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Groups & Teams

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Abbie Chadd

on 26 January 2017

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Transcript of Groups & Teams

Groups & Teams
Actual Productivity = Potential productivity - losses due to faulty processes
Nature of groups & teams
Steiner's Model
describe the nature of a group/team (mutual awareness, interaction, common goal);
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of Steiner’s model of group performance (awareness of problems associated with productivity of a group/team);
demonstrate knowledge and understanding of motivational factors (social loafing); coordination/co-operation factors (Ringlemann effect) and explain the negative influences on behaviour that cause dysfunctional behaviour and avoidance of an active and healthy lifestyle;
explain the factors affecting the formation and development of a cohesive group/team;
explain the factors affecting participation in a group/team;
explain group and team effects on behaviour (related to balanced, active and healthy lifestyles).
Social Loafing & the Ringleman effect
Factors affecting the formation & development of a cohesive group or team
Factors affecting participation in a group or team
Group & team effects on behaviour related to BHAL.
Factors affecting team cohesion
Mutual awareness
Common goal
The team performance at a given time in a game or event & refers to the extent of successful interaction.
The maximum capability of the group when cohesiveness appears at its strongest
The factors which can go wrong in team perfromance preventing cohesion and distracting from the potential of a team.
Co-ordination losses
Motivational losses
The Ringlemann Effect
Playing card challenge...
Two faulty processes are....
Social Loafing
The Ringleman Effect (Co-ordiation losses)
A breakdown in teamwork is known as a co-ordination loss.
Losses occur because the operational effectiveness of the group as a unit cannot be sustained for the duration of the game/event.
Ringleman stated that problems in team co-ordination are more likely to occur as the team numbers increase e.g. a basketball team of 5 players is less likely to experience co-ordination problems than a team of 15 in rugby.
Much research of this was based on tug of war. It was found that a team of 8 when operating as a collective failed to aggregate the same weight pulled when performing individually.
Social Loafing (Motivational losses)
Individuals can suffer from a decrease in motivation during performance.
Players feel a loss of personal responsibility.
This can cause players to withdraw effort and 'coast' through the game.
Social loafing prevents team co-ordination and can inhibit team cohesion
If the player feels their performance is not valued or watched by the coach
If a player has low self confidence they can use social loafing to protect their esteem
If a player has suffered a negative experience
Feeling that others arnt trying
If a task is perceived as too difficult (links to avoidance behaviour)
Negative influences that can cause social loafing and cause dysfunctional behaviour
Much research of this was based on tug of war. It was found that a team of 8 when operating as a collective failed to aggregate the same weight pulled when performing individually.
Group cohesion: The tendency of a group or team to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives.
Task cohesion:
Most important in interactive sports
Social cohesion:
Most important in co-active sports or activities
Environmental Factors
Time available
Leadership style
Group size
Hostility of the environment
Event importance
Individual/Personal Factors
Motivation level of individuals
Leadership Factors
Prefered leadership style
Relationship of the leader & the group
Team Factors
Collective team goals
Record of shared success/past experiences
Sharing norms & values
Allocation of clear roles
Team building exercises
Evaluation of each members performance reduces social loafing
Punishment of non-team/non cohesive players
Selection of team players promotes cohesion
Team goals!!
Rehearsal of set plays
Reinforcement of team
Strong leadership
Positive effects:
Spink & Carron (1994) found increased levels of group cohesion help individuals to commit & persist with exercise programmes.
Groups can provide social support & endorse the value of a performer.
The desire to conform to norms & values can also be positive.
Intrinsic motivation can be raised if a performer feels valued as part of a group - more likely to continue a BAHL.
Negative effects:
The desire to conform to norms and values can also work in the opposite way.
People may withdraw from a group if they feel they do not belong (protecting self esteem).
Promoting Cohesion.....
In pairs you have 2 minutes to create the biggest card tower possible.
Now join forces with the rest of your table...you have 2 minutes to create an even bigger card tower.
1. What do we mean by group norms?
2. Give an example of a group norm.
3. What is task cohesion?
4. What is social cohesion?
5. Give an example of an environmental factor which affects cohesion.
6. Give 5 ways a coach can help to promote cohesion.
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