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Dainius Rimavicius Unit 11 Assignment 1

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Dainius Rimavicius

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Transcript of Dainius Rimavicius Unit 11 Assignment 1

Dainius Rimavicius
Unit 11 Assignment 1
System analysis and design is a technical approach for analyzing and designing business. It includes three principles which are:
1. Studying of the system already in place.
2. Specifying the requirements.
3. Designing and implementing new systems.

The process of system analysis has many ways of being done depending on the company. However, the main purpose of it is the same, to always be
organized
and
structured
.

The person responsible for system analysis is
System Analyst
. This role requires to process data requirements of the organization and make decisions to improve the business. Those decisions could be introducing computer systems if there aren't any or making modifications to the existing computer systems. The system analyst would have to specify how the new computer systems would work, what would be the software and hardware requirements and lastly implement and ensure that new system is working effectively.

Because system analyst is very important role within organization, it requires to have deep insight of the organization and how computers are used. You have to be excellent at communication in order to be able to extract and gather information.
Systems analysis and design
In order to analyze the business for further improvements the relevant and highly detailed information needs to be gathered. These are the most effective methods of information gathering:
Interviews
- require an analyst with excellent communication skills to extract information from the employees within the organization. This method will provide the analyst with detailed information on what employees within organization do.
Pros
: Will provide the analyst with detailed information about company's functionally and its goals.
Cons
: It costs money for the employer and it can be restricted by the geographical location.

Observations
- require the analyst to closely observe and monitor what employees within organization are doing. Unlike interviews, it doesn't require any questions to be asked to extract information.
Pros
: Will show what employes are actually doing.
Cons
: Time consuming and same as interviews can be restricted by geographical location.

Questionnaire
- requires a form with a series of well though questions in order to gather relevant information. The questionnaire could be sent to the employee's email address or it could be printed and handed out.
Pros
: Allows to extract information from large groups of people and is not limited by the geographical location.
Cons
: Costly. It requires an expert in designing questionnaires in order to make questionnaire that will gather relevant information.

Documentation
- requires the analyst to thoroughly analyze documentations of different departments within the organization in order to analyze how the information flows within the organization.
Pros
: All documents, represent data flows. Those flows help to create data dictionaries.



Methods of Analysis
Poor business analysis and design might cause poor outcomes and big failures. Trying to save money and rushing the system analysis and design can make the company to lose money in the long run and negatively impact company's growth.

Poor business analysis and design might cause communication issues which could lead to the work being split inefficiently. Furthermore, important deadline could be missed and company could find itself having insufficient budget for necessary equipment.

In order to minimize the risks, the system analysis and design should be always done by an expert system analyst and it should never be rushed.
The consequences of the poor analysis or design.
Key Business Drivers
- they are the most important factors of the business as they determent the increase of business value and major development. It could be a resource, process or condition that is essential for the continued success and growth. In order for the company to be successful, it has to identify it's key business drivers and try to improve all the business drivers that are under control. They need to be constantly updated to be in sync with the latest trends it their market and technology.

Example
of Key Business Drivers of Apple.
This business manufactures electronic devices such as mobile phones and computers.
Design and innovation
- Apple is constantly updating it's design and making a research on new innovations in order to be able to compete with their competitors.
Customer Service
: Apple's products are more expensive compared to it's competitors' and this is why customer service is very important factor. It makes company's image look better and prevents losing clients.
Maintaining high profit margin
- allows Apple to afford to design innovative products and maintain best customer service.
Key Business Drivers
Stages of a development life cycle

Benefits of careful systems analysis and design
Initial assessment
Feasibility study
User Requirements
Existing system evaluation
Logical system design
Detailed system specification
Coding, testing and debugging
Installation, fine-tuning
Evaluation
Maintenance
Enhancement
Waterfall
is a sequential design process that is usually followed when developing software applications. In waterfall model, each phase must be completed fully before the next phase can begin. At the end of each phase, a review takes place to determine if the project is on the right path and whether or not to continue or discard the project
Advantages
:
Simple and easy to understand
Easy to manage as each phase has specific deliverable and a review process
Phases and processed are completed one at the time. No overlapping
Works well or smaller projects as requirements are well understood
Spiral
development life cycle is very similar to the waterfall. It has more emplasis placed on the risk analysis. It has 4 phases: Determine objectives, Identify and resolve risks, Develop and Test, Plan the next Iteration.
Advantages
:
High amounts of risk analysis
Strong approval and documentation control
Additional Functionality can be added at a later date.
Software is produced early in the software life cycle.

Spiral model should be used for the larger projects, when costs and risk evaluation is important. It helps to identify problems early before they could have negative impact and allows to produce a better system. Spiral mode allows rolling back to the previous version so it is suitable for projects where users are unsure of their needs.
Disadvantages
:
Inability of making changes to the system
Cannot go back to the previous stage
High amounts of risk and uncertainty
Poor model for long and ongoing projects.
Disadvantages
:
Can be a costly model to use.
Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.
Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
Does not work well for smaller projects.
Waterfall model should be used for the smaller projects where requirements are clear. The client should have a high confidence in the organization because this model does not allow rolling back. Waterfall model could also be used in developing a new version of an existing product.
Careful system analysis and design has many benefits. If it is performed properly, the best path is taken in regards of the application by implementing the most efficient development model which addresses project deadlines, their scheduling and budgeting. Careful analysis of existing business ensures that risk of project running over-budget or over-time is drastically reduced by the means of careful consideration of the time and budged required to complete the overall project and implementing the most efficient schedule. Good quality software that meets requirements gets developed as the best development cycle is used that guides through system development. "User requirements" is the first step when following development cycle such as waterfall, therefore user requirements are clear and software get's designed according to the user requirements. Good design allows better project management through changing the software to adapt to any business changes, this means that the finished system will be totally controllable. If any changes or improvements would be required, there would be no need to rewrite the whole software as the software is designed to be maintainable or more transferable. Rewriting whole software is costly compared to amendment. Lastly, careful system analysis and design supports key business drivers that allow business to grow and make money. Better software might allow organization to provide better customer support or make their website more user friendly that helps to attract clients.
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