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Formalist and Deconstructive Criticism

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Mohd Ibrahim

on 23 June 2014

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Transcript of Formalist and Deconstructive Criticism

New Criticism / Formalism Criticism

New/ Formalist Criticism
Simple Understanding New/Formalist Criticism
Simple Way to Understand Deconstruction Criticism
Example New/ Formalist Criticism
Formalist and Deconstruction Criticism
The Rime of The Ancient Mariner by Samuel Taylor Coleridge
Example of Deconstruction Criticism
Deconstruction Criticism
Deconstruction Criticism
Example Deconstruction
New Criticism is to perform close reading, concentrating on the text by analyzing it using language literary elements. The words and language give its own distinctive character or form.
Formalist Criticism tend to devote the attention to its intrinsic nature and it analyzes on the interplay and relationship between the text`s essential verbal elements.
The new criticism is not influenced by the author's life or with the social and historical circumstances. It is only based on the work itself and the reader have to understand and appreciate the work.

The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost

' Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,
And sorry I could not travel both
And be one traveler,long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could
To where it bent in the undergrowth;'
Deconstruction criticism is the opposite of New/Formalist criticism.
This criticism believe that the language itself can not be enough to express the meaning of the content.
It will be a stable medium to understanding the content and context by using the constructive elements.
Deconstruction Criticism do not focus of what being said with the words, but the way words are use in text.
1) Tyson L. (2006). Critical Theory Today A User-Friendly Guide. Taylor & Francis Group.

2) Castle G. (2007). The Blackwell Guide to Literary Theory. Blackwell Publishing.

3) Newton K. M. (Ed.). (1997). Twentieth-Century Literary Theoryl. Macmillan Press LTD. London.

4) Ayers D.(2008). Literary Theory A Reintroduction. Blackwell Publishing.

5) Davis Con R., Schleifer R. (1998). Contemporary Literary Criticism, Literary and Cultural Studies. Addison Wesley Longman Inc.
Element Of Formalism
These formal technique include:







The speaker comes to a fork in the road and is unsure which way to go. He wants to go both ways, but since he cannot, he decides to take the path not as worn as the other. He plans to take the road he hasn't taken before, because he doesn't think he's going to have to make this choice again.
In the excerpt of The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost, a New Critic would see how the end of
each line rhymes with another
. They would take into account the
Frost uses in describing the road less traveled as being covered with vegetation and not worn down as the other is. He would also look at the roads as
of choices or paths in life.
Most of Frost`s poems were about middle class people with rural lifestyle. He used the theme of individualism in several of his works. Frost also had a difficult life and had to deal with several deaths including his father, mother, and sister.

All of these factors would be
by the New Critic, as though they didn`t impact Frost`s writing style.
History Of Deconstruction
This Criticism was introduced by Jacques Deridda in the 1960`s.

He approached by using this criticism is to violently to destroy the appreciation of the author.
It is because the consequences of this criticism we will be able to interpret and analyze the hardcore of the text.
Time flies like an arrow

like an arrow

Time flies
) like
an arrow

Without changing a word, this one sentence can have many meanings

Deconstruction : A Chain of Signifiers
Deconstruction does not consist of a union of 'signifiers' and ' "signified" is most like a chain of signifier.

a symbol, sound, or image (as a word) that represents an underlying concept of meaning.
Language is a
fleeting and continual change of signifiers
Mohd Ibrahim B. Pishol

Goh Yi Ting

Nur Ameerah Bt. Abdul Rahim

Lilimalar A/P Sekaran
In Conclusion :

New or Formalist Critics look at the
technical aspect of work of literature
. They analyze the elements of fiction & how the author uses literary tools to tell the story and create the picture they want the reader to see.

They disregard all other outside influences & facts about the author.

They look at literature just as it is written ; the words on the page.
The poem, specifically the storm, can be interpreted in several different way.

Religious, Natural, Psychological and just bad luck.
Those who look at the storm religiously might see it as a way for the men in the ship to repent for the sin they made ( killing the albatross )

Those who look at the storm naturally might see it as a way for nature to fight against the men and make them pay for hurting nature and killing the albatross.

Those who look at the storm psychologically might see it as a delusion & just a manifestation of the men's imagination due to the dehydration they all are facing on the ship.

Bad Luck

Those looking at the storm as just the luck of the men might see that the men hit a bad storm pattern and found themselves in a place notorious for bad weather.
Bottom Line

This criticism is mainly explaining that with words/ text/ writing in general, emotions and ideas cannot be properly & precisely conveyed.

Thus, resulting in various interpretations from one single text or even word.

Part I ( Stanza 11 & 12 )

' And now the STORM-BLAST came, and he
was tyrannous and strong :
He struck with his o'ertaking wings,
And chased us south along.

With sloping masts and dipping prow,
As who pursued with yell and blow
Still treads the shadow of his foe,
And forwards bends his head,
The ship drove fast, loud roared the blast,
And southward aye we fled.
Example 2
In A Station Of The Metro By Ezra Pound
THE apparition of these faces in the crowd;
Petals on a wet, black bough.
The End
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