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Transcript of Civil War
ThroughMaps, Charts,Graphs &Pictures
North vs. South in 1861
Who had the advantage at the start of the Civil War, the Union or the Confederacy, and why do you think so?
By the #'s
Combat Age Pop
N - 100k S - 20k
N - 70k miles S - 9k
N - $190k S - $50k
N - 2.5 ~ 2.7m S - 750k ~ 1.2m
Total = 31.5m
N - 22m S - 9m of which 3.5m are slaves
N - 4m S - 1.2m
Immigrants as a % of a State’s Population in 1860
The Border States
What does this map show?
The South is a huge area to conquer.
The North the invading army (unfamiliar ground)
Southerners are fighting on own turf (defending homes)
Carried about 7 lbs of ammo
Union soldiers have better supplies
Chance of surviving a wound 7:1 (15%) Today 100:1
N - 2k under 13 yrs 200k under 16
S - George Lamkin of MS signed up at 11 and was badly injured 1 yr later @ Shiloh
N - Most African Americans support (eventually 10% of union army)
S - Most Native Americans support
N - drafted soldiers - not willing to fight, overly cautious officers
S - better trained soldiers and better generals
N - 90 vessels S - 10 vessels
1. Blockade all port cities
2. Control the Mississippi
3. Take over Richmond
1. Wait on North to tire
2. Use cotton to form alliance w/ England
3. Crippling victory in North
Who's goals will be easier to reach?
Leaders of the Confederacy
President Jefferson Davis
VP Alexander Stevens
"All we ask is to be left alone."
"The North was mad and blind, would not let us govern ourselves, and so the war came."
"If the Confederacy fails there shall be written on its tombstone: Died of a theory."
Not a popular president especially with supporters of state's rights
The Confederate White House
"With God as our vindicator"
#2 in CSA
#3 in CSA
Robert E. Lee
"My chief concern is to be a humble and earnest Christian."
"It is good that war is so terrible, or else we should grow too fond of it."
"What a cruel thing war is...to fill our hearts full of hatred instead of love for our neighbors."
Father was Revolutionary War hero Henry Lighthorse Lee
Home was taken over by Union soldiers early in the war and used to bury dead (Arlington Nat. Cemetery)
Was offered command of Union army, but turned it down when VA left
Leaders of the Union
"A House divided against itself cannot stand."
"Let there be no compromise on the issue of extending slavery."
"No man espousing the good of slavery ever wants it tried on him."
Strong rep of honesty, temperance, and joking
His tactics are still studied by military leaders today
#1 Winfield Scott
Hero of the MX War
Reason fired: Look at him
#2 Irwin McDowell
Bull Run loss
#3 George McClellan
"If McClellan does not want to use the army, I would like to borrow it for a time."
#4 John Pope
Loss @ 2nd
#5 Ambrose Burnside
#7 George Meade
Loss @ Fredericksburg
#6 Joseph Hooker
#8 George McClellan
Didn't he already get fired once?
#9 US Grant
"I can't spare this man, HE FIGHTS!"
"When in doubt, fight"
"The art of war is simple enough. Find out where your enemy is. Get at him as soon as you can. Strike as hard as you can, and keep moving on."
"If you see the President tell him for me no matter what happens, there is no turning back."
Son of an Ohio Tailor
Drunken failure until war broke out.
Real name: Hirum Ulysses Grant
Becomes 18th President after the war
Where would you put government as a strength or weakness on your chart?
Who has an advantage when it comes to motivation?
Battle of Bull Run
8 – 10 thousand bullets fired for every man killed or wounded
“There stands Jackson, like a stone wall! Rally round the Virginians!”
Outcome: Confederate victory – war would not be easy
The Battle of the Ironclads
South renames Merrimack “Virginia”
Never again able to seriously challenge the union blockade
War in the East
Battle of Antietam (Sharpsburg)
“Bloodiest Single Day of the War”
Sept. 17, 1862
Lee vs McClellan(23k total casualties)
Lee’s battle plans were left at an abandoned
camp and found by northern scouts.
McClellan was slow to act which allowed the Confederate army to escape back to Virginia.
Battle of Fredericksburg
“Embarrassing Union Defeat”
December 11th, 1862
Lee vs Burnside
Union mowed down while attacking uphill
N - 13k casualties
S - 5k casualties
Battle of Chancellorsville “Stonewall Killed”
Lee and Jackson vs Hooker
Confederate victory – 12,000 to 17,000
After the battle Stonewall Jackson was killed by his own men. He was riding to inspect his men at the front lines and they thought he was an approaching Union cavalry.
Lee remarked, “Jackson has lost his left arm, but I have lost my right.”
July 1-3 1863
Gettysburg was called the “high water mark” of the Confederacy. After that battle, General Lee’s army was never able to launch another major offensive.
More than 3,000 horses were killed at Gettysburg alone.
12,000 soldiers had to march across 1,000 yards of open land to attack Union lines
Longstreet advised Lee against this attack
In less than an hour Pickett suffered 10,000 casualties
After the battle Pickett blamed Lee for the massacre of his men
Lee offered his resignation to J. Davis, but he refused to accept
War in the West
Battle of Shiloh
April 6, 1862
Grant vs Beauregard
Grant’s goal is to take control of the MS River - accomplished
Grant’s losses – 13,000
Beauregard’s – 10,600
Grant also takes Forts Henry and Donelson
Battle of Vicksburg
May - July 1863
Grant vs Pemberton
Grant had 77,000 men compared to Pemberton’s 30,000
Pemberton surrendered his entire army to Grant (29,000)
This marks the second time grant has captured an entire Confederate army (Fort Donelson)
Grant lost about 5,000 men
Progress of the war
Sherman's March to the Sea
1864 = Total War
The Final Campaign
Surrender at Appomattox
April 9, 1865
The Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863
Battles prominently featuring Black soldiers
Siege of Pettersburg
June 1864 - April 1865
Lee vs Grant
52k vs 67 - 125k
Best known for the Battle of the Crater
Union victory will lead to the fall of Confederate Capital Richmond, VA
The Union institutes the draft
Enlistment bonuses “bounties” were as much as $677 dollars in NY
Bounty jumping became a profession – one man jumped 32 times before he was caught
Paying $300 got you out of service. In the South if you owned more than 20 slaves you’re doing your duty to the homeland.
The Irish were "recruited" heavily
As were African Americans
NYC Draft Riots, (July 13-16, 1863)
A “Pogrom” against Black citizens
Inflation in the South
The Peace Movement:
Clement Vallandigham (OH)
After the Battle of Gettysburg, the discarded rifles were collected and sent to Washington to be inspected and reissued. Of the 37,574 rifles recovered, approximately 24,000 were still loaded; 6,000 had one round in the barrel; 12,000 had two rounds in the barrel; 6,000 had three to ten rounds in the barrel. One rifle, the most remarkable of all, had been stuffed to the top with twenty-three rounds in the barrel.
John Wilkes Booth
April 14th, 1865
"Now he belongs to the ages"
Lincoln becomes a...
Takes over for Lincoln
Impeached by Republicans but not removed
Tried to follow Lincoln’s plan for readmitting Southern states to the Union (10% Plan)
Elected the 18th President of the United States
Serves 2 terms
Most corrupt administration in US history
Lincoln's Gettysburg Address
The Civil War in 4 Minutes
The 13th Amendment
The War Between the States
"Slavery is only the subject, but Abolition the cause of this civil war. Neither will I be stopped by that other cry of mingled fanaticism and hypocrisy, about the sin and barbarism of African slavery. Sir, I see more of barbarism and sin, a thousand times, in the continuance of this war.”