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hip-hop & ballet

my project of hip-hop compared to ballet
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on 2 February 2012

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Transcript of hip-hop & ballet

Hip-Hop
History it origanly began in jamica,
it was founded by Dj Clive dance history Dj' s would tap into power lines and use there equipment to rap to songs on 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Bronx, New York, a historic building "where hip hop was born". In the late 1970s an underground urban movement known as "hip hop" began to develop in the South Bronx area of New York City. Encompassing graffiti art, bboying, rap music, and fashion, hip hop became the dominant cultural movement of the minority populated urban communities in the 1980s. Graffiti, rapping, and b-boying were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs During the 1980s, hip hop also embraced the creation of rhythm by using the human body, via the vocal percussion technique of beatboxing. Pioneers such as Doug E. Fresh, Biz Markie and Buffy from the Fat Boys made beats, rhythm, and musical sounds using their mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and other body parts. "Human Beatbox" artists would also sing or imitate turntablism scratching or other instrument sounds.

Breaking was created in the South Bronx, New York during the early 1970s. It is the first hip-hop dance style. At the time of its creation, it was the only hip-hop dance style because Afrika Bambaataa classified it as one of the five pillars of hip-hop culture along with MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti writing, and knowledge. Though African Americans created breaking, Puerto Ricans maintained its growth and development when it was considered a fad in the late 1970s. In a 2001 interview Richard "Crazy Legs" Colón, the president of Rock Steady Crew, commented on how Puerto Ricans contributed to breaking: "I think the difference is when the brothas first started doing [it] and it was at its infancy they weren't doing acrobatic moves. That didn't come into play until more Puerto Ricans got involved in the mid 70s. Hip-hop dance refers to dance styles primarily performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles notably breaking, locking, and popping which were created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States. The television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin', Beat Street, and Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages; therefore, giving hip-hop mainstream exposure. The dance industry responded with a studio based version of hip-hop—sometimes called new style—and jazz-funk. Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were being performed on the street. Because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in both dance studios and outdoor spaces. The commercialization of hip-hop dance continued into the 1990s and 2000s with the production of several other television shows and movies such as The Grind, Dance 360, Planet B-Boy, Rize, StreetDance 3D, America's Best Dance Crew, the Step Up film franchise, and The LXD, a web series. Though the dance is established in entertainment, it still maintains a strong presence in urban neighborhoods which has led to the creation of street dance derivatives turfing, krumping, and jerkin'.

Hip-hop dance has a particularly strong influence in France, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. France is the home of Juste Debout, an international hip-hop dance competition, and Battle of the Year, the largest team-based breaking competition in the world. South Korea is home to the international breaking competition R16 which is sponsored by the government and broadcast every year live on Korean television. Like France, the UK also hosts two international competitions: The UK B-Boy Championships and the World Street Dance Championships.

What distinguishes hip-hop dance from other forms of dance is that it is often freestyle (improvisational) in nature and hip-hop dance crews often engage in freestyle dance competitions, colloquially referred to as battles. Crews, freestyling, and battles are identifiers of this style. Hip-hop dance can be a form of entertainment or a hobby. It can also be a lifestyle: a way to be active in physical fitness or competitive dance and a way to make a living by dancing professionally.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Main styles
2.1 Breaking
2.2 Locking
2.3 Popping
3 International competitions
4 Impact
4.1 Dance crews
4.2 Derivative styles
4.3 Dance industry
4.3.1 Lyrical hip-hop
4.4 Entertainment
4.5 Fitness
4.6 Education
5 Footnotes
6 References
7 Bibliography
8 External links


[edit] HistoryMain article: History of hip-hop dance
Hip-hop dance is a broad category that includes a variety of urban styles. The older dance styles that were created in the 1970s include uprock, breaking, and the funk styles.[1] Breaking was created in The Bronx, New York, incorporating dances that were popular in the 1960s and early 1970s in African-American and Latino communities. In its earliest form, it began as elaborations on James Brown's "Good Foot" dance[1][2] which came out in 1972. Breaking at this period was not primarily floor oriented as seen today; it started out as toprock which dancers perform while standing up. An influence on toprock was uprock[3] which was created in Brooklyn, New York.[4][5] It looks similar to toprock, but it is more aggressive and looks like a fight. Uprock is done with partners, but in toprock, and in breaking in general, each person takes turns dancing.[6] In 1973 DJ Kool Herc invented the break beat.[7][8] A break beat is a rhythmic, musical interlude of a song that has been looped over and over again to extend that instrumental solo. Kool Herc did this to provide a means for dancers who attended his parties to demonstrate their skills.[8] B-boy and b-girl stands for "break-boy" and "break-girl"; b-boys and b-girls dance to the break of a record.[8] Further influenced by martial arts[9] and gymnastics, breaking went from being a purely upright dance style—toprock only—to becoming more floor oriented. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated almost entirely by Latino Americans.[10] Historian Joseph Glenn Schloss described it as such:

“ In other words, there were three basic stages to the development of the dance: the early rock dance of the '60s, which was Latino and citywide; Brooklyn rocking or uprocking which was Latino and Brooklyn-based; and b-boying, which is Black and Latino and Bronx-based. Within this basic framework, it is not difficult to see how three constituencies-Brooklyn Latinos, Bronx Latinos, and African Americans-could have three totally different perspectives on the history.[11] ”

At the same time breaking was developing in New York, other styles were being created in California. The funk styles refers to several street dance styles created in California in the 1970s that were danced to funk music.[12] These styles include roboting, bopping, hitting, locking, bustin', popping, electric boogaloo, strutting, sac-ing, dime-stopping, etc.[13] The most popular and widely practiced of the funk styles are locking and popping which were created by African-Americans Don Campbell and Sam Solomon respectively. Locking is older than popping and it was created in the late 1960s whereas popping was created in the 1970s.[14] The television show, Soul Train, helped to spread locking and popping's popularity. Both The Lockers and the Electric Boogaloos—dance crews responsible for the spread of these urban styles—performed on this show.[12]

It would be historically inaccurate to say that the funk styles have always been considered hip-hop. The funk styles were adopted into hip-hop in large part due to the media. Once hip-hop activist and DJ, Afrika Bambaataa, used the word "hip-hop" in a magazine interview in 1982, "hip-hop dance" became an umbrella term encompassing all of these styles.[15] Due to the amount of attention locking and popping were receiving, the media brought these styles under the "breakdance" label causing confusion about their origin.[16][17] They were created on the west coast independent from breaking and came out of the funk cultural movement rather than from the hip-hop cultural movement.

As breaking, locking, and popping were emerging in the 1970s, hip-hop social dancing was growing as well. Novelty and fad dances such as the Roger Rabbit, the Cabbage Patch, and the Worm appeared in the 1980s followed by the Running Man and the Humpty dance in the 1990s.[18] More recent social dances include the Cha Cha Slide, the Soulja Boy, and the Dougie. The previously mentioned dances are a sample of the many that have appeared since hip-hop developed into a distinct dance style. Like hip-hop music, hip-hop social dancing has continued to change as new songs are released and new dances are created to accompany them.

[edit] Main styles
A b-boy in an airchair freeze at Street Summit 2006 in Moscow, Russia.[edit] BreakingMain article: B-boying
Breaking was created in the South Bronx, New York during the early 1970s.[2] It is the first hip-hop dance style. At the time of its creation, it was the only hip-hop dance style because Afrika Bambaataa classified it as one of the five pillars of hip-hop culture along with MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti writing, and knowledge.[19][20][21][22] Though African Americans created breaking,[23][24] Puerto Ricans maintained its growth and development when it was considered a fad in the late 1970s.[25] In a 2001 interview Richard "Crazy Legs" Colón, the president of Rock Steady Crew, commented on how Puerto Ricans contributed to breaking: "I think the difference is when the brothas first started doing [it] and it was at its infancy they weren't doing acrobatic moves. That didn't come into play until more Puerto Ricans got involved in the mid 70s. We then took the dance, evolved it and kept it alive. In '79 I was getting dissed. I would go into a dance and I would get dissed by a lot of brothas who would ask 'Why y'all still doing that dance? That's played out'. By 79, there were very few African American brothas that was doing this... We always maintained the flava. It was like a changing of the guard and all we did was add more flava to something that already existed."[24][26][27] Breaking includes four foundational dances: toprock, footwork oriented steps performed while standing up; downrock, footwork performed with both hands and feet on the floor; freezes, stylish poses done on your hands; and power moves, complex and impressive acrobatic moves.[note 1] Transitions from toprock to downrock are called "drops."[28]

Traditionally, breakers dance within a cipher or an Apache Line. A cipher is a circular shaped dance space formed by spectators that breakers use to perform in.[13] Ciphers work well for one-on-one b-boy (break-boy) battles; however, Apache Lines are more appropriate when the battle is between two crews—teams of street dancers. In contrast to the circular shape of a cipher, competing crews can face each other in this line formation, challenge each other, and execute their burns[29][30] (a move intended to humiliate the opponent, i.e. crotch grabbing). In 1981, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City hosted a breaking battle between the Dynamic Rockers and the Rock Steady Crew.[31] The Daily News and National Geographic covered this event.[32]

[edit] LockingMain article: Locking
Locking, originally called Campbellocking, was created in Los Angeles, California by Don "Campbellock" Campbell and popularized in the United States by his crew The Lockers.[14] In addition to Campbell, the original members of The Lockers were Fred "Mr. Penguin" Berry, Leo "Fluky Luke" Williamson, Adolpho "Shabba Doo" Quinones, Bill "Slim the Robot" Williams, Greg "Campbellock Jr" Pope, and Toni Basil, who also served as the group's manager.[33][34] At the 2009 World Hip Hop Dance Championships, Basil became the first female recipient of the Living Legend Award in honor of her role in giving locking commercial exposure.[35]

Locking looks similar to popping, and the two are frequently confused by the casual observer. In locking, dancers hold their positions longer. The lock is the primary move used in locking. It is "similar to a freeze or a sudden pause."[36] A locker's dancing is characterized by frequently locking in place and after a brief freeze moving again.[14] It is incorrect to call locking "pop-locking".[14][37] Locking and popping are two distinct funk styles with their own histories, their own set of dance moves, and their own competition categories. Locking is more playful and character-driven, whereas popping is more illusory. In popping, dancers push the boundaries of what they can do with their bodies.[14] Locking has specific dance moves that distinguish it from popping and other funk styles. These moves include "the lock, points, skeeter [rabbits], scooby doos, stop 'n go, which-away, and the fancies."[36] A dancer cannot perform both locking and popping simultaneously.[14]

[edit] PoppingMain article: Popping
Popping was created by Sam Solomon in Fresno, California and performed by his crew the Electric Boogaloos.[14] It is based on the technique of quickly contracting and relaxing muscles to cause a jerk in a dancer's body, referred to as a pop or a hit. Each hit should be synchronized to the rhythm and beats of the music. Popping is also used as an umbrella term to refer to a wide range of other closely related illusionary dance styles[38] such as strobing, liquid,[12] animation, and waving.[38] Dancers often integrate these styles with standard popping to create a more varied performance.[note 2] In all of these subgenres, it appears to the spectator that the body is popping, hence the name. The difference between each subgenre is how exaggerated the popping is. In liquid, the body movements look like water. The popping is so smooth that the movements do not look like popping at all; they look fluid.[12] The opposite of this is strobing (also called ticking) in which the movements are staccato and jerky.[40]

Popping as an umbrella term also includes gliding, floating, and sliding[12][38][note 3] which are lower body dances done with the legs and feet. In gliding, a dancer appears as if they are drifting across the floor on ice. Opposite from gliding is tutting which is an upper body dance that uses the arms, hands, and wrists to form right angles and create geometric box-like shapes. Tutting can be done primarily with the fingers rather than the arms. This method is called finger tutting. In both variations, the movements are intricate, linear, and form 90° or 45° angles. In practice, tutting looks like the characters on the art of ancient Egypt, hence the name—a reference to King Tut.

While popping as an umbrella term is widely used by hip-hop dancers and in competitive hip-hop dancing, Timothy "Popin' Pete" Solomon of the Electric Boogaloos disagrees with the use of the word "popping" in this way. Many of these related styles (animation, liquid, tutting, etc.) can not be traced to one person or group. Solomon states "There are people who wave and there are people who tut. They’re not popping. I say this to give the people who created other styles their just dues and their props."[14]

[edit] International competitionsBattle of the Year (BOTY) was founded in 1990 in Germany.[41] It is a breaking competition for crews. There are several BOTY regional competitions that lead up to the final international championship in Montpellier, France.[41] BOTY was featured in the independent documentary Planet B-Boy that filmed five b-boy crews training for the 2005 championship.
B-Boy Summit is an international four day conference founded in 1994 by b-girl Nancy "Asia One" Yu in San Diego, California.[42][43] The B-Boy Summit places a lot of emphasis on the history of hip-hop culture and b-boys/b-girls understanding the roots of where it came from.[42] For this reason, the conference includes a breaking competition, a talent showcase for rappers and DJs, and live paintings by graffiti artists so that "each element of Hip-Hop combine[s] together to make the cipher complete."[42] There's also competitions for lockers and poppers as part of the "Soul Fest" portion of the conference.[44]
UK B-Boy Championships was founded in 1996 in London.[45] There are four world championship titles: breaking crew champions, solo b-boy champion, solo popping champion, and locking two-on-two champions.[46] Contrary to what the name may imply, this competition is not exclusive to the British. It is called the UK B-Boy Championships because the international final is always held in the United Kingdom. The world finals also include the "Fresh Awards" (best dressed) which are hosted and judged every year by Richard "Crazy Legs" Colón—the president of Rock Steady Crew.[47]
Freestyle Session was founded in 1997[48] by graffiti writer and DJ Chris "Cros1" Wright[49] in California. It is the largest breaking competition based in the United States.[50] The main competitive event is for b-boy crews, but there are also popping and locking competitions for solo competitors.[49]
The Notorious IBE is a Dutch-based breaking competition founded in 1998.[51] IBE (International Breakdance Event) is not a traditional competition because there are not any stages or judges. Instead, there are timed competitive events that take place in large multitiered ciphers—circular dance spaces surrounded by observers—where the winners are determined by audience approval.[51] There are several kinds of events such as the b-girl crew battle, the Seven 2 Smoke battle (eight top ranked b-boys battle each other to determine the overall winner), the All vs. All continental battle (all the American b-boys vs. all the European b-boys vs. the Asian b-boys vs. Mexican/Brazilian b-boys), and the Circle Prinz IBE.[51] The Circle Prinz IBE is a b-boy knockout tournament that takes place in multiple smaller cipher battles until the last standing b-boy is declared the winner.[51]
Hip Hop International: World Hip Hop Dance Championships is a hip-hop dance competition founded in 2000 in the United States where both crews and soloist compete.[52] For hip-hop crews, there are three divisions: junior (ages 7–12), varsity (12–18), and adult.[53] Each crew must have five to eight people and must perform a routine that showcases three styles of hip-hop dance.[53] For the 2009 competition, there were 120 crews representing 30 countries.[53] HHI also runs the USA Hip Hop Dance Championships.
Juste Debout is a street dance competition founded in 2002 by Bruce Ykanji[12] in Paris.[54] Competition categories include popping, hip-hop (new style), locking, house, toprock, and experimental. Breaking is not included to put more focus on the hip-hop dance styles performed while standing up, hence the name (French for "Just Upright"). There are not any team trophies at Juste Debout. The experimental and toprock categories are only for solo dancers; popping, new style, locking, and house are for duos.[54] Juste Debout also publishes a free bimonthly hip-hop dance magazine of the same name.[55]
United Dance Organization: World Street Dance Championships is a hip-hop dance competition founded in 2002 in the United Kingdom.[56] People can compete as solo dancers, in duos, in quads (four people), or in teams.[57] UDO also hosts the European Street Dance Championships and the USA Street Dance Championships.
Red Bull BC One was created in 2004 by Red Bull and is hosted in a different country every year.[58] The competition brings together the top 16 b-boys from around the world.[58] Past participants include Ronnie Abaldonado from Super Cr3w and Mauro "Cico" (pronounced CHEE-co) Peruzzi.[note 4]
R16 Korea is a South Korean breaking competition founded in 2007 by Asian Americans Charlie Shin and John Jay Chon.[61] Like BOTY and Red Bull BC One put together, Respect16 is a competition for the top 16 ranked b-boy crews in the world.[62] What sets it apart from other competitions is that it is sponsored by the government and broadcast live on Korean television and in several countries in Europe.[61] It is not out of character for the South Korean government to support breaking in this way. The country consistently produces such skillful b-boys that the government designated the Gamblerz and Rivers b-boy crews as official ambassadors of Korean culture.[61]
World of Dance Tour (WOD) is a traveling hip-hop dance competition founded in 2008 by Myron Marten and David Gonzales in Pomona, California.[63] It differs from other competitions because there is no final championship. WOD travels to different cities around the world and holds a competition in each location; therefore, WOD distinguishes itself as a tour. Each event is a stand-alone competition; they are all related to each other in name only. For 2012 WOD established a regional hub in the United Kingdom; the tour will travel to Cardiff, Manchester, and Birmingham.[64]
[edit] Impact[edit] Dance crewsA dance crew is a group of street dancers who come together to develop new moves and create dance routines. As hip-hop culture spread through New York City, the more breaking crews got together to battle against each other. It was during this time that the different dance moves within breaking would develop organically.[65][note 5] All styles of hip-hop are rooted in battling,[66] and being a part of a crew was the only way to learn when these styles began because they were not taught in studios. They all started out as social dances.[67]:74 Forming and participating in a crew is how street dancers practiced, improved, made friends, and built relationships.[68] In breaking in particular, battling is how dancers improved their skill.[4] In the 1970s b-boy crews were neighborhood-based and would engage in battles held at local block parties called "jams".[69] Today crews can battle in organized competitions with other crews from around the world.

Crews still form based on friendships and neighborhoods. For example, dance crew Diversity—formed in 2007[70]—is made up of brothers and friends from Essex and London.[71] Crews also form for other reasons such as theme (Jabbawockeez), gender (ReQuest Dance Crew), ethnicity (Kaba Modern), and dance style (Massive Monkeys). Since crews are not exclusive, street dancers can be involved in more than one crew.[note 6] In addition, dance crews are not formed only within the hip-hop realm anymore. The FootworKINGz is a dance crew that performs footwork, a style of house dance, and Fanny Pak performs contemporary. Dance crews are more prevalent in hip-hop, but hip-hop dance companies do exist. Examples include Zoo Nation (UK),[note 7] Culture Shock (USA), Lux Aeterna (USA),[note 8] Boy Blue Entertainment (UK), Bounce Streetdance Company (Sweden), Funkbrella Dance Company (USA), and Blaze Streetdance Company (Netherlands).

[edit] Derivative stylesMain articles: Turfing, Jerkin', and Krumping
See also: Memphis Jookin'
Decades after breaking, locking, and popping became established, three new dance styles appeared. Turfing, an acronym for Taking Up Room on the Floor, was created in 2002 by street dancer Jeriel Bey in Oakland, California.[39] Turfing is a fusion of miming and gliding that places heavy emphasis on storytelling (through movement) and illusion. Other than San Francisco bay area pride, turfing avoided becoming a fad due to local turf dance competitions and local youth programs that promote turfing as a form of physical activity.[75]

On the heels of its exposure, another dance style came out of Los Angeles called jerkin'. Jerkin' was popularized in 2009 by the New Boyz rap song "You're a Jerk"[76][77] which went viral via their YouTube and MySpace pages[76]:3 before they had a manager or were signed to a record label. After hearing about the song, Los Angeles radio station Power 106 hired the New Boyz to perform at local high schools.[76]:2 These shows led to the song entering the radio's playlist.[76]:2 Later that year, rap duo Audio Push released the song and video "Teach Me How to Jerk" which showcased the different dance moves within jerkin' including the reject—the Running Man done in reverse.[77][78] Dancers who perform jerking typically wear bright colors, skinny jeans, Mohawks, and Vans sneakers.[76]:1,5[79] This trend echos locking dancers in the 1970s who traditionally wore suspenders and black and white striped socks.[14] Of the dance, journalist Jeff Weiss from LA Weekly stated "For a youth culture weaned on the cult of individualism, jerkin’ is its apotheosis."[76] Similar to breaking, locking, and popping, jerkin's popularity spread through dance crews. For example, the Rej3ctz (crew) created the reject dance move.[76]:2, 4

Although these styles have generated regional support and media attention, both turfing and jerkin' have not reached the same zenith as krumping. Ceasare "Tight Eyez" Willis and Jo'Artis "Big Mijo" Ratti created krumping[80] in the early 2000s in South Central, Los Angeles.[81] It was only practiced in the Los Angeles metro area until it gained mainstream exposure by being featured in several music videos[82] and showcased in the krumping documentary Rize. Rize was screened at several film festivals before being commercially released[note 9] in the summer of 2005.[83] Clowning,[note 10] the less aggressive predecessor to krumping, was created in 1992 by Thomas "Tommy the Clown" Johnson.[82] Johnson and his dancers would paint their faces and perform clowning for children at birthday parties or for the general public at other functions as a form of entertainment.[82] In contrast, krumping focuses on highly energetic battles and movements which Johnson describes as intense, fast-paced, and sharp.[82] "If movement were words, [krumping] would be a poetry slam."[81] Compared to breaking and the funk styles, turfing, jerkin', and krumping are relatively new. The cultural similarities between these street dance styles, the funk styles, and breaking have brought them together under the same subculture of hip-hop.

[edit] Dance industry"Street dancing was never ever ever to a count. You do not count a 1,a 2,a 3,a 4, a 5, a 6 to hip hop. It should be a feeling by making noise like "ou" "ah" "aw" "tsi", that's how we count, right there."

Timothy "Popin' Pete" Solomon;
The Electric Booglaoos[15]The dance industry responded to hip-hop dance by creating a commercial version of it. This commercial dance or studio hip-hop, often called new style, is the kind of hip-hop dance seen in rap, R&B, and pop music videos and concerts. From the point of view of someone deeply immersed in hip-hop culture, anything that looks like hip-hop dance that did not come from the streets is not a true hip-hop dance form. In an interview with Dance magazine, choreographer and hip-hop dance teacher Emilio "Buddha Stretch" Austin, Jr explained how he felt about commercial hip-hop:

“ There are a lot of jazz dancers out there doing pseudo hip hop. A lot of teachers don't know the history, they're just teaching the steps. They're learning from videos, but they don't know the culture. If all you see is Britney Spears, you think that's hip hop, but that's never been hip hop. It's completely watered down. And studios could [sic] care less, because hip hop is one of their biggest moneymakers.[67] ”

Stage performance can suppress improvisation which defined hip-hop dance early in its development.[1][67][84] Furthermore, meshing different dance styles together dissolves their structures and identities.[1] In an interview with The Bronx Journal, choreographer and artistic director Safi Thomas expressed a similar qualm as Austin concerning hip-hop instruction within the studio:

“ In a lot of studios what you find is people just doing movement to hip-hop music. So if there's hip-hop music in the background, and they're moving, they're calling it a hip-hop class. The problem with that is let's say that I wanted to teach a ballet class, and I just come in, and I throw on Mozart, and I just start moving; and I'm not doing any of the foundational elements. I am not doing any of the movement vocabulary of ballet. I can not call that a ballet class and that's what happens in relation to hip-hop... within the studio realm there is no standard for the art form, and [the teachers] don't know what the foundational elements of the art are. They know nothing about popping, nothing about locking, nothing about boogaloo, breaking, or the hip-hop dance—the social dances—or any of that. They know none of the history which spans over 30–35 years, and so they cut off any type of edification a dancer can have.[85] ”

From a technical aspect, hip-hop dance (new style) is characterized as hard-hitting involving flexibility and isolations—moving a specific body part independently from others.[86][87]:82 The feet are grounded,[67]:76 the chest is down,[87]:82 and the body is kept loose[88] so that dancers can easily alternate between hitting the beat or moving through the beat. This is in contrast to ballet and ballroom dancing where the chest is upright and the body is stiff. In addition, new style hip-hop is very rhythmic, and emphasis is placed on musicality[88]—how sensitive your movements are to the music—and being able to freestyle (improvise).[86][87]:85 As long as dancers keep the foundational movements, they can add their own (free)style and have a performance that is still hip-hop.[89]

Another style the dance industry created was jazz-funk. Jazz-funk (also called street-jazz) is a hybrid of hip-hop and jazz dance.[12] R&B singer Beyoncé uses this style.[12] Although it borrows from hip-hop dance, it is not considered a style of hip-hop because the foundational movements are jazz. In hip-hop—even in lyrical hip-hop—there are no pirouettes, or arabesques, and dancers do not perform on relevé (on the balls of the feet). However, these methods are used in jazz-funk and in jazz dance in general.[12] Dance studios responded to these developments by hiring classically trained dancers and offering hip-hop (new style) and jazz-funk dance classes. Large scale studios around the world that teach hip-hop and jazz-funk dance classes include Pineapple Studios (London), Millennium (Los Angeles), Broadway Dance Center (New York), Edge Performing Arts Center (Los Angeles), The Vibe – The International Hip Hop Dance Center (Oslo), Boogiezone (Los Angeles),[note 11] Debbie Reynolds (Los Angeles), Sunshine Studios (Manchester), DREAM Dance Studio (Vancouver), Ones to Watch (Japan & Hong Kong), and KJD Dance Studio (Sydney).

Other developments in the dance industry occurred in response to the growing popularity of hip-hop. On the traveling convention circuit, there were tap, ballet, and jazz dance conventions, but there were none specifically for hip-hop. The same void existed in dancewear. There was dancewear for tap, ballet, and jazz dancers but none for hip-hop dancers. Monsters of Hip Hop and Nappytabs dancewear were formed to answer to both needs. Monsters of Hip Hop is the first dance convention dedicated exclusively to hip-hop instruction. It was founded in 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland by Andy Funk, Becky Funk, and Angie Servant.[90] Choreographers Brian Friedman, Fatima Robinson, and Travis Payne have taught at this convention in the past.[91][92] The 2008 tour was sponsored by DanceJam.com, an urban dance social networking website cofounded by MC Hammer.[93] Nappytabs is the first line of hip-hop dancewear.[94] Because the clothing is made for hip-hop dancers, they do not sell leotards, unitards, tights, or leg warmers. Their line consists of tank tops, shorts, t-shirts, sweat pants, and hoodies. Like Nappytabs, Threader responded to the demand for appropriate dancewear for hip-hop. Threader is an online distribution outlet for dance-inspired streetwear created by hip-hop choreographers and crews.[95][96] It was founded in 2009 by Traci Copeland, Marc David, and choreographer Luam Keflezgy. Threader has distributed clothing for brands/dancers such as Poreotics, Wildchild,[note 12] Beat Freaks, Dance2XS, and Laurie Ann Gibson.[95][97]

[edit] Lyrical hip-hopLyrical hip-hop is a fluid and more interpretive version of new style hip-hop often danced to downtempo rap music or R&B music. British hip-hop choreographer Kate Prince describes it as "hip-hop with emotion."[98] It focuses more on choreography and performance and less on freestyling and battles. Lyrical hip-hop first gained mainstream exposure, and its name, on season four of the reality dance competition So You Think You Can Dance.[99] The actual term is credited to Adam Shankman, a choreographer and judge on the program, who made a comment in reference to a routine choreographed by Tabitha and Napoleon D'umo to Leona Lewis' song "Bleeding Love".[99] Due to Shankman's comment and their subsequent work on seasons four through seven, Tabitha and Napoleon are credited with developing this style.[100][101][102][103][104] According to Dance Spirit magazine, what differentiates lyrical hip-hop from standard new style hip-hop is that dancers interpret the beat differently:

"The great thing about this show is that we've really explored a totally new thing which is lyrical hip-hop and [Tabitha and Napoleon] nail it. This show has shown that hip-hop is just a completely legitimate beautiful genre in and of its own and you can tell such beautiful and heart breaking stories."

Adam Shankman[105]“ What makes lyrical hip hop unique is that your dance movements have to tell a story to the lyrics of a song. Expect isolations (especially of the chest), slow, fluid movements (like gliding and body waves) and contemporary-inspired turns (but not pirouettes). There’s popping, but not the hard-hitting kind. Dancers are meant to look like they’re unwinding, unraveling and floating.[99] ”

Some hip-hop purists feel the interpretive and softer approach means lyrical hip-hop is not hip-hop at all.[99] Others, such as hip-hop choreographer Shane Sparks, believe that it is hip-hop but not different enough for it to be in its own subgenre.[99] Out of all the subgenres of hip-hop dance, lyrical hip-hop is the newest.

[edit] EntertainmentSee also: Hip-hop theater
The entertainment industry has been largely responsible for introducing hip-hop dance to mainstream audiences. The first hip-hop films Wild Style, Beat Street, and Breakin' were made in the 1980s. Wild Style was the first movie centered around hip-hop culture; however, Flashdance was the first commercially released film to feature breaking.[note 13] Breakin' and Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo brought the funk styles to the cinema. Breaking, locking, popping, and waacking—a style of house dance—were performed in these films.[106] Several hip-hop dance films were produced after the millennium. The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy, B-Girl, and Planet B-Boy all showcased breaking. Films such as Honey, You Got Served, How She Move, Step Up, Step Up 2: The Streets, Step Up 3D, StreetDance 3D, and Saigon Electric showcased all forms of hip-hop dance, especially new style hip-hop. Rize, The Heart of Krump, and Shake City 101 are documentaries about krumping. These movies and documentaries are all examples of films where the plot and theme surround hip-hop dance and how it affects the characters' lives.

Before reaching movie audiences, hip-hop dance was already being broadcast on television. Soul Train, which premiered in 1970,[107] was the earliest television show that showcased the funk styles on a consistent basis. Soul Train was a syndicated, music show that featured social dancing and performances by African American soul, funk, and R&B singers. During its 36 year run,[34] the dancers were the highlight of the show.[107] As a group, they were referred to as the Soul Train Gang. Auditions were held in 1971 when the show was moved from Chicago, Illinois to Los Angeles, California. Dancers who wanted to get on Soul Train after this time had to rely on word-of-mouth recommendations from dancers who were already employed by the show.[108] A regular feature of the show was the Soul Train Line.[109] During this segment, the dancers formed two lines facing each other which a large space in between them. Each dancer in line would take their turn dancing down the middle. A similar show to Soul Train was Solid Gold, which premiered in 1980.[110] Solid Gold centered around dancing and music hits, and it employed a permanent dance troupe called the Solid Gold Dancers who performed choreographed routines to musical performances. Lucinda Dickey, an actress and dancer who played the lead role in the Breakin' films, appeared on the show during the 1982–1983 season as a Solid Gold dancer.[110]


The JabbaWockeez, winners of the first season of America's Best Dance Crew.Several other hip-hop dance shows premiered in the 1990s and 2000s including Dance Fever, Dance 360, The Grind, The Wade Robson Project, Dance on Sunset, and Shake It Up. America's Best Dance Crew (ABDC) is a reality hip-hop dance competition created in 2008 by the founders of Hip Hop International, Howard and Karen Schwartz.[53] On the show different crews compete in dance challenges against each other every week. ABDC has contributed to the exposure of Jabbawockeez, Quest, Kaba Modern, Beat Freaks, We Are Heroes, Fanny Pak, Poreotics, and I.aM.mE. These crews now have official websites, work with musical artists, and perform at live events. The JabbaWockeeZ have a show in Las Vegas, Nevada called MÜS.I.C. at the Monte Carlo Resort and Casino.[111] MÜS.I.C. is the first hip-hop dance stage show on the Las Vegas Strip.[111] Both Poreotics and Hokuto "Hok" Konishi from Quest were nominated for a 2011 MTV Video Music Award for Best Choreography.[112] Poreotics was nominated with singer Bruno Mars for his video "The Lazy Song". Hok was nominated for LMFAO's video "Party Rock Anthem"; the rest of Quest crew appeared in the video as featured dancers.[112]

In contrast to ABDC, individual dancers from all backgrounds compete in the reality dance competition So You Think You Can Dance (SYTYCD). It has a similar premise to the Idol series of singing competitions with initial auditions leading to the selection of a winner over the course of several episodes. In 2008, poppers Robert "Mr. Fantastic" Muraine and Phillip "Pacman" Chbeeb auditioned during season four. Neither made it to the final "Top 20", but the judges were so impressed with their dancing that both were invited back to participate in a popping battle against each other on the show's live finale. According to Muraine, this was the first popping battle that was nationally televised.[113] After the battle, hip-hop dancer Joshua Allen was declared the winner of season four of the competition.[114] The same year Mona-Jeanette Berntsen, a hip-hop dancer from Norway, won the first season of So You Think You Can Dance Scandinavia.[115]

Hip-hop dance has also been popular worldwide among viewers of the Got Talent series. In 2006 French hip-hop dancer Salah won the first season of Incroyable Talent (Incredible Talent).[116] French b-boy Junior won the second season in 2007.[117] In 2008 hip-hop dancer George Sampson won Britain's Got Talent[118] and hip-hop dance crew Quick won the Norwegian version of the show.[119] After George Sampson, street dance crew Diversity won the next season of Britain's Got Talent in 2009.[120][note 14] The same year, Brazilian crew D-Efeitos won Qual é o Seu Talento? (What's Your Talent?).[121] In 2010 Justice Crew won Australia's Got Talent.[122]

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers (The LXD) is a good-versus-evil themed web series about a group of dancers who discover they have super powers through their dance moves.[123][note 15] Each character specializes in one dance style; consequently, a wide range of styles are displayed including krumping, tutting, breaking, locking, boogaloo, and popping.[123][124] The majority of the dancing shown in the series is hip-hop; however, other styles have also been showcased including contemporary and ballet.[125] AdvertisingAge.com gave the series a favorable review stating "...each episode of 'LXD' packs a wealth of narrative sophistication into its eight or nine minutes. Combine this with the theater-worthy production values and a cast that exerts itself to an ungodly extent, and the end result is – pun time! – extraordinary."[126] The LXD premiered July 7, 2010 on Hulu.[127]

Though hip-hop dancing is established on film and television, it has not gained the same level of exposure in theater. This may be due to the fact that the dance is performed more in film and television than it is in a theatrical setting.[128] B-boy and popper Stefan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente was involved in hip-hop theater at its inception. His dance company, GhettOriginal, produced the first hip-hop stage shows: 1991's off Broadway musical So! What Happens Now? and 1995's Jam on the Groove.[129][130] Both shows were performed by the Rock Steady Crew, Magnificent Force, and the Rhythm Technicians.[131][132] Aside from the pioneers in New York City was Rennie Harris' Puremovement hip-hop theater company. Harris founded Puremovement in 1992 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[84] In 2008, Into the Hoods became the first hip-hop theater show to perform in London's West End.[73] It eventually went on to become the West End's longest running dance show ever.[133] According to Clemente, the future of hip-hop dance is in theater; he believes it is necessary for the dance to make this transition in order for it to be legitimized as an art form.[15]

[edit] FitnessDancers and fitness trainers have used hip-hop dance as an alternative form of exercise. In the 1990s, MTV's The Grind premiered. It was a television program that showcased social hip-hop dancing to rap, R&B, and house music. MTV released two The Grind Workout videos, due to the show's popularity; both programs were hosted by Eric Nies with assistance from choreographer Tina Landon.[134][135] In 2004, Nike launched a campaign promoting dance as sport and enlisted the help of choreographer and creative director Jamie King to develop the Nike Rockstar Workout for use in gyms across the United States.[136] In 2007, he released a companion workout book and DVD titled Rock Your Body.[136] The same year, fitness corporation Beachbody (the makers of the P90X workout) produced Hip Hop Abs[137]—a home fitness program created by dancer and personal trainer Shaun Thompson[137] that uses hip-hop dance, rather than crunches or sit-ups, to tone and sculpt abs. According to Lance Armstrong's health and fitness website, LiveStrong.com, hip-hop dancing is helpful in building abdominal muscle:

“ Many of the hip-hop movements isolate the abs, so this area really gets a good muscle-sculpting workout. There is a great deal of hip rolling, waist and pelvic rolling and popping in hip hop and all of these work the abs. The hip-hop "popping" is a technique that is a quick punch on the emphasis of a beat, many times danced in a combination with arm movements and the abdominal area being "popped" in the same count sequence. Doing these popping movements in repetition is an excellent abdominal workout.[138] ”

Other dancers have used fitness as a platform to promote hip-hop dance as a way to stay in shape. For example, in 2010 dance crew Diversity released a work-out DVD titled Diversity: Dance Fitness Fusion.[139] In addition, Hip Hop International, the organization that runs the USA and the World Hip Hop Dance Championships, was founded as a subsidiary of Sports Fitness International.[140][note 16]

[edit] EducationIn 2004, Safi Thomas founded the Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory (HHDC) in New York City.[85] Thomas' goal was to provide a comprehensive education to hip-hop dancers that was comparable to what ballet, modern, and jazz dancers experience at their respective institutions.[141] HHDC provides a formal curriculum with dance classes (breaking, freestyle, locking, etc.) and academic classes (dance theory, physiology, kinesiology, etc.) to people who want to pursue hip-hop dance as a career.[85][142] It is the only educational institution in the United States that is exclusively dedicated to hip-hop dance instruction.[142] HHDC does not grant degrees. It is a non-profit organization and repertory company that grants certifications to dancers that complete the three-year program.[85]

Three years later in 2007, the University of East London's Institute for Performing Arts Development (IPAD) started intake for the only bachelor's degree program in the world specializing in hip-hop, urban, and global dance forms.[143] The IPAD's program is also three years, but unlike HHDC, it is not exclusive to hip-hop. Students also study African dance, kathak, Bollywood, capoeira, and contemporary.[144]

[edit] Footnotes1.^ Head spins, back spins, and flares are examples of power moves.
2.^ Two regional sub-styles that developed out of popping are jookin' (also called buckin)[12] from Memphis, Tennessee and turfing from Oakland, California. Turfing borrows heavily from gliding.[39]
3.^ The moonwalk, called the backslide in popping context, is an example of sliding.
4.^ B-boy Cico holds the world record in 1990s. A 1990 is a move in which a breaker spins continuously on one hand—a hand spin rather than a head spin. Cico broke the record by spinning 27 times.[59][60]
5.^ B-boy Crazy Legs invented the windmill (continuous back spin) and 1990 b-boy moves by accident.[26]
6.^ Steffan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente is a member of Rock Steady Crew and the Electric Boogaloos.[72]
7.^ Kate Prince, a hip-hop choreographer on So You Think You Can Dance (UK), is the founder and director of Zoo Nation.[73]
8.^ Hip-hop dancer Hokuto "Hok" Konishi is a member of Quest crew and Lux Aeterna dance company.[74]
9.^ Rize had a limited release when shown in theaters.[83]
10.^ Clowning is not the same as the clown walk.
11.^ Boogiezone is an online dance community akin to Facebook but for people involved in the dance industry. There are profiles of both unrepresented dancers and crews as well as industry professionals (dancers, club promoters, studios, etc.). Boogiezone.com provides downloadable dance classes and also facilitates "community classes" (held at an actual studio) and Boogiezone University—a series of dance conventions, workshops, dance camps, master classes, and one-on-one private lessons.
12.^ Wildchild Nation is the parent company of Wildchild (clothing) and Threader.[95]
13.^ Wild Style was produced in New York and independently released.[31]
14.^ George Sampson and Diversity appeared in the film StreetDance 3D.
15.^ Jon Chu wrote, directed, and produced The LXD. He also directed the movies Step Up 2: The Streets and Step Up 3D.
16.^ Howard Shultz is the president of Hip Hop International and Sports Fitness International.[140]
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2.^ a b "Breakdancing, Present at the Creation". NPR.org. October 14, 2002. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5uZwX237j. Retrieved September 8, 2009. "'When you're dealing with the b-boys and b-girls, you can take it... straight back to the Godfather of Soul,' says DJ Afrika Bambaataa, who owns a place in the same musical lineage, as the Godfather of Hip Hop. He says that the song "Get on the Good Foot" inspired crowds to imitate the singer's dance moves."
3.^ Chang 2006, p.20 "Toprockin's structure and form fuse dance forms and influences from uprocking, tap, lindy hop, James Brown's "good foot," salsa, Afro-Cuban, and various African and Native American dances."
4.^ a b Schloss 2009, p.14
5.^ Chang 2005, p.138
6.^ Chang 2006, p.21 "The structure was different from b-boying/b-girling since dancers in b-boy/b-girl battles took turns dancing, while uprocking was done with partners."
7.^ Hess, Mickey, ed (2007). Icons of hip hop: an encyclopedia of the movement, music, and culture. 1. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. xxi. ISBN 0313339031. "Jamaican American DJ Kool Herc creates the beak beat by isolating the most exciting instrumental break in a record and looping that section so that the break played continuously."
8.^ a b c Chang 2006, p.19 "DJ Kool Herc, originally from Jamaica, is credited with extending these breaks by using two turntables, a mixer and two of the same records. As DJs could re-cue these beats from one turntable to the other, finally, the dancers were able to enjoy more than just a few seconds of a break! Kool Herc also coined the terms 'b-boy' and 'b-girl' which stood for 'break boys' and 'break girls.' At one of Kool Herc's jams, he might have addressed the dancers just before playing the break beats by saying, 'B-Boys are you ready?! B-Girls are you ready?!' The tension started to mount and the air was thick with anticipation. The b-boys and b-girls knew this was their time to 'go off!'."
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24.^ a b Schloss 2009, p.16
25.^ Rivera 2003, p.75 "...Puerto Ricans had been and were still key in the development of the b-boy/b-girl dance styles; most of the better known breaking crews (Rock Steady Crew, the Furious Rockers, Dynamic Rockers, New York City Breakers) were primarily Puerto Rican."
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28.^ Chang 2006, p.20 "The transition between top and floor rockin' was also important and became known as the 'drop.'"
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30.^ Chang 2006, p.21 "There were also the 'Apache Lines' where one crew stood in a line facing the opposing crew and challenged each other simultaneously."
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[edit] BibliographyChang, Jeff. Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. New York City: St. Martin's Press., 2005. ISBN 0-312-30143-X
Chang, Jeff. Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop. New York City: BasicCivitas., 2006. ISBN 0-465-00909-3
Kugelberg, Johan. Born in the Bronx. New York City: Rizzoli International Publications Inc., 2007. ISBN 978-0-7893-1540-3
Rivera, Raquel. New York Ricans from the Hip Hop Zone. New York City: Palgrave MacMillan., 2003. ISBN 1-403-96043-7
Schloss, Joseph. Foundation: B-Boys, B-Girls and Hip-Hop Culture in New York. New York City: Oxford University Press., 2009. ISBN 978-0-1953-3405-0
[edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hip-hop dance

Hip hop portal
Dance portal
Breaking – Lilou vs Morris at Red Bull BC One 2009 on YouTube
Locking – Hilty and Bosch at BOTY Asia 2008 on YouTube
Popping – Salah in TWIST // Choose the dimension of your life! on YouTube
Tutting – Di "Moon" Zhang & Hokuto "Hok" Konishi in The Art of Tutting on YouTube
Finger Tutting – Julian "JayFunk" Daniels' Samsung Mobile "The Galaxy" tutorial on YouTube
Turfing – Precise Films "Bay Area Turfing" on YouTube
Jerkin' – "Jerkin'" special on Fox 11 News on YouTube
Krumping – Rize movie trailer on YouTube
Memphis Jookin' – Charles "Lil Buck" Riley dancing for House of Crews on YouTube
New Style – Les Twins (France) vs Lil' O & Tyger B (USA) at Juste Debout 2011 on YouTube
Lyrical Hip-Hop – SYTYCD Benelux Season 2: Els and Angelo on Vimeo
[show]v ·d ·eHip-hop dance

Main styles Breaking · Popping · Locking

Derivatives Krumping · Jerkin' · Turfing · Memphis Jookin' · Studio/New Style · Lyrical Hip-Hop · Jazz Funk

Movies Wild Style · Beat Street · Breakin · Breakin 2: Electric Boogaloo · The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy · Honey · Honey 2 · You Got Served · You Got Served: Beat the World · Step Up · Step Up 2: The Streets · Step Up 3D · Step Up 4ever · How She Move · Planet B-Boy · Rize · Save the Last Dance · Feel the Noise · Stomp the Yard · Stomp the Yard 2: Homecoming · Boogie Town · StreetDance 3D · Beat This: A Hip-Hop History · Saigon Electric

TV shows Soul Train · The Grind · Dance Fever · Dance 360 · The Wade Robson Project · America's Best Dance Crew · Dance on Sunset · Shake It Up

People Jeffrey Daniel · Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon · Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell · Christopher "Lil' C" Toler · Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert · James Brown · Salah · Toni Basil · Dave Scott · Wayne "Frosty Freeze" Frost · Luca "Lazylegz" Patuelli · Darrin Henson · Hong 10 · Steffan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente · Michael Jackson · Tabitha and Napoleon D'umo · George Sampson · Shane Sparks · Mona-Jeanette Berntsen · Harry Shum, Jr. · Laurieann Gibson · Detlef Soost · Carter "Fever One" McGlasson · Alyson Stoner · Adil Khan · Jon Chu · Hassan "Haspop" El-Hajjami · Poppin' Hyun Joon · Sofia Boutella · Adam G. Sevani · Akai Osei

[show] International champions

Battle of the Year JinJo Crew- b-boy crew

UK B-Boy
Championships Vagabonds - b-boy crew · Morris - b-boy solo · Kite - popping solo

Freestyle Session Killafornia - b-boy crew · Seioshi - locking solo · Green Tec - popping solo

World Hip Hop Dance
Championships Plague - hip-hop crew (adult) · Sorority - hip-hop crew (varsity) · Bubblegum - hip-hop crew (junior) · J Boogie - Hip-hop solo · Bionic - Popping solo · Tiffany Bong - Locking solo · Fallen Kings - B-boy crew

Juste Debout B-boy Thesis - toprock solo · Les Twins - hip-hop duo · Gucchon & Key - popping duo · Hurican & Firelock - locking duo · Toyin & Sacha - house duo

Red Bull BC One Roxrite - b-boy solo

R16 Korea JinJo Crew - b-boy crew



Related topics History of hip-hop dance · Hip-hop culture · House dance · Funk styles · Street dance · African American culture · Funk music · Hip-hop theater · Rock the Spot · Breakin' Convention · Vibe Dance Competition · Urban Street Jam · Into the Hoods · Bounce Streetdance Company · Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory · The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers · So You Think You Can Dance · Electro dance

[show]v ·d ·eHip hop

Breaking · DJing · Graffiti · MCing

Culture Dance · Fashion · Music · Production · Theater

History History · Golden age · Old school · New school

Subgenres Alternative hip hop · Bounce music · Chicano rap · Chopped and screwed · Christian hip hop · Comedy hip hop · Conscious hip hop · Freestyle rap · Gangsta rap · Hardcore hip hop · Horrorcore · Indie hip hop · Instrumental hip hop · Native American hip hop · Nerdcore hip hop · Political hip hop · Pop rap · Snap music · Southern hip hop · Turntablism · Underground hip hop · West Coast

Fusion genres Baltimore club · Country rap · Crunk · Crunkcore · Cumbia rap · Electro hop · G-funk · Ghetto house · Ghettotech · Glitch hop · Hip hop soul · Hip house · Hiplife · Hipster hop · Hyphy · Industrial hip hop · Jazz rap · Merenrap · Neo soul · Rap metal · Rap opera · Rap rock · Rapcore · Digital hardcore · Wonky

By continent African · Asian · European · Latin American · Middle Eastern

By country Albanian · Algerian · Australian · Azerbaijani · Belgian · Bosnian/Herzegovinan · Kosovar · Brazilian · British · Bulgarian · Burmese · Canadian · Chinese · Cuban · Czech · Dominican · Dutch · Egyptian · Filipino · Finnish · French · Georgian · German · Greek · Greenlandic · Haitian · Hong Kong · Hungarian · Icelandic · Indian · Indonesian · Iranian · Irish · Israeli · Italian · Ivorian · Japanese · Kenyan · Korean · Lebanese · Macedonian · Malaysian · Mexican · Moroccan · Native American · Nepalese · New Zealand · Nigerian · Pakistani · Palestinian · Polish · Portuguese · Romanian · Russian · Salvadoran · Senegalese · Serbian · Slovak · Slovenian · Spanish · Swedish · Swiss · Taiwanese · Tanzanian · Togolese · Turkish · Ukrainian · Zimbabwean

Media Wild Style · Style Wars · Beat Street

Lists &
Categories Albums · Beatboxers · Collectives · DJs · Genres · Groups · Musicians · Producers · Rappers · Singers

Category · Portal

[show]v ·d ·eStreet dance

Hip-hop dance B-boying (Toprock, Downrock, Freezes, Power moves) · Bounce · Crip Walk · Dougie · Electric boogaloo · Jerkin' · Memphis Jookin' · Krumping · Locking · Robot · Popping (Floating · Gliding · Strobing · Tutting · Waving) · Turfing · Uprock

House dance Baltimore club · Footwork · Hustle · Jacking · Lofting · Tecktonik · Vogue · Waacking

Rave dance Liquid and digits · Hardcore · Hakken · Jumpstyle · Melbourne Shuffle · X-Outing

Jazz dance Boogie-woogie · Cabbage patch · Cakewalk · Charleston · Lindy Hop · Swing · Tap dance

Other / Misc Boogie · Calypso · Flexing · Folk dance · Grooving · Moshing · Reggaeton · Salsa · Salsaton · Soca · Pogo · Headbanging

[show]v ·d ·eDance

Types Solo ·Partner ·GroupCeremonial ·Competitive ·Concert ·Participation ·Social

Genres Acro ·Bachata ·Ballet ·Ballroom ·Baroque ·Belly ·Bhangra ·Bharatanatyam ·Breaking ·Chicago Style Stepping ·Country-western ·Cumbia ·Disco ·Erotic ·Folk ·Forró ·Hip-hop ·Hula ·Jazz ·Kabuki ·Kathak ·Kathakali ·Krumping ·Kuchipudi ·Lap ·Line ·Manipuri ·Merengue ·Modern ·Mohiniyattam ·Odissi ·Persian ·Salsa ·Sattriya ·Scottish Highland ·Sequence ·Street ·Swing ·Tango ·Tap ·Waltz ·War

Technique Choreography ·Connection ·Dance theory ·Lead and follow ·Moves (glossary) ·Musicality ·Spotting ·Turnout

See also Costumes ·Etiquette ·History ·List of dances ·Music ·Notation ·Outline ·Research ·ScienceDance and health ·Dance in film ·Dance in mythology and religion


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Thanks! Your ratings have been saved.Did you know that you can edit this page?Edit this pageMaybe later Categories: Hip hop danceDances of the United StatesSyllabus-free danceStreet danceDance stylesDance cultureAfrican-American cultureHidden categories: Good articles Hip-hop dance refers to dance styles primarily performed to hip-hop music or that have evolved as part of hip-hop culture. It includes a wide range of styles notably breaking, locking, and popping which were created in the 1970s and made popular by dance crews in the United States. The television show Soul Train and the 1980s films Breakin', Beat Street, and Wild Style showcased these crews and dance styles in their early stages; therefore, giving hip-hop mainstream exposure. The dance industry responded with a studio based version of hip-hop—sometimes called new style—and jazz-funk. Classically trained dancers developed these studio styles in order to create choreography from the hip-hop dances that were being performed on the street. Because of this development, hip-hop dance is practiced in both dance studios and outdoor spaces. The commercialization of hip-hop dance continued into the 1990s and 2000s with the production of several other television shows and movies such as The Grind, Dance 360, Planet B-Boy, Rize, StreetDance 3D, America's Best Dance Crew, the Step Up film franchise, and The LXD, a web series. Though the dance is established in entertainment, it still maintains a strong presence in urban neighborhoods which has led to the creation of street dance derivatives turfing, krumping, and jerkin'.

Hip-hop dance has a particularly strong influence in France, South Korea, and the United Kingdom. France is the home of Juste Debout, an international hip-hop dance competition, and Battle of the Year, the largest team-based breaking competition in the world. South Korea is home to the international breaking competition R16 which is sponsored by the government and broadcast every year live on Korean television. Like France, the UK also hosts two international competitions: The UK B-Boy Championships and the World Street Dance Championships.

What distinguishes hip-hop dance from other forms of dance is that it is often freestyle (improvisational) in nature and hip-hop dance crews often engage in freestyle dance competitions, colloquially referred to as battles. Crews, freestyling, and battles are identifiers of this style. Hip-hop dance can be a form of entertainment or a hobby. It can also be a lifestyle: a way to be active in physical fitness or competitive dance and a way to make a living by dancing professionally.

Contents [hide]
1 History
2 Main styles
2.1 Breaking
2.2 Locking
2.3 Popping
3 International competitions
4 Impact
4.1 Dance crews
4.2 Derivative styles
4.3 Dance industry
4.3.1 Lyrical hip-hop
4.4 Entertainment
4.5 Fitness
4.6 Education
5 Footnotes
6 References
7 Bibliography
8 External links


[edit] HistoryMain article: History of hip-hop dance
Hip-hop dance is a broad category that includes a variety of urban styles. The older dance styles that were created in the 1970s include uprock, breaking, and the funk styles.[1] Breaking was created in The Bronx, New York, incorporating dances that were popular in the 1960s and early 1970s in African-American and Latino communities. In its earliest form, it began as elaborations on James Brown's "Good Foot" dance[1][2] which came out in 1972. Breaking at this period was not primarily floor oriented as seen today; it started out as toprock which dancers perform while standing up. An influence on toprock was uprock[3] which was created in Brooklyn, New York.[4][5] It looks similar to toprock, but it is more aggressive and looks like a fight. Uprock is done with partners, but in toprock, and in breaking in general, each person takes turns dancing.[6] In 1973 DJ Kool Herc invented the break beat.[7][8] A break beat is a rhythmic, musical interlude of a song that has been looped over and over again to extend that instrumental solo. Kool Herc did this to provide a means for dancers who attended his parties to demonstrate their skills.[8] B-boy and b-girl stands for "break-boy" and "break-girl"; b-boys and b-girls dance to the break of a record.[8] Further influenced by martial arts[9] and gymnastics, breaking went from being a purely upright dance style—toprock only—to becoming more floor oriented. Though at its inception the earliest b-boys were "close to 90 percent African-American", dance crews such as "SalSoul" and "Rockwell Association" were populated almost entirely by Latino Americans.[10] Historian Joseph Glenn Schloss described it as such:

“ In other words, there were three basic stages to the development of the dance: the early rock dance of the '60s, which was Latino and citywide; Brooklyn rocking or uprocking which was Latino and Brooklyn-based; and b-boying, which is Black and Latino and Bronx-based. Within this basic framework, it is not difficult to see how three constituencies-Brooklyn Latinos, Bronx Latinos, and African Americans-could have three totally different perspectives on the history.[11] ”

At the same time breaking was developing in New York, other styles were being created in California. The funk styles refers to several street dance styles created in California in the 1970s that were danced to funk music.[12] These styles include roboting, bopping, hitting, locking, bustin', popping, electric boogaloo, strutting, sac-ing, dime-stopping, etc.[13] The most popular and widely practiced of the funk styles are locking and popping which were created by African-Americans Don Campbell and Sam Solomon respectively. Locking is older than popping and it was created in the late 1960s whereas popping was created in the 1970s.[14] The television show, Soul Train, helped to spread locking and popping's popularity. Both The Lockers and the Electric Boogaloos—dance crews responsible for the spread of these urban styles—performed on this show.[12]

It would be historically inaccurate to say that the funk styles have always been considered hip-hop. The funk styles were adopted into hip-hop in large part due to the media. Once hip-hop activist and DJ, Afrika Bambaataa, used the word "hip-hop" in a magazine interview in 1982, "hip-hop dance" became an umbrella term encompassing all of these styles.[15] Due to the amount of attention locking and popping were receiving, the media brought these styles under the "breakdance" label causing confusion about their origin.[16][17] They were created on the west coast independent from breaking and came out of the funk cultural movement rather than from the hip-hop cultural movement.

As breaking, locking, and popping were emerging in the 1970s, hip-hop social dancing was growing as well. Novelty and fad dances such as the Roger Rabbit, the Cabbage Patch, and the Worm appeared in the 1980s followed by the Running Man and the Humpty dance in the 1990s.[18] More recent social dances include the Cha Cha Slide, the Soulja Boy, and the Dougie. The previously mentioned dances are a sample of the many that have appeared since hip-hop developed into a distinct dance style. Like hip-hop music, hip-hop social dancing has continued to change as new songs are released and new dances are created to accompany them.

[edit] Main styles
A b-boy in an airchair freeze at Street Summit 2006 in Moscow, Russia.[edit] BreakingMain article: B-boying
Breaking was created in the South Bronx, New York during the early 1970s.[2] It is the first hip-hop dance style. At the time of its creation, it was the only hip-hop dance style because Afrika Bambaataa classified it as one of the five pillars of hip-hop culture along with MCing (rapping), DJing, graffiti writing, and knowledge.[19][20][21][22] Though African Americans created breaking,[23][24] Puerto Ricans maintained its growth and development when it was considered a fad in the late 1970s.[25] In a 2001 interview Richard "Crazy Legs" Colón, the president of Rock Steady Crew, commented on how Puerto Ricans contributed to breaking: "I think the difference is when the brothas first started doing [it] and it was at its infancy they weren't doing acrobatic moves. That didn't come into play until more Puerto Ricans got involved in the mid 70s. We then took the dance, evolved it and kept it alive. In '79 I was getting dissed. I would go into a dance and I would get dissed by a lot of brothas who would ask 'Why y'all still doing that dance? That's played out'. By 79, there were very few African American brothas that was doing this... We always maintained the flava. It was like a changing of the guard and all we did was add more flava to something that already existed."[24][26][27] Breaking includes four foundational dances: toprock, footwork oriented steps performed while standing up; downrock, footwork performed with both hands and feet on the floor; freezes, stylish poses done on your hands; and power moves, complex and impressive acrobatic moves.[note 1] Transitions from toprock to downrock are called "drops."[28]

Traditionally, breakers dance within a cipher or an Apache Line. A cipher is a circular shaped dance space formed by spectators that breakers use to perform in.[13] Ciphers work well for one-on-one b-boy (break-boy) battles; however, Apache Lines are more appropriate when the battle is between two crews—teams of street dancers. In contrast to the circular shape of a cipher, competing crews can face each other in this line formation, challenge each other, and execute their burns[29][30] (a move intended to humiliate the opponent, i.e. crotch grabbing). In 1981, the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City hosted a breaking battle between the Dynamic Rockers and the Rock Steady Crew.[31] The Daily News and National Geographic covered this event.[32]

[edit] LockingMain article: Locking
Locking, originally called Campbellocking, was created in Los Angeles, California by Don "Campbellock" Campbell and popularized in the United States by his crew The Lockers.[14] In addition to Campbell, the original members of The Lockers were Fred "Mr. Penguin" Berry, Leo "Fluky Luke" Williamson, Adolpho "Shabba Doo" Quinones, Bill "Slim the Robot" Williams, Greg "Campbellock Jr" Pope, and Toni Basil, who also served as the group's manager.[33][34] At the 2009 World Hip Hop Dance Championships, Basil became the first female recipient of the Living Legend Award in honor of her role in giving locking commercial exposure.[35]

Locking looks similar to popping, and the two are frequently confused by the casual observer. In locking, dancers hold their positions longer. The lock is the primary move used in locking. It is "similar to a freeze or a sudden pause."[36] A locker's dancing is characterized by frequently locking in place and after a brief freeze moving again.[14] It is incorrect to call locking "pop-locking".[14][37] Locking and popping are two distinct funk styles with their own histories, their own set of dance moves, and their own competition categories. Locking is more playful and character-driven, whereas popping is more illusory. In popping, dancers push the boundaries of what they can do with their bodies.[14] Locking has specific dance moves that distinguish it from popping and other funk styles. These moves include "the lock, points, skeeter [rabbits], scooby doos, stop 'n go, which-away, and the fancies."[36] A dancer cannot perform both locking and popping simultaneously.[14]

[edit] PoppingMain article: Popping
Popping was created by Sam Solomon in Fresno, California and performed by his crew the Electric Boogaloos.[14] It is based on the technique of quickly contracting and relaxing muscles to cause a jerk in a dancer's body, referred to as a pop or a hit. Each hit should be synchronized to the rhythm and beats of the music. Popping is also used as an umbrella term to refer to a wide range of other closely related illusionary dance styles[38] such as strobing, liquid,[12] animation, and waving.[38] Dancers often integrate these styles with standard popping to create a more varied performance.[note 2] In all of these subgenres, it appears to the spectator that the body is popping, hence the name. The difference between each subgenre is how exaggerated the popping is. In liquid, the body movements look like water. The popping is so smooth that the movements do not look like popping at all; they look fluid.[12] The opposite of this is strobing (also called ticking) in which the movements are staccato and jerky.[40]

Popping as an umbrella term also includes gliding, floating, and sliding[12][38][note 3] which are lower body dances done with the legs and feet. In gliding, a dancer appears as if they are drifting across the floor on ice. Opposite from gliding is tutting which is an upper body dance that uses the arms, hands, and wrists to form right angles and create geometric box-like shapes. Tutting can be done primarily with the fingers rather than the arms. This method is called finger tutting. In both variations, the movements are intricate, linear, and form 90° or 45° angles. In practice, tutting looks like the characters on the art of ancient Egypt, hence the name—a reference to King Tut.

While popping as an umbrella term is widely used by hip-hop dancers and in competitive hip-hop dancing, Timothy "Popin' Pete" Solomon of the Electric Boogaloos disagrees with the use of the word "popping" in this way. Many of these related styles (animation, liquid, tutting, etc.) can not be traced to one person or group. Solomon states "There are people who wave and there are people who tut. They’re not popping. I say this to give the people who created other styles their just dues and their props."[14]

[edit] International competitionsBattle of the Year (BOTY) was founded in 1990 in Germany.[41] It is a breaking competition for crews. There are several BOTY regional competitions that lead up to the final international championship in Montpellier, France.[41] BOTY was featured in the independent documentary Planet B-Boy that filmed five b-boy crews training for the 2005 championship.
B-Boy Summit is an international four day conference founded in 1994 by b-girl Nancy "Asia One" Yu in San Diego, California.[42][43] The B-Boy Summit places a lot of emphasis on the history of hip-hop culture and b-boys/b-girls understanding the roots of where it came from.[42] For this reason, the conference includes a breaking competition, a talent showcase for rappers and DJs, and live paintings by graffiti artists so that "each element of Hip-Hop combine[s] together to make the cipher complete."[42] There's also competitions for lockers and poppers as part of the "Soul Fest" portion of the conference.[44]
UK B-Boy Championships was founded in 1996 in London.[45] There are four world championship titles: breaking crew champions, solo b-boy champion, solo popping champion, and locking two-on-two champions.[46] Contrary to what the name may imply, this competition is not exclusive to the British. It is called the UK B-Boy Championships because the international final is always held in the United Kingdom. The world finals also include the "Fresh Awards" (best dressed) which are hosted and judged every year by Richard "Crazy Legs" Colón—the president of Rock Steady Crew.[47]
Freestyle Session was founded in 1997[48] by graffiti writer and DJ Chris "Cros1" Wright[49] in California. It is the largest breaking competition based in the United States.[50] The main competitive event is for b-boy crews, but there are also popping and locking competitions for solo competitors.[49]
The Notorious IBE is a Dutch-based breaking competition founded in 1998.[51] IBE (International Breakdance Event) is not a traditional competition because there are not any stages or judges. Instead, there are timed competitive events that take place in large multitiered ciphers—circular dance spaces surrounded by observers—where the winners are determined by audience approval.[51] There are several kinds of events such as the b-girl crew battle, the Seven 2 Smoke battle (eight top ranked b-boys battle each other to determine the overall winner), the All vs. All continental battle (all the American b-boys vs. all the European b-boys vs. the Asian b-boys vs. Mexican/Brazilian b-boys), and the Circle Prinz IBE.[51] The Circle Prinz IBE is a b-boy knockout tournament that takes place in multiple smaller cipher battles until the last standing b-boy is declared the winner.[51]
Hip Hop International: World Hip Hop Dance Championships is a hip-hop dance competition founded in 2000 in the United States where both crews and soloist compete.[52] For hip-hop crews, there are three divisions: junior (ages 7–12), varsity (12–18), and adult.[53] Each crew must have five to eight people and must perform a routine that showcases three styles of hip-hop dance.[53] For the 2009 competition, there were 120 crews representing 30 countries.[53] HHI also runs the USA Hip Hop Dance Championships.
Juste Debout is a street dance competition founded in 2002 by Bruce Ykanji[12] in Paris.[54] Competition categories include popping, hip-hop (new style), locking, house, toprock, and experimental. Breaking is not included to put more focus on the hip-hop dance styles performed while standing up, hence the name (French for "Just Upright"). There are not any team trophies at Juste Debout. The experimental and toprock categories are only for solo dancers; popping, new style, locking, and house are for duos.[54] Juste Debout also publishes a free bimonthly hip-hop dance magazine of the same name.[55]
United Dance Organization: World Street Dance Championships is a hip-hop dance competition founded in 2002 in the United Kingdom.[56] People can compete as solo dancers, in duos, in quads (four people), or in teams.[57] UDO also hosts the European Street Dance Championships and the USA Street Dance Championships.
Red Bull BC One was created in 2004 by Red Bull and is hosted in a different country every year.[58] The competition brings together the top 16 b-boys from around the world.[58] Past participants include Ronnie Abaldonado from Super Cr3w and Mauro "Cico" (pronounced CHEE-co) Peruzzi.[note 4]
R16 Korea is a South Korean breaking competition founded in 2007 by Asian Americans Charlie Shin and John Jay Chon.[61] Like BOTY and Red Bull BC One put together, Respect16 is a competition for the top 16 ranked b-boy crews in the world.[62] What sets it apart from other competitions is that it is sponsored by the government and broadcast live on Korean television and in several countries in Europe.[61] It is not out of character for the South Korean government to support breaking in this way. The country consistently produces such skillful b-boys that the government designated the Gamblerz and Rivers b-boy crews as official ambassadors of Korean culture.[61]
World of Dance Tour (WOD) is a traveling hip-hop dance competition founded in 2008 by Myron Marten and David Gonzales in Pomona, California.[63] It differs from other competitions because there is no final championship. WOD travels to different cities around the world and holds a competition in each location; therefore, WOD distinguishes itself as a tour. Each event is a stand-alone competition; they are all related to each other in name only. For 2012 WOD established a regional hub in the United Kingdom; the tour will travel to Cardiff, Manchester, and Birmingham.[64]
[edit] Impact[edit] Dance crewsA dance crew is a group of street dancers who come together to develop new moves and create dance routines. As hip-hop culture spread through New York City, the more breaking crews got together to battle against each other. It was during this time that the different dance moves within breaking would develop organically.[65][note 5] All styles of hip-hop are rooted in battling,[66] and being a part of a crew was the only way to learn when these styles began because they were not taught in studios. They all started out as social dances.[67]:74 Forming and participating in a crew is how street dancers practiced, improved, made friends, and built relationships.[68] In breaking in particular, battling is how dancers improved their skill.[4] In the 1970s b-boy crews were neighborhood-based and would engage in battles held at local block parties called "jams".[69] Today crews can battle in organized competitions with other crews from around the world.

Crews still form based on friendships and neighborhoods. For example, dance crew Diversity—formed in 2007[70]—is made up of brothers and friends from Essex and London.[71] Crews also form for other reasons such as theme (Jabbawockeez), gender (ReQuest Dance Crew), ethnicity (Kaba Modern), and dance style (Massive Monkeys). Since crews are not exclusive, street dancers can be involved in more than one crew.[note 6] In addition, dance crews are not formed only within the hip-hop realm anymore. The FootworKINGz is a dance crew that performs footwork, a style of house dance, and Fanny Pak performs contemporary. Dance crews are more prevalent in hip-hop, but hip-hop dance companies do exist. Examples include Zoo Nation (UK),[note 7] Culture Shock (USA), Lux Aeterna (USA),[note 8] Boy Blue Entertainment (UK), Bounce Streetdance Company (Sweden), Funkbrella Dance Company (USA), and Blaze Streetdance Company (Netherlands).

[edit] Derivative stylesMain articles: Turfing, Jerkin', and Krumping
See also: Memphis Jookin'
Decades after breaking, locking, and popping became established, three new dance styles appeared. Turfing, an acronym for Taking Up Room on the Floor, was created in 2002 by street dancer Jeriel Bey in Oakland, California.[39] Turfing is a fusion of miming and gliding that places heavy emphasis on storytelling (through movement) and illusion. Other than San Francisco bay area pride, turfing avoided becoming a fad due to local turf dance competitions and local youth programs that promote turfing as a form of physical activity.[75]

On the heels of its exposure, another dance style came out of Los Angeles called jerkin'. Jerkin' was popularized in 2009 by the New Boyz rap song "You're a Jerk"[76][77] which went viral via their YouTube and MySpace pages[76]:3 before they had a manager or were signed to a record label. After hearing about the song, Los Angeles radio station Power 106 hired the New Boyz to perform at local high schools.[76]:2 These shows led to the song entering the radio's playlist.[76]:2 Later that year, rap duo Audio Push released the song and video "Teach Me How to Jerk" which showcased the different dance moves within jerkin' including the reject—the Running Man done in reverse.[77][78] Dancers who perform jerking typically wear bright colors, skinny jeans, Mohawks, and Vans sneakers.[76]:1,5[79] This trend echos locking dancers in the 1970s who traditionally wore suspenders and black and white striped socks.[14] Of the dance, journalist Jeff Weiss from LA Weekly stated "For a youth culture weaned on the cult of individualism, jerkin’ is its apotheosis."[76] Similar to breaking, locking, and popping, jerkin's popularity spread through dance crews. For example, the Rej3ctz (crew) created the reject dance move.[76]:2, 4

Although these styles have generated regional support and media attention, both turfing and jerkin' have not reached the same zenith as krumping. Ceasare "Tight Eyez" Willis and Jo'Artis "Big Mijo" Ratti created krumping[80] in the early 2000s in South Central, Los Angeles.[81] It was only practiced in the Los Angeles metro area until it gained mainstream exposure by being featured in several music videos[82] and showcased in the krumping documentary Rize. Rize was screened at several film festivals before being commercially released[note 9] in the summer of 2005.[83] Clowning,[note 10] the less aggressive predecessor to krumping, was created in 1992 by Thomas "Tommy the Clown" Johnson.[82] Johnson and his dancers would paint their faces and perform clowning for children at birthday parties or for the general public at other functions as a form of entertainment.[82] In contrast, krumping focuses on highly energetic battles and movements which Johnson describes as intense, fast-paced, and sharp.[82] "If movement were words, [krumping] would be a poetry slam."[81] Compared to breaking and the funk styles, turfing, jerkin', and krumping are relatively new. The cultural similarities between these street dance styles, the funk styles, and breaking have brought them together under the same subculture of hip-hop.

[edit] Dance industry"Street dancing was never ever ever to a count. You do not count a 1,a 2,a 3,a 4, a 5, a 6 to hip hop. It should be a feeling by making noise like "ou" "ah" "aw" "tsi", that's how we count, right there."

Timothy "Popin' Pete" Solomon;
The Electric Booglaoos[15]The dance industry responded to hip-hop dance by creating a commercial version of it. This commercial dance or studio hip-hop, often called new style, is the kind of hip-hop dance seen in rap, R&B, and pop music videos and concerts. From the point of view of someone deeply immersed in hip-hop culture, anything that looks like hip-hop dance that did not come from the streets is not a true hip-hop dance form. In an interview with Dance magazine, choreographer and hip-hop dance teacher Emilio "Buddha Stretch" Austin, Jr explained how he felt about commercial hip-hop:

“ There are a lot of jazz dancers out there doing pseudo hip hop. A lot of teachers don't know the history, they're just teaching the steps. They're learning from videos, but they don't know the culture. If all you see is Britney Spears, you think that's hip hop, but that's never been hip hop. It's completely watered down. And studios could [sic] care less, because hip hop is one of their biggest moneymakers.[67] ”

Stage performance can suppress improvisation which defined hip-hop dance early in its development.[1][67][84] Furthermore, meshing different dance styles together dissolves their structures and identities.[1] In an interview with The Bronx Journal, choreographer and artistic director Safi Thomas expressed a similar qualm as Austin concerning hip-hop instruction within the studio:

“ In a lot of studios what you find is people just doing movement to hip-hop music. So if there's hip-hop music in the background, and they're moving, they're calling it a hip-hop class. The problem with that is let's say that I wanted to teach a ballet class, and I just come in, and I throw on Mozart, and I just start moving; and I'm not doing any of the foundational elements. I am not doing any of the movement vocabulary of ballet. I can not call that a ballet class and that's what happens in relation to hip-hop... within the studio realm there is no standard for the art form, and [the teachers] don't know what the foundational elements of the art are. They know nothing about popping, nothing about locking, nothing about boogaloo, breaking, or the hip-hop dance—the social dances—or any of that. They know none of the history which spans over 30–35 years, and so they cut off any type of edification a dancer can have.[85] ”

From a technical aspect, hip-hop dance (new style) is characterized as hard-hitting involving flexibility and isolations—moving a specific body part independently from others.[86][87]:82 The feet are grounded,[67]:76 the chest is down,[87]:82 and the body is kept loose[88] so that dancers can easily alternate between hitting the beat or moving through the beat. This is in contrast to ballet and ballroom dancing where the chest is upright and the body is stiff. In addition, new style hip-hop is very rhythmic, and emphasis is placed on musicality[88]—how sensitive your movements are to the music—and being able to freestyle (improvise).[86][87]:85 As long as dancers keep the foundational movements, they can add their own (free)style and have a performance that is still hip-hop.[89]

Another style the dance industry created was jazz-funk. Jazz-funk (also called street-jazz) is a hybrid of hip-hop and jazz dance.[12] R&B singer Beyoncé uses this style.[12] Although it borrows from hip-hop dance, it is not considered a style of hip-hop because the foundational movements are jazz. In hip-hop—even in lyrical hip-hop—there are no pirouettes, or arabesques, and dancers do not perform on relevé (on the balls of the feet). However, these methods are used in jazz-funk and in jazz dance in general.[12] Dance studios responded to these developments by hiring classically trained dancers and offering hip-hop (new style) and jazz-funk dance classes. Large scale studios around the world that teach hip-hop and jazz-funk dance classes include Pineapple Studios (London), Millennium (Los Angeles), Broadway Dance Center (New York), Edge Performing Arts Center (Los Angeles), The Vibe – The International Hip Hop Dance Center (Oslo), Boogiezone (Los Angeles),[note 11] Debbie Reynolds (Los Angeles), Sunshine Studios (Manchester), DREAM Dance Studio (Vancouver), Ones to Watch (Japan & Hong Kong), and KJD Dance Studio (Sydney).

Other developments in the dance industry occurred in response to the growing popularity of hip-hop. On the traveling convention circuit, there were tap, ballet, and jazz dance conventions, but there were none specifically for hip-hop. The same void existed in dancewear. There was dancewear for tap, ballet, and jazz dancers but none for hip-hop dancers. Monsters of Hip Hop and Nappytabs dancewear were formed to answer to both needs. Monsters of Hip Hop is the first dance convention dedicated exclusively to hip-hop instruction. It was founded in 2003 in Baltimore, Maryland by Andy Funk, Becky Funk, and Angie Servant.[90] Choreographers Brian Friedman, Fatima Robinson, and Travis Payne have taught at this convention in the past.[91][92] The 2008 tour was sponsored by DanceJam.com, an urban dance social networking website cofounded by MC Hammer.[93] Nappytabs is the first line of hip-hop dancewear.[94] Because the clothing is made for hip-hop dancers, they do not sell leotards, unitards, tights, or leg warmers. Their line consists of tank tops, shorts, t-shirts, sweat pants, and hoodies. Like Nappytabs, Threader responded to the demand for appropriate dancewear for hip-hop. Threader is an online distribution outlet for dance-inspired streetwear created by hip-hop choreographers and crews.[95][96] It was founded in 2009 by Traci Copeland, Marc David, and choreographer Luam Keflezgy. Threader has distributed clothing for brands/dancers such as Poreotics, Wildchild,[note 12] Beat Freaks, Dance2XS, and Laurie Ann Gibson.[95][97]

[edit] Lyrical hip-hopLyrical hip-hop is a fluid and more interpretive version of new style hip-hop often danced to downtempo rap music or R&B music. British hip-hop choreographer Kate Prince describes it as "hip-hop with emotion."[98] It focuses more on choreography and performance and less on freestyling and battles. Lyrical hip-hop first gained mainstream exposure, and its name, on season four of the reality dance competition So You Think You Can Dance.[99] The actual term is credited to Adam Shankman, a choreographer and judge on the program, who made a comment in reference to a routine choreographed by Tabitha and Napoleon D'umo to Leona Lewis' song "Bleeding Love".[99] Due to Shankman's comment and their subsequent work on seasons four through seven, Tabitha and Napoleon are credited with developing this style.[100][101][102][103][104] According to Dance Spirit magazine, what differentiates lyrical hip-hop from standard new style hip-hop is that dancers interpret the beat differently:

"The great thing about this show is that we've really explored a totally new thing which is lyrical hip-hop and [Tabitha and Napoleon] nail it. This show has shown that hip-hop is just a completely legitimate beautiful genre in and of its own and you can tell such beautiful and heart breaking stories."

Adam Shankman[105]“ What makes lyrical hip hop unique is that your dance movements have to tell a story to the lyrics of a song. Expect isolations (especially of the chest), slow, fluid movements (like gliding and body waves) and contemporary-inspired turns (but not pirouettes). There’s popping, but not the hard-hitting kind. Dancers are meant to look like they’re unwinding, unraveling and floating.[99] ”

Some hip-hop purists feel the interpretive and softer approach means lyrical hip-hop is not hip-hop at all.[99] Others, such as hip-hop choreographer Shane Sparks, believe that it is hip-hop but not different enough for it to be in its own subgenre.[99] Out of all the subgenres of hip-hop dance, lyrical hip-hop is the newest.

[edit] EntertainmentSee also: Hip-hop theater
The entertainment industry has been largely responsible for introducing hip-hop dance to mainstream audiences. The first hip-hop films Wild Style, Beat Street, and Breakin' were made in the 1980s. Wild Style was the first movie centered around hip-hop culture; however, Flashdance was the first commercially released film to feature breaking.[note 13] Breakin' and Breakin' 2: Electric Boogaloo brought the funk styles to the cinema. Breaking, locking, popping, and waacking—a style of house dance—were performed in these films.[106] Several hip-hop dance films were produced after the millennium. The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy, B-Girl, and Planet B-Boy all showcased breaking. Films such as Honey, You Got Served, How She Move, Step Up, Step Up 2: The Streets, Step Up 3D, StreetDance 3D, and Saigon Electric showcased all forms of hip-hop dance, especially new style hip-hop. Rize, The Heart of Krump, and Shake City 101 are documentaries about krumping. These movies and documentaries are all examples of films where the plot and theme surround hip-hop dance and how it affects the characters' lives.

Before reaching movie audiences, hip-hop dance was already being broadcast on television. Soul Train, which premiered in 1970,[107] was the earliest television show that showcased the funk styles on a consistent basis. Soul Train was a syndicated, music show that featured social dancing and performances by African American soul, funk, and R&B singers. During its 36 year run,[34] the dancers were the highlight of the show.[107] As a group, they were referred to as the Soul Train Gang. Auditions were held in 1971 when the show was moved from Chicago, Illinois to Los Angeles, California. Dancers who wanted to get on Soul Train after this time had to rely on word-of-mouth recommendations from dancers who were already employed by the show.[108] A regular feature of the show was the Soul Train Line.[109] During this segment, the dancers formed two lines facing each other which a large space in between them. Each dancer in line would take their turn dancing down the middle. A similar show to Soul Train was Solid Gold, which premiered in 1980.[110] Solid Gold centered around dancing and music hits, and it employed a permanent dance troupe called the Solid Gold Dancers who performed choreographed routines to musical performances. Lucinda Dickey, an actress and dancer who played the lead role in the Breakin' films, appeared on the show during the 1982–1983 season as a Solid Gold dancer.[110]


The JabbaWockeez, winners of the first season of America's Best Dance Crew.Several other hip-hop dance shows premiered in the 1990s and 2000s including Dance Fever, Dance 360, The Grind, The Wade Robson Project, Dance on Sunset, and Shake It Up. America's Best Dance Crew (ABDC) is a reality hip-hop dance competition created in 2008 by the founders of Hip Hop International, Howard and Karen Schwartz.[53] On the show different crews compete in dance challenges against each other every week. ABDC has contributed to the exposure of Jabbawockeez, Quest, Kaba Modern, Beat Freaks, We Are Heroes, Fanny Pak, Poreotics, and I.aM.mE. These crews now have official websites, work with musical artists, and perform at live events. The JabbaWockeeZ have a show in Las Vegas, Nevada called MÜS.I.C. at the Monte Carlo Resort and Casino.[111] MÜS.I.C. is the first hip-hop dance stage show on the Las Vegas Strip.[111] Both Poreotics and Hokuto "Hok" Konishi from Quest were nominated for a 2011 MTV Video Music Award for Best Choreography.[112] Poreotics was nominated with singer Bruno Mars for his video "The Lazy Song". Hok was nominated for LMFAO's video "Party Rock Anthem"; the rest of Quest crew appeared in the video as featured dancers.[112]

In contrast to ABDC, individual dancers from all backgrounds compete in the reality dance competition So You Think You Can Dance (SYTYCD). It has a similar premise to the Idol series of singing competitions with initial auditions leading to the selection of a winner over the course of several episodes. In 2008, poppers Robert "Mr. Fantastic" Muraine and Phillip "Pacman" Chbeeb auditioned during season four. Neither made it to the final "Top 20", but the judges were so impressed with their dancing that both were invited back to participate in a popping battle against each other on the show's live finale. According to Muraine, this was the first popping battle that was nationally televised.[113] After the battle, hip-hop dancer Joshua Allen was declared the winner of season four of the competition.[114] The same year Mona-Jeanette Berntsen, a hip-hop dancer from Norway, won the first season of So You Think You Can Dance Scandinavia.[115]

Hip-hop dance has also been popular worldwide among viewers of the Got Talent series. In 2006 French hip-hop dancer Salah won the first season of Incroyable Talent (Incredible Talent).[116] French b-boy Junior won the second season in 2007.[117] In 2008 hip-hop dancer George Sampson won Britain's Got Talent[118] and hip-hop dance crew Quick won the Norwegian version of the show.[119] After George Sampson, street dance crew Diversity won the next season of Britain's Got Talent in 2009.[120][note 14] The same year, Brazilian crew D-Efeitos won Qual é o Seu Talento? (What's Your Talent?).[121] In 2010 Justice Crew won Australia's Got Talent.[122]

The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers (The LXD) is a good-versus-evil themed web series about a group of dancers who discover they have super powers through their dance moves.[123][note 15] Each character specializes in one dance style; consequently, a wide range of styles are displayed including krumping, tutting, breaking, locking, boogaloo, and popping.[123][124] The majority of the dancing shown in the series is hip-hop; however, other styles have also been showcased including contemporary and ballet.[125] AdvertisingAge.com gave the series a favorable review stating "...each episode of 'LXD' packs a wealth of narrative sophistication into its eight or nine minutes. Combine this with the theater-worthy production values and a cast that exerts itself to an ungodly extent, and the end result is – pun time! – extraordinary."[126] The LXD premiered July 7, 2010 on Hulu.[127]

Though hip-hop dancing is established on film and television, it has not gained the same level of exposure in theater. This may be due to the fact that the dance is performed more in film and television than it is in a theatrical setting.[128] B-boy and popper Stefan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente was involved in hip-hop theater at its inception. His dance company, GhettOriginal, produced the first hip-hop stage shows: 1991's off Broadway musical So! What Happens Now? and 1995's Jam on the Groove.[129][130] Both shows were performed by the Rock Steady Crew, Magnificent Force, and the Rhythm Technicians.[131][132] Aside from the pioneers in New York City was Rennie Harris' Puremovement hip-hop theater company. Harris founded Puremovement in 1992 in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.[84] In 2008, Into the Hoods became the first hip-hop theater show to perform in London's West End.[73] It eventually went on to become the West End's longest running dance show ever.[133] According to Clemente, the future of hip-hop dance is in theater; he believes it is necessary for the dance to make this transition in order for it to be legitimized as an art form.[15]

[edit] FitnessDancers and fitness trainers have used hip-hop dance as an alternative form of exercise. In the 1990s, MTV's The Grind premiered. It was a television program that showcased social hip-hop dancing to rap, R&B, and house music. MTV released two The Grind Workout videos, due to the show's popularity; both programs were hosted by Eric Nies with assistance from choreographer Tina Landon.[134][135] In 2004, Nike launched a campaign promoting dance as sport and enlisted the help of choreographer and creative director Jamie King to develop the Nike Rockstar Workout for use in gyms across the United States.[136] In 2007, he released a companion workout book and DVD titled Rock Your Body.[136] The same year, fitness corporation Beachbody (the makers of the P90X workout) produced Hip Hop Abs[137]—a home fitness program created by dancer and personal trainer Shaun Thompson[137] that uses hip-hop dance, rather than crunches or sit-ups, to tone and sculpt abs. According to Lance Armstrong's health and fitness website, LiveStrong.com, hip-hop dancing is helpful in building abdominal muscle:

“ Many of the hip-hop movements isolate the abs, so this area really gets a good muscle-sculpting workout. There is a great deal of hip rolling, waist and pelvic rolling and popping in hip hop and all of these work the abs. The hip-hop "popping" is a technique that is a quick punch on the emphasis of a beat, many times danced in a combination with arm movements and the abdominal area being "popped" in the same count sequence. Doing these popping movements in repetition is an excellent abdominal workout.[138] ”

Other dancers have used fitness as a platform to promote hip-hop dance as a way to stay in shape. For example, in 2010 dance crew Diversity released a work-out DVD titled Diversity: Dance Fitness Fusion.[139] In addition, Hip Hop International, the organization that runs the USA and the World Hip Hop Dance Championships, was founded as a subsidiary of Sports Fitness International.[140][note 16]

[edit] EducationIn 2004, Safi Thomas founded the Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory (HHDC) in New York City.[85] Thomas' goal was to provide a comprehensive education to hip-hop dancers that was comparable to what ballet, modern, and jazz dancers experience at their respective institutions.[141] HHDC provides a formal curriculum with dance classes (breaking, freestyle, locking, etc.) and academic classes (dance theory, physiology, kinesiology, etc.) to people who want to pursue hip-hop dance as a career.[85][142] It is the only educational institution in the United States that is exclusively dedicated to hip-hop dance instruction.[142] HHDC does not grant degrees. It is a non-profit organization and repertory company that grants certifications to dancers that complete the three-year program.[85]

Three years later in 2007, the University of East London's Institute for Performing Arts Development (IPAD) started intake for the only bachelor's degree program in the world specializing in hip-hop, urban, and global dance forms.[143] The IPAD's program is also three years, but unlike HHDC, it is not exclusive to hip-hop. Students also study African dance, kathak, Bollywood, capoeira, and contemporary.[144]

[edit] Footnotes1.^ Head spins, back spins, and flares are examples of power moves.
2.^ Two regional sub-styles that developed out of popping are jookin' (also called buckin)[12] from Memphis, Tennessee and turfing from Oakland, California. Turfing borrows heavily from gliding.[39]
3.^ The moonwalk, called the backslide in popping context, is an example of sliding.
4.^ B-boy Cico holds the world record in 1990s. A 1990 is a move in which a breaker spins continuously on one hand—a hand spin rather than a head spin. Cico broke the record by spinning 27 times.[59][60]
5.^ B-boy Crazy Legs invented the windmill (continuous back spin) and 1990 b-boy moves by accident.[26]
6.^ Steffan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente is a member of Rock Steady Crew and the Electric Boogaloos.[72]
7.^ Kate Prince, a hip-hop choreographer on So You Think You Can Dance (UK), is the founder and director of Zoo Nation.[73]
8.^ Hip-hop dancer Hokuto "Hok" Konishi is a member of Quest crew and Lux Aeterna dance company.[74]
9.^ Rize had a limited release when shown in theaters.[83]
10.^ Clowning is not the same as the clown walk.
11.^ Boogiezone is an online dance community akin to Facebook but for people involved in the dance industry. There are profiles of both unrepresented dancers and crews as well as industry professionals (dancers, club promoters, studios, etc.). Boogiezone.com provides downloadable dance classes and also facilitates "community classes" (held at an actual studio) and Boogiezone University—a series of dance conventions, workshops, dance camps, master classes, and one-on-one private lessons.
12.^ Wildchild Nation is the parent company of Wildchild (clothing) and Threader.[95]
13.^ Wild Style was produced in New York and independently released.[31]
14.^ George Sampson and Diversity appeared in the film StreetDance 3D.
15.^ Jon Chu wrote, directed, and produced The LXD. He also directed the movies Step Up 2: The Streets and Step Up 3D.
16.^ Howard Shultz is the president of Hip Hop International and Sports Fitness International.[140]
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2.^ a b "Breakdancing, Present at the Creation". NPR.org. October 14, 2002. Archived from the original on November 28, 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5uZwX237j. Retrieved September 8, 2009. "'When you're dealing with the b-boys and b-girls, you can take it... straight back to the Godfather of Soul,' says DJ Afrika Bambaataa, who owns a place in the same musical lineage, as the Godfather of Hip Hop. He says that the song "Get on the Good Foot" inspired crowds to imitate the singer's dance moves."
3.^ Chang 2006, p.20 "Toprockin's structure and form fuse dance forms and influences from uprocking, tap, lindy hop, James Brown's "good foot," salsa, Afro-Cuban, and various African and Native American dances."
4.^ a b Schloss 2009, p.14
5.^ Chang 2005, p.138
6.^ Chang 2006, p.21 "The structure was different from b-boying/b-girling since dancers in b-boy/b-girl battles took turns dancing, while uprocking was done with partners."
7.^ Hess, Mickey, ed (2007). Icons of hip hop: an encyclopedia of the movement, music, and culture. 1. Westport: Greenwood Press. p. xxi. ISBN 0313339031. "Jamaican American DJ Kool Herc creates the beak beat by isolating the most exciting instrumental break in a record and looping that section so that the break played continuously."
8.^ a b c Chang 2006, p.19 "DJ Kool Herc, originally from Jamaica, is credited with extending these breaks by using two turntables, a mixer and two of the same records. As DJs could re-cue these beats from one turntable to the other, finally, the dancers were able to enjoy more than just a few seconds of a break! Kool Herc also coined the terms 'b-boy' and 'b-girl' which stood for 'break boys' and 'break girls.' At one of Kool Herc's jams, he might have addressed the dancers just before playing the break beats by saying, 'B-Boys are you ready?! B-Girls are you ready?!' The tension started to mount and the air was thick with anticipation. The b-boys and b-girls knew this was their time to 'go off!'."
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25.^ Rivera 2003, p.75 "...Puerto Ricans had been and were still key in the development of the b-boy/b-girl dance styles; most of the better known breaking crews (Rock Steady Crew, the Furious Rockers, Dynamic Rockers, New York City Breakers) were primarily Puerto Rican."
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[edit] BibliographyChang, Jeff. Can't Stop Won't Stop: A History of the Hip-Hop Generation. New York City: St. Martin's Press., 2005. ISBN 0-312-30143-X
Chang, Jeff. Total Chaos: The Art and Aesthetics of Hip-Hop. New York City: BasicCivitas., 2006. ISBN 0-465-00909-3
Kugelberg, Johan. Born in the Bronx. New York City: Rizzoli International Publications Inc., 2007. ISBN 978-0-7893-1540-3
Rivera, Raquel. New York Ricans from the Hip Hop Zone. New York City: Palgrave MacMillan., 2003. ISBN 1-403-96043-7
Schloss, Joseph. Foundation: B-Boys, B-Girls and Hip-Hop Culture in New York. New York City: Oxford University Press., 2009. ISBN 978-0-1953-3405-0
[edit] External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hip-hop dance

Hip hop portal
Dance portal
Breaking – Lilou vs Morris at Red Bull BC One 2009 on YouTube
Locking – Hilty and Bosch at BOTY Asia 2008 on YouTube
Popping – Salah in TWIST // Choose the dimension of your life! on YouTube
Tutting – Di "Moon" Zhang & Hokuto "Hok" Konishi in The Art of Tutting on YouTube
Finger Tutting – Julian "JayFunk" Daniels' Samsung Mobile "The Galaxy" tutorial on YouTube
Turfing – Precise Films "Bay Area Turfing" on YouTube
Jerkin' – "Jerkin'" special on Fox 11 News on YouTube
Krumping – Rize movie trailer on YouTube
Memphis Jookin' – Charles "Lil Buck" Riley dancing for House of Crews on YouTube
New Style – Les Twins (France) vs Lil' O & Tyger B (USA) at Juste Debout 2011 on YouTube
Lyrical Hip-Hop – SYTYCD Benelux Season 2: Els and Angelo on Vimeo
[show]v ·d ·eHip-hop dance

Main styles Breaking · Popping · Locking

Derivatives Krumping · Jerkin' · Turfing · Memphis Jookin' · Studio/New Style · Lyrical Hip-Hop · Jazz Funk

Movies Wild Style · Beat Street · Breakin · Breakin 2: Electric Boogaloo · The Freshest Kids: A History of the B-Boy · Honey · Honey 2 · You Got Served · You Got Served: Beat the World · Step Up · Step Up 2: The Streets · Step Up 3D · Step Up 4ever · How She Move · Planet B-Boy · Rize · Save the Last Dance · Feel the Noise · Stomp the Yard · Stomp the Yard 2: Homecoming · Boogie Town · StreetDance 3D · Beat This: A Hip-Hop History · Saigon Electric

TV shows Soul Train · The Grind · Dance Fever · Dance 360 · The Wade Robson Project · America's Best Dance Crew · Dance on Sunset · Shake It Up

People Jeffrey Daniel · Richard "Crazy Legs" Colon · Clive "Kool Herc" Campbell · Christopher "Lil' C" Toler · Kenneth "Ken Swift" Gabbert · James Brown · Salah · Toni Basil · Dave Scott · Wayne "Frosty Freeze" Frost · Luca "Lazylegz" Patuelli · Darrin Henson · Hong 10 · Steffan "Mr. Wiggles" Clemente · Michael Jackson · Tabitha and Napoleon D'umo · George Sampson · Shane Sparks · Mona-Jeanette Berntsen · Harry Shum, Jr. · Laurieann Gibson · Detlef Soost · Carter "Fever One" McGlasson · Alyson Stoner · Adil Khan · Jon Chu · Hassan "Haspop" El-Hajjami · Poppin' Hyun Joon · Sofia Boutella · Adam G. Sevani · Akai Osei

[show] International champions

Battle of the Year JinJo Crew- b-boy crew

UK B-Boy
Championships Vagabonds - b-boy crew · Morris - b-boy solo · Kite - popping solo

Freestyle Session Killafornia - b-boy crew · Seioshi - locking solo · Green Tec - popping solo

World Hip Hop Dance
Championships Plague - hip-hop crew (adult) · Sorority - hip-hop crew (varsity) · Bubblegum - hip-hop crew (junior) · J Boogie - Hip-hop solo · Bionic - Popping solo · Tiffany Bong - Locking solo · Fallen Kings - B-boy crew

Juste Debout B-boy Thesis - toprock solo · Les Twins - hip-hop duo · Gucchon & Key - popping duo · Hurican & Firelock - locking duo · Toyin & Sacha - house duo

Red Bull BC One Roxrite - b-boy solo

R16 Korea JinJo Crew - b-boy crew



Related topics History of hip-hop dance · Hip-hop culture · House dance · Funk styles · Street dance · African American culture · Funk music · Hip-hop theater · Rock the Spot · Breakin' Convention · Vibe Dance Competition · Urban Street Jam · Into the Hoods · Bounce Streetdance Company · Hip-Hop Dance Conservatory · The Legion of Extraordinary Dancers · So You Think You Can Dance · Electro dance

[show]v ·d ·eHip hop

Breaking · DJing · Graffiti · MCing

Culture Dance · Fashion · Music · Production · Theater

History History · Golden age · Old school · New school

Subgenres Alternative hip hop · Bounce music · Chicano rap · Chopped and screwed · Christian hip hop · Comedy hip hop · Conscious hip hop · Freestyle rap · Gangsta rap · Hardcore hip hop · Horrorcore · Indie hip hop · Instrumental hip hop · Native American hip hop · Nerdcore hip hop · Political hip hop · Pop rap · Snap music · Southern hip hop · Turntablism · Underground hip hop · West Coast

Fusion genres Baltimore club · Country rap · Crunk · Crunkcore · Cumbia rap · Electro hop · G-funk · Ghetto house · Ghettotech · Glitch hop · Hip hop soul · Hip house · Hiplife · Hipster hop · Hyphy · Industrial hip hop · Jazz rap · Merenrap · Neo soul · Rap metal · Rap opera · Rap rock · Rapcore · Digital hardcore · Wonky

By continent African · Asian · European · Latin American · Middle Eastern

By country Albanian · Algerian · Australian · Azerbaijani · Belgian · Bosnian/Herzegovinan · Kosovar · Brazilian · British · Bulgarian · Burmese · Canadian · Chinese · Cuban · Czech · Dominican · Dutch · Egyptian · Filipino · Finnish · French · Georgian · German · Greek · Greenlandic · Haitian · Hong Kong · Hungarian · Icelandic · Indian · Indonesian · Iranian · Irish · Israeli · Italian · Ivorian · Japanese · Kenyan · Korean · Lebanese · Macedonian · Malaysian · Mexican · Moroccan · Native American · Nepalese · New Zealand · Nigerian · Pakistani · Palestinian · Polish · Portuguese · Romanian · Russian · Salvadoran · Senegalese · Serbian · Slovak · Slovenian · Spanish · Swedish · Swiss · Taiwanese · Tanzanian · Togolese · Turkish · Ukrainian · Zimbabwean

Media Wild Style · Style Wars · Beat Street

Lists &
Categories Albums · Beatboxers · Collectives · DJs · Genres · Groups · Musicians · Producers · Rappers · Singers

Category · Portal

[show]v ·d ·eStreet dance

Hip-hop dance B-boying (Toprock, Downrock, Freezes, Power moves) · Bounce · Crip Walk · Dougie · Electric boogaloo · Jerkin' · Memphis Jookin' · Krumping · Locking · Robot · Popping (Floating · Gliding · Strobing · Tutting · Waving) · Turfing · Uprock

House dance Baltimore club · Footwork · Hustle · Jacking · Lofting · Tecktonik · Vogue · Waacking

Rave dance Liquid and digits · Hardcore · Hakken · Jumpstyle · Melbourne Shuffle · X-Outing

Jazz dance Boogie-woogie · Cabbage patch · Cakewalk · Charleston · Lindy Hop · Swing · Tap dance

Other / Misc Boogie · Calypso · Flexing · Folk dance · Grooving · Moshing · Reggaeton · Salsa · Salsaton · Soca · Pogo · Headbanging

[show]v ·d ·eDance

Types Solo ·Partner ·GroupCeremonial ·Competitive ·Concert ·Participation ·Social

Genres Acro ·Bachata ·Ballet ·Ballroom ·Baroque ·Belly ·Bhangra ·Bharatanatyam ·Breaking ·Chicago Style Stepping ·Country-western ·Cumbia ·Disco ·Erotic ·Folk ·Forró ·Hip-hop ·Hula ·Jazz ·Kabuki ·Kathak ·Kathakali ·Krumping ·Kuchipudi ·Lap ·Line ·Manipuri ·Merengue ·Modern ·Mohiniyattam ·Odissi ·Persian ·Salsa ·Sattriya ·Scottish Highland ·Sequence ·Street ·Swing ·Tango ·Tap ·Waltz ·War

Technique Choreography ·Connection ·Dance theory ·Lead and follow ·Moves (glossary) ·Musicality ·Spotting ·Turnout

See also Costumes ·Etiquette ·History ·List of dances ·Music ·Notation ·Outline ·Research ·ScienceDance and health ·Dance in film ·Dance in mythology and religion


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