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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

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by

Leo Lee

on 12 August 2014

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Transcript of Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

Introduction to Psychology
Theoretical Approaches
Psychological
Psychological disorders are the result of unconscious conflict.
Sociocultural
Psychological disorders are the result of the larger external environment of a person’s life.
Not Biological
Not Interactionist (biopsychosocial)

Theoretical Approaches
According to the DSM-V (2013),
-DID is most likely caused by childhood trauma as in nearly all cases,
-the disorder has been preceded by abuse, often sexual or another form of severe emotional trauma in childhood
Malcom Rivers, abandoned at a motel by his prostitute mother as a child.

Ed Dakota
Malcolm Rivers
(Primary Identity)
Conclusion
Content
Malcolm Rivers
abandoned at a motel by his prostitute mother as a child
psychotic killer
awaiting execution
suffers from an extreme case of DID
Doctor Malik
try to persuade the Judge to spare Rivers

IDENTITY
Malcolm Rivers
Discussion
Knowledge and Support
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
Formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD).
Presence of two or more distinct identities that repeatedly take control of a patient's behavior.
Fail to recall selected memories or personal information

Significance
DID prevalence Schizophrenia
Prevalence

Background
Concept developed by Janet Pierre, Sigmund Freud, and Joseph Breuer.
1 of the 5 dissociative disorders classified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).

1-3% of general
population

0.55-1% general
population

But,
rigorous research
appropriate treatment services
charity support
government investment
for schizophrenia is way more and better
developed than DID.

Robert Maine
Officer Rhodes
Caroline Suzanne
The York Family: George, Alice, Timmy
Paris NevadaRivers

Lou
Ginny Isiana
An article by Spring (2014),
-Not a mental illness with a biological cause
-Developmental adaptations in the brain to a difficult early life environment
-Grow up unaware (denial) of traumatic history until psychological defenses can no longer cope
-Most of the adults who developed mental illness have a history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood.

According to Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2004),
1) A routine of torture, sexual abuse or neglect.
2) A need to defend the primary identity.
3) Children dissociate themselves from their trauma by creating separate identities.
4) Let the manufactured identities to suffer the unbearable experience.

4 Criteria to develop DID
1) Abuse that begins before age of five
2) Severe and repeated abuse
3) The natural ability to dissociate easily
4) The absence of support from adult

(Hatloy, 2013)

Literature Review
Literature Review
According to Encyclopedia of Mental Disorders (2004),
1) A routine of torture, sexual abuse or neglect.
2) A need to defend the primary identity.
3) Children dissociate themselves from their trauma by creating separate identities.
4) Let the manufactured identities to suffer the unbearable experience.

4 Criteria to develop DID
1) Abuse that begins before age of five
2) Severe and repeated abuse
3) The natural ability to dissociate easily
4) The absence of support from adult

(Hatloy, 2013)

Blueford (2013)
,

Purpose:
-Identify the reasons that cause DID,
-Hhighlights the fact that effective treatments are accessible
Method:
-Reviews and analyze literature and models developed by previous researchers to diagnosis DID.
Results:
-No one model is the solitary focus
-Found many researchers agree that childhood trauma plays a major role in the development of DID.

Barlow and Chu (2014),

Objective:
-To measure integration and fragmentation in a DID person using Integration measure (IM) and compare it with other measures as IM is the first standardized measure in DID.
Method:
-Trauma, dissociation questionnaires, IM.
-Participants provide verbal results about switching among alternate identities
Results:
-IM provides a useful beginning to quantify and study integration.
-Fragmentation in DID was highly correlated with trauma.


D’Andrea, Ford, Spinazzola, and van der Kolk (2012),

Objectives:
-Understanding interpersonal trauma in children
-To study the criteria that is needed to confirm a child is victimized or not
Method:
-Reviewed research that suggests guidelines for broadening current diagnostic conceptualizations for abused children.
Results:
-a victimized child has a wide range of symptoms
-Some of the children are either undertreatmant or overtreatment


Society needs to know more about DID.
Friends and family should be alert about the symptoms.
Early treatment reduces negative impact.
Family members have to learn how to cope with the situation.
Give support

Reduce Child Abuse Cases
Most effective way to prevent DID.
Less child abuse, there will be less traumatic events.
Counseling and therapy sessions- abused children- cope

Society Role
Society should not discriminate people who have DID.
Reject DID people- increase anxiety- worsen mental heath- cause social problems
Build more foundation to fund the research on DID.
Some charities event to raise the fund and awareness of DID.

Allman (2013),

Purpose:
-Acquire knowledge specifically about helpful and hindering aspects of treatment from the perspective of the client diagnosed with DID.
Method:
-Interview
Results:
-DID patients are frustrated and disappointed with the mental health system.
-Think that the treatments need to be invested for a long period
Additional:
-Allman also stated that traumatic events or abuse history are essential for the DID treatment


There are many causes, symptoms and treatment suggested by researchers.
Controversies of the true cause, correct symptoms and most effective treatment have been going on for a long time
Maybe, we will never find out what is the right approach to DID
People with DID have a hard life.
Most of the DID people show a lower level of happiness compare to normal people.

Strength & Limitations
Strength of Report
Well known topic, DID.
Many people are interested in the symptoms and the characteristics of DID.
Often used in movies and TV-series.
After reading this report, people will more interested and hungry for more information about DID.

Limitations
Less-than-certain causes of DID.
-There has been a lot of study that tried to find out the causes, but most of the studies lack of empirical evidence to support its argument
The treatment for DID also varies among different therapists
-No standardized treatment
-Some helpful, some harmful
Less research journals about DID these days
-Most of the journals are from the 90s.
-Not suitable for the assignment requirement, which is from 2012-2014

All in all, DID is a very special and interesting mental disorder to study or discuss.

But, because of its nature, which is very complex and full of variables, it is very hard to be studied.
Thank you :)
Full transcript