbolism that provides information about the firm’s actions.” (Gotsi & Wilson, 2001)
In other words..
- Its the overall estimation in which a company is held by its publics
- It presents the emotional reaction of customers, investors, employees and the general public to the company’s name.
‘The reflection of an organisation in the eyes and minds of its publics’ (Tench and Yeomans, 2009)
An image is “something projected” by the organisation, and “something perceived or interpreted by others” (Cheney & Vibbert, 1987).
Image management is
a two-way communicative process
Organisations and stakeholders communicate with one another to co-create the image of the organisation.
“Although the company image portrayed must reflect reality, it is entirely possible as well as desirable to select and promote those characteristics that harmonize with the strategic plans of the company. " (Garbett, 1988)
1. To differentiate themselves
2. To be perceived as legitimate by their publics.
Organisations must engage in image management to maintain the stakeholder perception that the organisation is legitimate. Legitimacy can be defined as “the degree of cultural support for an organisation” (Meyer & Scott, 1983)
Why Image Management?
The effectiveness of a message depends on Credibility, Charisma and Image Management
- Being credible is more effective than having good physical evidence (Smith, 2009).
- Sources perceived as being highly credible are believed on their own merits, therefore whatever evidence they present is of little added value.
Different sources are important in different persuasion areas’. (Bettinghaus and Cody, 1994)
‘Contingency approach’ suggests that specific characteristics of a source may be effective in specific situations. E.g. in a crisis
For a message to be effective, the speaker must
strive to identify with the audience.vd
- All three characteristics are important when communicating a message effectively
- Credibility and charisma can be used as tools within image management to increase
Which factor do you believe to be most important in effectively communicating a message?
-A company’s name symbolises its reputation
-The reputation we associate with a name communicates a company's core traits to customers and patrons
- Good Will
- Good Sense
- Good Moral Character
-Balmer, J. and Greyser, S., 2003. Revealing the Corporation. UK: Routledge
-Bettinghaus, E. P. and Cody, M. J., 1994. Persuasive Communication. 5th ed. New York:Rinehart and Winston.
-Cheney, G., and Christensen, L. T., 2001. The New Handbook of Organizational Communication. California: Sage.
-Cheney, G., and Vibbert, S. L., 1987. Handbook of Organizational Communication: An Interdisciplinary Perspective. California: Sage.
-Fombrun, C.J., 1996. Reputation, Realizing Value from the Corporate Image.
-Garbett, T., 1988) How to Build a Corporation’s Identity and Project its Image. Massachusetts: Lexington Books.
-Gotsi, M., and Wilson, A. M., 2001. Corporate reputation: Seeking a definition. Corporate Communications, 6(1), pp. 24-30.
-Perloff, R. M., 2008, The Dynamics of Persuasion, Communication and Attitudes in the 21st Century. 3rd ed. New York: Taylor and Francis.
-Meyer, J. W., and Scott, W. R., 1983. Organizational Environments: Ritual and Rationality. Beverly Hills: Sage.
-Smith, R.D., 2002. Strategic Planning for Public Relations. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
-Tench, R. and Yeomans, L., 2009. Exploring Public Relations. 2nd ed. England: Pearson Education
This strategic communication involves fostering some images whilst discouraging others.
- Credibility and charisma are important
- Person with most status within the company isn't always the best person to use - Sometimes the person with the most knowledge and expertise on the issue is more effective
- Credibility and charisma are both important here
- Should look for a connection with
their key publics
- Should be familiar, likeable, similar or attractive
and Image Management
When communicating with their audience, organisations often use spokespeople. There are two different types..
- Always necessary if you want your message to be effective.
- People need to know who you are, what you do and what you believe in. (Bernstein, 2003)
- If you put out a message and people don't know who you are, then its less likely its going to have an effect.
'Routed in message sources command over the audience.' (Smith, 2009)
- Organisational images are created and sustained by both organisations and stakeholders
- Whilst the organisation is attempting to project a particular image of itself, stakeholders are forming perceptions of the organisation.
Image and Reputation = Interdependent
Images build up over time and help in forming the organisation’s reputation.
-The corporate images that stakeholders form can be influenced by their corporate reputation
- a firm’s corporate reputation is largely influenced by the corporate images that stakeholders form every day for the organization.
Client: Child Welfare Scheme
Campaign: raise awareness of their work helping disadvantaged and marginalised children and their communities in Nepal.
Spokesperson: Joanna Lumley
Relevance: Father was an officer in the Gurkha regiment. Fronted their campaign to gain UK settlement rights.