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Entrepreneurship: its place in education
Transcript of Entrepreneurship: its place in education
New Junior Certificate
NCCA flagged two main ideas - innovation and identity
One of the key principles - creativity and innovation
"the curriculum provide opportunities for students to develop their abilities and talents in the areas of creativity, innovation and enterprise"
Statements of learning include skills, attitudes and values that can be deemed entrepreneurial eg. critical-thinking skills, making decisions, taking initiative, bringing ideas from conception to realisation
"A degree itself is no longer seen as a ticket for life but barely an entry ticket into the labour market" Gibb (2007)
Graduates may need to recognise their own opportunities and create their own occupations
Role of universities - ethically, globally, environmentally and socially aware graduates
Entrepreneurship education typically province of Louth County Enterprise Board
Adult education generally dealt with by ETBs
Two areas dealt with by two separate organizations (Louth County Enterprise Board 2013a; Co. Louth VEC 2013).
The Roots of Entrepreneurship
What is entrepreneurship?
What are the attitudes, attributes and beliefs of an entrepreneur?
Is this even the question? (Gartner 1989)
Rae (2003) - human motivations and opportunity recognition
Gibb (2007) - broader entrepreneurial paradigm
Gedeon (2010) - multi-dimensional concept lacking coherent definition
“Turning Ideas Into Action” – European Commission 2011
Broader definition required
Entrepreneurial mind-sets essential from many perspectives
Pivotal role of education:
Separate entrepreneurship from business
Innovative teaching and learning techniques
Not just about content, also about delivery
Availability of resources a crucial issue (EC 2008)
Teacher training and supportive environment (EC 2011, Jackson 2006)
"University of Enterprise"?
international and executive students
Start your own business
Courses typically run by entrepreneurs (Discover Zone Programme Ireland 2013)
Is this reasonable?
Educators need subject knowledge
Teachers may lack entrepreneurial mindsets (European Commission 2009, 2011)
ETBs may not be entrepreneurial
Sub-contracting may be correct approach
What is needed now?
Linkage between ETBs and CEBs
LMETB focuses on education leading to more education
Restructuring may change this
New Junior Certificate may show the way
DCU 2012. Strategic Plan 2012-2017 [Online]. Available from: http://www4.dcu.ie/external-strategic-affairs/strategic-plan.shtml [Accessed 4th November 2012]
Co. Louth VEC 2012. Education plan 2011-2015 [Online]. Available from: http://www.louthvec.ie/images/publications/education%20plan%202011-2015.pdf [Accessed November 19 2012].
Discovery Zone Programme Ireland 2013. Discovery zone programme Ireland [Online]. Available from: https://www.facebook.com/DiscoveryZoneIreland [Accessed November 12 2013].
DkIT No date. HEA report -Entrepreneurship Education is strong at DkIT [Online]. Available from: https://www.dkit.ie/ace/documents/hea-report-entrepreneurship-education-strong-dkit [Accessed November 12 2013].
European Commission 2012. Effects and Impact of Entrepreneurship Programmes in Higher Education. Brussels: European Commission.
European Commission 2011. Entrepreneurship education: Enabling teachers as a critical success factor. Brussels: Entrepreneurship Unit, European Commission.
European Commission 2009. Entrepreneurship in vocational education and training: Final report of the expert group. Brussels: European Commission: Enterprise and Industry Directorate-General.
European Commission 2008. Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, Especially Within Non-Business Studies. Brussels: European Commission.
FAS 2013. FAS - about us [Online]. Available from: http://www.fas.ie/en/About+Us/Home/default.htm [Accessed November 12 2013].
Gartner, W.B. 1989. "Who is an entrepreneur?" is the wrong question. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 13(4), pp.47-68.
Gedeon, S. 2010. What is Entrepreneurship? Entrepreneurial Practice Review. 1(3), pp.16-35.
Education and entrepreneurship separate
Entrepreneurship treated as the concern of the business community (Gibb 2007)
Entrepreneurship in ETB depends on individual teachers
Broader definition and application necessary (European Commissions 2009)
Dominant business-school model – “Frankensteinian”
Broader societal model
Gibb (2007) – two models of entrepreneurship
Blueprint for entrepreneurship education in universities
Gibb (2007 and 2011).
Expert Report on Entrepreneurship in Higher Education (EC 2008).
Effects and Impact of Entrepreneurship in Higher Education (EC 2012).
Roots have been planted
Shoots are visible
More nurturing is needed before we see the full bloom of entrepreneurship in education
Second Level Education
Currently entrepreneurial education in limited to business subjects and Transition Year.
Our "Entrepreneurial Culture" (EC 2012)- Young Enterprise, Build A Bank, School Magazine, Great Fintan's Cake Off, School Musical and Young Scientist Competition.
TY naturally lends itself to action learning - limited to one year
Exploring options and alternatives
Implementing ideas and taking action
Changing and taking risks
Being creative through ICT
Framework for new Senior Cycle?
2011 NCCA draft short course for consultation for senior cycle - Enterprise
Where does DCU stand?
Gibb, A. 2007. Entrepreneurship: Unique solutions for unique environments. Is it possible to achieve this with the existing paradigm? International Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 5 pp.93-141.
Gibb, A. 2011. Concepts into practice: Meeting the challenge of development of entrepreneurship educators around an innovative paradigm: The case of the international entrepreneurship educators' programme (IEEP). International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 17(2), pp.146-165.
Jackson, N. 2006. Developing creativity in higher education: an imaginative curriculum. New York, NY: Routledge
Kristensen, T. 2004. The Physical Context of Creativity. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
Louth County Council no date. Business support unit [Online]. Available from: http://www.louthcoco.ie/en/Services/Business_Support_Unit/ [Accessed November 12 2013].
Louth County Enterprise Board 2013a. Louth country enterprise board [Online]. Available from: http://www.lceb.ie/index.asp [Accessed November 12 2013].
Louth County Enterprise Board 2013b. Ethnic entrepreneur programme [Online]. Available from: http://www.lceb.ie/html/ethnic_entrepreneur_programme.asp [Accessed November 12 2013].
Moan, G. 2013. Discovery zone [Online]. Available from: http://www.discoveryzone.gerrymoan.ie/ [Accessed November 12 2013].
National Council for Curriculum and Assessment. 2011. Towards a Framework for Junior Cycle. Innovation and Identity. Dublin: NCCA.
Pihie, Z.A. and Bagheri, A. 2011. Are teachers qualified to teach entrepreneurship? analysis of entrepreneurial attitude and self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Sciences, 11(18), pp.3308-3314.
Rae, D. 2003. Opportunity centred learning: An innovation in enterprise education? Education + Training, 45(8), pp.542-549.
Shane, S. and Venkataraman, S. 2000. The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. The Academy of Management Review, 25(1), pp.217-226.
Entrepreneurship no longer Business School preserve
Professor of Entrepreneurship
Core modules on non-business programmes
Mission statement and strategic objectives
MiNT programme (PNU)
Kristensen (2004) suggests the importance of physical space for creation - hindered by current issues of overcrowding?
Teacher professional development and support for schools and parents
Graduates beginning to look slightly less myopic and a little more athletic
But still have some work to do to finally out-run Gibb’s monster.