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Trees and Forests

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by

kai sul

on 13 June 2013

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Transcript of Trees and Forests

Trees and Forests
Why are forests valued?
Forest Ecosystem
Forests and Humans
Trees
Thank-you for looking at my prezi.
Bibliography
Wildlife
Recreation
Jobs
Products
Conclusion
Camping
Hiking
Fishing
Hunting
Safaris
Boating
Logging
Paper
Toilet
Cardstock
Cardboard
Wood
Syrup
Coyotes
Bears
Fox
Deer
Elk
Bird
Fish
Raccoons
Squirrels
Moose
Rabbits
Bugs
In conclusion, without forests we wouldn't be alive, for example bees are in forests and they pollinate the flowers that we need to breathe and all the plants feed the moose, deer, etc. and the moose feed the coyotes.
Members of a forest ecosystem
Biotic vs. Abiotic
Biotic - are or were alive
Abiotic - not ever alive
Roles in a food chain
Producers
Consumers
Decomposers
Example food chain
amphibians (frogs...)
wild cats (lynx, cougar)
wolves/coyotes
birds
foxes
trees
plants (flower, berry)
reptiles
rodents (mice, squirrels)
bears
insects
fungi
deer
elk
moss
bacteria
moose
caribou
bats
bison
buffalo
unqulates (deer)
arachndes (spiders)
rocks/clay
dirt/soil
water
sunlight
sand
elements/chemicals/minerals
air
Gets energy by making it's own food through photosynthesis (using sunlight)
flowering plants
bushes
grasses
trees
vines
moss
fruit/berry plants
Get energy by eating other living things, such as producers or other consumers
Primary
Secondary
Tertiary
(consume producers)
(consume primarys)
(consume secondarys)
Deer
Moose
Coyotes
Foxes
Bears
Rabbits
Squirrels
Birds
Weasels
Get energy by breaking down dead matter, return nutrients to the soil.
earthworms
millipedes
flies
ants
centipedes
mites
cockroaches
fungi
mold
beatles
bacteria
pillbugs
Sun
Legumes
White-Tailed Deer
Gray Wolf
Coyote
Decomposer
Effect on Abiotic Factors
Temperature -
Soil -
Wind -
Moisture -
Trees make the air cooler
because they give off shade.
Trees prevent erosion to the soil because
the root networks keep the soil from washing or blowing away.
The trees block the wind because many
trees together create a "wind break" (wall)
(producer)
(primary consumer)
(secondary consumer)
(tertiary consumer)
Trees make the forest more humid
and the soil more moist because the leaves
give off moisture and the soil will be more
shaded , so there is less evaporation
Interactions with
other species
Tent Caterpillar -
Leaf Miner -
Yellow Bellied Sapsucker -
Blight (on leaves) -
Wikipedia
Hope you liked it!
The Tent Caterpillar eats
leaves from the trees so they are detrimental (harmful) to trees.
Image Source: Creative Commons
The Leaf Miner eats leaves so it is
detrimental to trees as well
Deer eat leaves and bark off the trees and
rub their antlers which harms the tree.
Yellow Bellied
Sapsuckers peck holes in
trees then suck the sap
from the tree, killing it.
Blight gets on
leaves and into wood then
gradually destroys them.
Fungus, Lichen
and Conks
Fungus -
Lichen -
Conks -
Fungus is a Decomposer so it cannot use the sun
Lichen grow on walls, rocks, tree bark and other places
types are Crustose ( flat and crusty),Foliose (curl up a little off suface also leaflike)and Fruticose (branched and grow upright or hang, very treelike.)
Conks are a type of fungus and are found attached to tree
to create it's own food. Fungi live where they can absorb minerals and water from the remains of plants and animals.
Lichens grow very slowly and live for a very long time. they can withstand extreme heat and cold weather. The three most common
Deer -
Levels of a forest
Upper Canopy -
Middle level or Understory -
Herb, Underbrush, or Shrubbery layer -
Forest Floor -
The Upper Canopy is the top level of the forest
trunks. They appear to be soft but are very hard and firmly attached to the trunk of the tree
Fungi
Lichen
Conks
formed by leaves and branches of tallest trees. Different birds like owls
Make their home here as well as insects like aphids or tent caterpillars
The middle level of the forest is home to
smaller trees and larger shrubs. It provides a sheltered space for birds and small mammals to travel. Many insects, lichen, squirrels, woodpeckers, and many other birds can be found living here.
This level of the forest many
animals and plants like ferns, wildflowers and other soft stem plants, tree seedlings,
butterflies, dragonflies, mice, weasels, deer, porcupine, skunks, and much more animals find their food sources in this layer.
This level includes ground cover and soil. The ground cover
includes leaf litter, mushrooms, insects, salamanders, toads, moss, and flowers. There are a thin layers of organic and mineral materials covering bedrock. Worms, bacteria, soil insects, tree roots, spiders, millipedes and centipedes are found here.
Cycles
Nutrient Cycle:
Oxygen Cycle:
Water Cycle:
1 Nutrients in the soil absorbed by the roots
2 Nutrients travel up the trunk to the leaves
Producer
3 Leaves fall to the ground or are eaten by the consumers
Consumer
4 Decomposers break down dead plant and animal matter and return the nutrients to the soil
Water
(from ground)
Light
CO 2 (carbon dioxide)
Raw materials taken in from the air
O2
(oxygen)
Water Vapour
Oxygen
Condensation
Precipitation
rain
snow
hail
Run-off
Gas (H2O)
-water vapour
Collection in ponds, rivers, streams, etc.
Evaporation
H2O
Transpiration- plants lose water daily through the process of transpiration
What makes a tree a tree?
Trees vs. plants
Parts of a tree
Deciduous vs. Coniferous
Tree Identification
Classification Keys
Leaf Type
Leaf / needle Arrangement
Leaf Margins
Leaf Shapes
Bark Patterns
Branching
Patterns
Shapes / Silhouettes
Linear
Oblong
Oval
Ovate
Cordate
Lobed
Deltoid
Orbicular
4 sided
needle
Flattened
needle
Tree
Plant
Perennial
Perennial, Annual, or Biennial
Trunk
Stem
Woody Material
Woody or non-woody material
Leaves or Needles
Leaves
Flowers, Fruit, Seeds
Flowers, Fruit, Seeds
Annual - Once a year completes life cycle with in
a year.
Biennial - Occurs every 2 years and takes
2 seasons to grow
Roots -
Trunk -
Outerbark -
Branch -
Needles or Leaves -
Cones -
Crown -
Xylem -
Phloem -
Cambium -
Heartwood -
Sapwood -
anchor the tree in the ground and
absorb water and minerals from the soil
strongest part of the tree providing support
for the rest of the tree; contains 4 parts
outer part of the trunk; is dead tissue;
protects the living parts underneath
lateral extensions of the trunk that grows leaves,
flowers, fruit and seeds
small, woody structures which produce seeds
flat or needle-like structures
containing most of the chlorophyll anf are the main sites
of photosynthesis. Use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide
to produce food for the trees and free oxygen
on coniferous trees
the upper part of a tree made up of
branches, twigs,leaves, needles, buds
and cones
hollow cells that
transport water and minerals from the
roots throughout the tree make up the
wood of the tree
tissue that moves up the sap up
and down a tree, makes up the inner bark or
layer next to the outer bark; transports nutrients
made in the trees leaves down to the roots. The
tree will die if this layer is damaged
Types of trees
Deciduous
Coniferous
Leaf
Needle
Shedding of leaves
Shape of leaves
Water retention
How much water it holds in
Temperature
Resistance
Shed leaves in fall
Shed continuously. (most do not shed leaves in one season)
broad-leafed or needle shaped
needle-shaped leaves
Leaves waxy topside and large suface area on underside, causing moisture loss
thick, waxy coating reduces water loss from transpiration
do not withstand temperature extremes
do not withstand temperature extremes
thin yellowish white layer found
between the sapwood and inner bark which
produces new xylem cells (wood) every year,
allowing the tree to grow
non-living core of tree
stem, giving the stem strength.
Heartwood
Full transcript