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The History of Instructional Design
Transcript of The History of Instructional Design
instructional design (n):
The process by which instruction is improved through the analysis of learning needs and systematic development of learning experiences. Instructional designers often use technology and multimedia as tools to enhance instruction.
The origins of instructional design have been traced to World War II (1940s).
Training materials were designed by psychologists and educators for the military.
The History of Instructional Design and Technology
"Making Learning More Effective and Efficient"
Dr. Robert Gage Interview
World War II introduced the the Instructional Technologist position.
Founded the theory on "Conditions of Learning"
Identified five domains of learning outcomes: information, intellectual skills, cognitive strategies, motor skills, and attitudes
U.S. Government produced 457 instructional training films and purchased 55,000 film projectors.
Instructional television grew in education, as TVs became more popular.
FCC set asides 242 educational TV channels in 1952.
Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in 1958.
Michael Scriven coined the terms “formative evaluation” and “summative evaluation”.
The Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965
Robert Glaser founded an instructional design system comprised of five components: Instructional goals, Entering Behavior, Instructional Procedures, Performance Assessments, and Research & Development Logistics
Apple II computers were introduced to public schools.
ID systems approach concepts begin to draw increased attention.
Terms educational technology and instructional technology began to replace audiovisual instruction
National Commission on Excellence in Education revealed its report titled “A Nation at Risk.”
Center for Social Organizations reports that computers are used for instruction in more than 40% of elementary schools and 75% of secondary schools
Computers began to be used “as tools to automate some instructional design tasks” (Merrill & Li, 1989)
Every student in a formal education setting has access to a computer.
Distance learning was offered by 78% of public four-year higher education institutions.
National Educational Association emphasized the importance of preparing new teachers to use technology.
The rise of Web 2.o and numerous instructional technology tools.
21st Century Education
1 - Instructional Design. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2016, from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/
2 - Reiser, R. A. (2001). A history of instructional design and technology: Part II: A history of instructional design. ETR&D Educational Technology Research and Development, 49(2), 57-67. doi:10.1007/bf02504928
3 - Edgar, D. W. (2012). Learning Theories and Historical Events Affecting Instructional Design in Education: Recitation Literacy Toward Extraction Literacy Practices. SAGE Open, 2(4). doi:10.1177/2158244012462707
4 - D. (2015). Robert M. Gagne on 'Making Learning More Effective & Efficient' Retrieved June 10, 2016, from
5 - Reiser, R. A. (2012). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Boston ; Munich: Pearson.
6 - Major Developments in Instructional Technology During the 20th Century. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2016, from http://www.indiana.edu/~idt/shortpapers/documents/ITduring20.html
7 - HSTRY for Education. (n.d.). Retrieved June 10, 2016, from https://edu.hstry.co/timeline/history-of-instructional-design-and-technology