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Transcript of Crime Reconstruction
It’s the determination of the actions and events surrounding the commission of a crime. It comes from a forensic science, the analytics of logic and critical thinking. Conclusion And one more thing... is here Subject 2 Subject 3 Crime Reconstruction is a scientific endeavor that is best performed by qualified forensic scientists. Criminal profilers must have such a background or work closely with those who do. its sometimes confused with crime scene reconstruction, which is basically an investigation of the crime scene. However, they are not the same thing, because it is based on the evidence processing done at the scene of crime, the results of the scene investigation and the analysis of the physical evidence. They do this through:
• Statements of witnesses
• Confessions of suspects
• The statement of the living victim
• Examination and interpretation of the physical evidence A crime Reconstructionist is not an analyst or profiler, one has to have the ability to put together a puzzle using pieces of unknown dimensions without guiding a certain picture. The answers are not always apparent from the results. The answer is not always forthcoming when asked. Approaching the RECONSTUCTION There are several approaches to reconstruction. We have to consider ethics, bias, standards, the crime scene investigation, evidence dynamics, and other issues.
This chapter introduces the criminal profiler to the problem of crime reconstruction, and related considerations, to enable an informal behavioral evidence analysis. Crime reconstruction is thus based on a firm understanding of Locard’s exchange principle; he is the director of first crime laboratory in france. He says, that with contact between two items there will be an exchange of microscopic material. Including fibers, hair, pollen, paint. So by documenting, Dr. Locard found that criminals could be traced and later associated with particular locations, items of evidence, and persons. He described it as if we’re hunting after something. As a murder kills, you can find blood on the floors, you can find broken window, a knife. Every contact leaves a trace that may be discovered and understood. We see the effect we observe it, and then we conclude the cause behind it. Part II in Reconstruction : Crime Reconstruction and Experience: Dr Hans Goss in 1924 emphasized the importance of learning from experience. He believed we must be critical, and we must question everything- to question WHY something happened, or WHAT has caused it to happen, and then investigate.
Reconstructionists have to have critical thinking, they have to dig in for facts from their speculations, and connect facts together to reach a conclusion. Spark (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr 1)Observe the evidence of events related to clues 2)Determine what might be learnt of events from each observation 4)Propose alternative explanations for events. 3)Postulate what each observation means in light of the crime (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr Steps of Reconstruction 5) Eliminate alternatives with analytical logic, critical thinking, and experimentation. 6)Sequence events until the picture is completed. How will the reconstructionist describe evidence? What do reconstructionists ask? (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr WHO? WHAT?
Categories fitting these questions will be Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Body Sequential Evidence Directional Evidence Locational Evidence Action Evidence Contact Evidence Ownership Evidence Associative Evidence Limiting Evidence Inferred Evidence Temporal Evidence Psychological Evidence Evidence Dynamics Dynamic Evidence: PreDiscovery During the investigations, Reconstructionists must accept that each item of evidence at a crime scene will go through some or all of these before it’s actually recognized.
There are things that change the nature of the evidence
1. Creation at the scene
2. Changes due to time ( blood and semen dry; dead bodies decompose, or stiffen)
3. Changes caused by environment (rain, heat, cold, wind)
4. Alteration/destruction/creation by individuals involved in their duties including first officers at the scene, investigators, supervisors.
5. Discovery that is evident only after stepping on it. Every time I roll up on a scene and see the tape coming off of a patrol car, tied to a telephone pole or something like that, I just shake my head. Everybody’s so worried about searching inside the tape by the time they realize the crime took place on the other place of it; they walked all over the evidence. And that’s if they didn’t park their vehicle on it.’ THE CRIME SCENE: OFFENDER ACTIONS Precautionary Acts Ritual of Fantacy Staging VICTIM ACTION SECONDARY TRANSFER WITNESSES WEATHER/CLIMATE INSECT ACTIVITY- ANIMAL PREDATION FIRE AND FIRE SUPPRESSION EFFORTS THE FIRST PERSONNEL/POLICE EMERGENCY MEDICAL TEAM SECURITY DYNAMIC EVIDENCE POST DISCOVERY After they discover the evidence, reconsturctionists must be aware that evidence dynamics still occur AFTER discovery.
After investigating and getting evidence; each item of evidence has to go through one or all of the following:
4) Preserved before delivery to the lab
5) Transported to forensic lab
7) Compared to known, unknown and controls
8) Individualized as a unique piece of evidence
9) Interpreted with other evidence from the case
10) Disposal of storage/destruction/loss/deterioration at the crime scene FAILURE TO SEARCH OR RECOVER EVIDENCE TECHNICIANS
CORNER/MEDICAL EXAMINER PREMATURE SCENE CLEANUP PACKAGING
TRANSPORTATION STORAGE EXAMINATION BY FORENSIC PERSONNEL CHAIN OF CUSTODY/CHAIN OF EVIDENCE Evidence should be properly marked or labeled for identification as it is collected or as soon as practicable after wards. Each transfer of evidence would be receipted, protected with the names of people from whom evidence was received and to whom it was delivered.
Photographs and measurements of the evidence that document its condition and location in the crime scene are important Influence of Technology on Crime Scene Investigation