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Transcript of Telecommuting
The Elite Squad
a.k.a.: Group 1
Professionals have greater access to flexible work schedules than non-professionals.
27% of professionals have a high level of overall flexibility, while only with 19% of non-professionals.
26% of professionals have the ability to telecommute versus 8% of non-professionals.
-- (Families and Work)
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), about 13.7 million people worked at home at least once a week.
More time for family
More time for self/leisure
Less money spent on travel
What’s the Attraction?
Overall improved employee productivity
Reduced over-head costs
Employees can choose to work during their most productive time periods during the day
Less distraction and interruption thus cutting the time now needed to “get back on track”.
Employees are less likely to use sick time
Less time needed to commute to work therefore more hours available to actually produce work
Employees are more likely to work harder because they are happier when they can make their own schedules
Overall improved employee productivity
Lack of control over daily activities
Unable to monitor hours of work
Lack of interaction and innovation
Security Issues – Identity, Tax documents etc.
Disadvantages – Employers
Invisible – Out of sight out of mind
Under Appreciated – overlooked for a promotion
Disadvantages – Employees
Decline in transportation
Home purchases decrease
Local Zoning Issues
Disadvantages – Community
2010 employee survey
Most teleworkers in 2010 were:
Around 40 years old
College graduates (almost half, including 25% with post-graduate degrees)
Most employees who work at home have at least a college degree, and a significant percentage have a post graduate degree.
Has an information component
Individual vs. group work tasks
Has clear parameters for evaluation
Not requiring personal contact with customers
Not requiring physical work that could only be done on site
U.S. Jobs Compatible for Telework
A disproportionate share of management, professional, sales and office workers telecommute.
Larger companies are more likely to allow telecommuting than smaller ones.
Non-union organizations are more likely to offer telecommuting than those with unions.
Improved technology, globalization, cost pressures, and an increased interest in business continuity planning are driving the push for more telecommuters in the workforce.
The employee Work at Home population grew 61%between 2005 to 2009.
In December of 2010, the Telework Enhancement Act charged agencies to:
Designate a senior manager to coordinate the agencies’ telework program
Determine eligibility of employees, notify them of their eligibility status, and enter into written agreements with them for those who wish to telework
Develop and implement telework training programs for managers and employees
Telework Enhancement Act
By 2016, the number of regular telecommuters in the U.S. is expected to reach 4.9 million (Telework Research Network.com)
Boyd, P.C. (1996) "Six Organizational Benefits of Telecommuting." Research Advisors. Retrieved from http://research-advisors.com/articles/ttorgbens.html
Gajedran, R.S., and Harrison, D.A. (2007) "The Good, the Bad, and the Unknown about Telecommuting: Meta-analysis of Psychological Mediators and Individual Consequences." Journal of Applied Psychology. n. pag. PsycNET.
Harpaz, I. (2002) "Advantages and Disadvantages of Telecommuting for the Individual, Organization and Society." Work Study. n. pag. Emerald.
Harnish, T. & Lister, K. (2011). The State of Telework in the U.S.: How Individuals, Business, and Government Benefit. Retrieved from http://digioh.com/emd/175377/10sxkd6rrd
International Journal of Management, 23(4), 845-850,943. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/233229498?accountid=11999
Kate, S. W. (2013, Mar 06). Telecommuting: Views vary. Mitcham & Hills Messenger. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1314849193?accountid=11999
Lund, J. R., and Mokhtarian, P.L. (1994). "TELECOMMUTING AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATION: THEORY AND IMPLICATIONS FOR COMMUTE TRAVEL IN MONOCENTRIC METROPOLIS." TRIS and ITRD Database. n. pag. TRB Transportation Research Board.
Mamaghani, F. (2006). Impact of information technology on the workforce of the future: An analysis.
Matos, Kenneth, and Galinsky, Ellen. (2011) Workplace Flexibility Among Professional Employees. Families and Work Institute National Study of the Changing Workforce. Retrieved from http://familiesandwork.org/site/research/reports/WorkFlexAndProfessionals.pdf
Mokhtarian, P. L., Bagley, M. N., & Salomon, I. (1998). The impact of gender, occupation, and presence of children on telecommuting motivations and constraints. Journal of the American Society for Information Science (1986-1998), 49(12), 1115. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/216910609?accountid=11999
Murray, K. (1992, Mar 16). TAKING THEIR WORK HOME telecommuting still unaccepted by many firms. Orange County Register, pp. 0-g01. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/272518636?accountid=11999
Murray, K. (1992, Apr 13). TELECOMMUTING bosses fear employees won't do homework. The Sun. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/406731095?accountid=11999
The Dieringer Research Group Inc. and WorldatWork (2011). Telework 2011: A WorldatWork Special Report Based on Data Collected by The Dieringer Research Group Inc. and WorldatWork
Weinstein, B. (1998, Oct 21). Are you sure you want to telecommute? it's not for all right fit includes proper office equipment, work ethic and supervisor. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/260846583?accountid=11999
WOODARDS, S. (2013, Mar 19). The home office: Employers weigh pros, cons of telecommuting. Capital. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/1317475023?accountid=11999
--Telework Research Network
-The Dieringer Research Group Inc. and WorldatWork
-Telework Research Network
Deborah D. Wright, Phy.D.
La Salle University
Travel costs are significantly reduced because meetings among other things can now be held electronically.
Reduces stress, stress related injuries as well as other illnesses which in turn decreases health insurance costs
Real estate costs as well as utility bills are cut significantly
Reduced Overhead Costs
Telecommuting, often referred to as remote work, or telework is an arrangement in which an employee does not commute to their central place of work. An employee who telecommutes is called a "telecommuter", "teleworker", and is sometimes known as a "home-sourced" employee. Many telecommuters work from home, while other telecommuters, often called "nomad workers", use mobile telecommunications technology to work from coffee shops, libraries, gazebos or other locations.
The terms "telecommuting" and "telework“ were credited to Jack Nilles in 1973.
According to a poll taken by Reuters, an international news agency in London, about “one in five workers around the world, particularly in the Middle East, Latin America and Asia, telecommute frequently and nearly 10 percent work from home or other locations every day".
How Common is This?
Lower Work-Family Conflict
Increased job satisfaction
Increased human resource capacity
Savings in direct expenses
Reduction in environmental damage
Solutions for special-needs populations
Savings in infrastructure and energy
Other Employer Advantages
Flexibility as it applies to adult learning and to work.
Aside from reducing the amount of time and money spent driving to and from work, the long-term effects of telecommuting include a likely change in residential location typically further away from the workplace.
This residential relocation is seen most in metropolitan areas with significant spatial variations in land prices.
This has been the trend in most metropolitan areas in recent decades due to increased numbers of telecommuting.
Long Term Affects of Telecommuting
Jobs that meet the criteria
The original driving force for telework among federal workers was the threat of a bird flu pandemic.
Since then, Hurricane Katrina, ‘Snowmageddon’, Swine Flu, and other crises have bolstered the government’s resolve to make telework a continuity of operations (COOP) necessity.
President Obama has lobbied for telework.
Increase in Federal/Public Sector