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Transcript of Islam
The word means “recitation”
Originally an oral tradition
It was not collected and compiled until the Rashidun Caliphs. Central text, ( read with relation to collected Hadiths)
Traditions and sayings of the Prophet Muhammad Recorded and passed on from those who knew him, and verified through Isnad (chain of transmissions)
Most popular books of hadith are: Bukhari, Muslim
Example: Recitation from the Qur`an (ABOVE)
Theme: Judgement Day, Unity of God
The dead will be raised and stand trial
Characteristics of God:
Just, the most merciful, All-knowing...etc.
99 Names of Allah
Thus, God should be worshipped and one should be obedient, in awe, and show gratitude.
Demands moral behaviour
Emphasis on generosity to the poor, orphaned, and the outcasts
Divine justice is personal, intentional Subject to forgiveness (repenting)
People of the Book or Ahl al-Kitab:
Continued message from Judaism and Christianity
Abrahamic Religions, Ethical Monotheism,
Unforgivable Sin – Shirk or ``associating`` MUHAMMAD THE PROPHET
Muhammad`s role in Islam: First thought to be a poet or madman.
Prophet`s role was not well understood amongst Ancient Arabs
Nabi and Rasul, are both applied to
Muhammad Nabi = Prophet (One to whom God has spoken)
Rasul = Apostle, or Messenger (Intermediate between God and the people)
All rasuls are nabis, but all nabis are not necessarily rasuls. The Qur`an names 25 prophets
Muhammad is regarded as the ``seal`` (Khatam) of the prophets.
He validates the history of prophecy
The last prophet.
Corruption and distortion of previous messages. Muhammad came to reiterate them and establish the Umma ( Islamic Community).
Restoration of the monotheistic religion of Abraham. Introduction to Islam The End By: Chris McCalla, Areej Siddiqui, Laila Mudhoo SOCIAL STRUCTURE & ECONOMY
Pastoralist lifestyle, independent tribes, alliances made out of need. Small town communities existed as well.
Genealogy was important to Arabs (preservation of family clan, tribal purity, honor).
Moved seasonally according to availability of pastureland. Most groups were highly conservative. Rarely changing their everyday chores and habits.
Some raised camels and sheep, hunted, served as body guards, escorts, mercenaries.
Raids (Ghazwa): Gained goods and wealth through raids. Mainly between Bedouin groups or raids of settled people. Bedouins had meager possessions and added much to their group by raiding settled communities. Was almost like a national sport for them. Raiders became great at wielding weapons over the centuries.
TRIBE & CLAN LOYALTY
Asabiya: powerful group feeling that bound people together by clan and tribe
First level of the social structure was the immediate family, who inhabit one tent. Bunch of tents grouped together make up a Hayy or Clan (qaum).
Tribe (qabila) is several related clans together. A chief usually led a clan.
The people of clans were not always related by blood though
Law of Retaliation: Interclan and intertribal feuds were highly common springing from retaliation killing. Rivalries developed over land and resources
Personal Honour (ird): man's most important and valuable possession was his honour. Manliness = courage (involved in raids), hospitality, and generosity. Arabian Penisula "The Island of the Arabs" mostly made up of inhospitable desert area and marginally habitable steppe.
High and mountainous Western area near the Red sea to lower elevations near the east stretching to the Indian Ocean
Southern Regions of Hedramaut and Yemen is more known in antiquity, developing complex civilizations connected to Mesopotamia and Ethiopia
Vast desert area known as the Empty Quarter connected to a Northern running strip of desert stretching to the Nafud desert and southern Jordan
Hejaz known as the "Cradle of Islam" runs right along the coast of the Red Sea
Major Trade route throughout history between the east and west Who Are Arabs? Arabs are Semites with related tongues being Hebrew Aramaic, Syriac and the more ancient languages of Akkadian and Assyrian. Which all belong to the larger Afro Asiatic language group
The origin of the Semetic speaking people according to one theory is the Arabian Peninsula. Alternative theories place the Semite origin in Africa or southern Mesopotamia.
Long before Islam large migrations to Egypt, North Africa, and The Fertile Crescent occurred do to over population.
SOUTHERNERS + NORTHERNERS
South: Yemen. The peninsulas aboriginal people. Said to have descended from Joktan (grandson of Shem). North: Hejaz, Najd, Palmyra and Nabata. Assimilated to Arabism from a process of naturalization. Thought to have descended from Adnan a descendant of Ishmael.
According to the bible other Arabian groups descended from Abraham and his wife Ketura (northerners)
Al-Jahiliya - “the ignorance” tied to barbarianism and idolatrous ways of the past. the life and times of the Arab people in the Hejaz and surrounding areas centuries before Islam Pre-Islamic Society, Culture, & Customs POETRY
Poets were highly admired and respected
It was not only the main form of artistic expression it was also supernatural and an expression of the divine. Seen as a mysterious power.
The Kahin: were shamanic practitioners who specialized in the rhymed prose. They were well attuned to the environment surrounding them.
Power of Words: blessings and curses were a strong reality and were able to effect events. Poet seers and oracles were extremely powerful and often feared or revered.
Poet (Sha'ir = one who knows): these people had esoteric knowledge that the average person does not possess
Demonic Beings (Shaytan or Jinni): that was where poets got their knowledge from thus poets were potentially quite dangerous as an enemy.
A fair was held annually where poets would compete against each other
Every kind of person could engage in poetry not just the intellectuals or elites. Muhammed: Life of the Prophet MUHAMMAD'S DEATH
In 632 C.E., Muhammad led his last pilgrimage
He gave his last sermon on this trip
“Today I have perfected your religion for you, and I have completed My blessing upon you, and I have approved Islam for your religion” (Qur'an 5:3)
Succeeded in uniting Arabia under Islam. However, this left a need for succession, or a leader for the Umma he left behind.
http://www.prophetictimeline.com/Prophet/Timeline.php The Caliphate (632-1258) & Rightly Guided Caliphates Muhammad died in 632 C.E. He left no instruction for the ummah.
Who will lead? What was to happen to the community?
The community was at a lost, although the companions of the Prophet set forth. His death brought forth a series of political crises dealing with authority and leadership
The Rightly Guided Caliphs 632-661
The Umayyad Empire 661-750
The Abbasid Empire 750-1258 The first four caliphs were all companions of the Prophet.
Abu Bakr (632-634) - The Ridda Wars
Umar ibn al-Khattab (634-644)
Uthman Ibn Siffan (644-656)
Ali ibn Abi Talib (656-661)
Normative period – In Sunni Islam, it is the idealized past
The majority of Muslims (Sunni), believe that Muhammad did not designate a successor before his death.
Abu Bakr was nominated by the companions
- Solidified by the Baya (oath), which seals the choice
- He was an ideal candidate (trusted adviser, respected, pious)
- Ridda Wars
Umar was Abu Bakr's successor.
- He initiated the great period of succession
- He appointed an “election committee” to select the next caliph Uthman Ibn Affan was the next caliph
Rebellion resurfaced in the community
Uthamn lacked leadership skills
Assassinated in 656 C.E.
First in a series of rebellions the would affect the community's political development Ali & the First Civil Wars Ali succeeded Uthman, as the fourth Caliph
- He was married to the Prophet's daughter Fatima
- Hassan and Husayn
- Charismatic, inspiring loyalty and commitment
Supporters of Ali Designated, succession should remain with family
- Shi'ism – Ali was the rightful heir to the caliphate before the prior three
- Two civil wars (failure to prosecute Uthman's Killers)
Aisha --> The battle of the Camel
Muawiya---> Battle of Siffin CREATION OF AN ARAB KINGDOM
Umayyad rule transformed the Islamic community from one which was an Arab shaykhdom to an Islamic Empire whose rulers were dependent on religion for authority and the military for power and stability
As Muawiyah seized power during 661-80, Islam had already spread throughout Egypt, Libya, Iraq, Syria, as well as to the border of Afghanistan
During this time period and under the Umayyad rule Muslims had captured North Africa, Spain and Portugal
The Ummayad were remarkable because the Umayyad rulers developed a
strong centralized dynastic kingdom, an Arab Empire. At this time the society was Arabized and Islamized.
DIVISION IN THE COMMUNITY
The Umayyad practice incurred different Islamic communities and these included the Kharijites, the Shii, the Ismailis and the Druze
The Kharijites – were defeated by Ali at Nahrawan in 658 and so this event lead to uprising and as a result there were revolts against the descendents of Muawiyah Umayyad and warfare against subsequent Abbasid caliphs LAW AND MYSITICISM
As the Umayyad Empire rose; new ideas and practices were adapted
At this time there developed a growth of two Islamic movements, or institutions; the Ulama (religious scholars) and the Sufis (mystics)
Critics believed that the Umayyad system portrayed more of an un-Islamic society based more on the command of the caliph rather than the command of God
Therefore, many argued that Umayyad practice and law should fall in line with Islamic principles, and the institutions of the state should have as its source Islam and not the precedents of Byzantium
As a result, the outcome of this movement was a burst of activity that would result in the development of Islamic religious sciences
Pious Muslims devoted their lives to study the Qur’an, Arabic language and linguistics
And there was the development of mysticism and law
Early mysticist's preached a message stressing the detachment from the worldly concerns and attachment to the real –God GROWTH OF ISLAMIC REVOLT
By the eighth century (around 720) the Umayyad was diminishing, as anti- Umayyad sentiments spread through various places like Iraq, Medina, Mecca, and others
As a result, by 750 the Umayyad fell and Al-Abbas (a descendent of the prophet’s uncle) was proclaimed caliph
The Abbasids redefined Umayyad practice, borrowing heavily from Persian culture THE SULTANATE PERIOD: MEDIEVAL ISLAM
The Islamic community of Bagdad in 1258 was overtaken by the Mongol army; Muslim inhabitants were slaughtered and pilgrimage were burned
However, after some time the Mamluk Sultanate was able to resist the Mongols and riled till 1517
Thus this lead to several sultanates that were each ruled by a sultan that extended to Africa, South Asia and onwards
Muslim power lead to the emergence of 3 major Muslim empires in the 16th century
Lastly, these great Muslim Empires contributed to a wave of Islamic revivalist movements throughout much of the Muslim world in the 18th and 19th centuries Islam and Christianity although has a monotheistic root, it’s history marks the two with having confrontation
For Christian West- Islam was a religion of the sword
For Islam- Christian West armies of the Crusaders
Although Islam took in the idea of God and his messengers from Christianity, it neglected the idea of Christ’s Divinity, the finality of Christian revelation, and the authority of the Church
Instead it called all Jews and Christians to live under the Islamic community
"Islam’s universal mission had resulted in the spread of Muslim rule over Christian territories and Christian hearts”
11th century Christendom’s response to Islam took two forms; the struggle to re-conquer Spain, Italy and Sicily, and the undertaking of another series of Christian holy wars- the Crusaders TRIBAL HUMANISM (W. Montegomery Watt)
Watt deemed tribal humanism as the general religion and culture of the Hajazi Arabs.
Makings of the general religion: honor, manliness, hospitality, the equitable distribution of goods, the Shaykh as the first among equals, raiding as a display of courage, the vendetta and the devotion to one’s genealogy.
These were the main social attitudes and customs of the people.
The Bedouins: They did not take on to Islam as well as others mainly because Islam was more of an urban movement.
Human Fatalism: They felt that this life was all that gave meaning for humans. They were highly skeptical to the idea of an afterlife.
Watt: Growth of trade in Hejaz changed the life of pastoral nomads and in turn the old tribal customs and values declined (no more fair distribution of goods and protection of weaker members) MONOTHEISTIC RELIGIONS
monotheism was practiced among the Arabian people.
Hanifs = Native Arabian Monotheist
Jews, Christians and Zoroastrians were always passing through the Meccan community (oral tradition).
They had knowledge of bible stories and characters
The Ka'ba was even covered with pictures of biblical characters at times
Pure Monotheism: Return to the Religion of Abraham
Church: Arabia = "the breeding ground of heresies." Various renegade hybrid forms of Christianity.
The mercantile center of Mecca was primed for a a vast change as it was gaining prestige and wealth. Mecca was ruled by an oligarchy of leading commercial families at the time Muhammad was born and was a major traditional religious center of pilgrimage. Even before the rise of Islam their was a merging of religious beliefs/practices and economic life and no business man wanted to see this merge falter. PRE-ISLAMIC RELIGION
Veneration of stones, wells, trees and sacred precincts connected to the tribal origins
360 different deities were represented at the sanctuary of the Arabs the Ka’ba.
Each community or town had their own patron deity
Both Male and female deities: Daughters of Allah i) al-‘Uzza ii) Al-Lat iii) Manat
Allah: High God of the city of Mecca. Seen as the creator or sustainer. Was only called upon in dire circumstances. Mysterious and transcending power
Hubal: Main God of the Meccan sactuary. Possibly imported from Moab or Mesopotamia meaning “vapor spirit."
Ritual Circumambulation (Tawaf): Arabs would circle the shrines of the god they were worshiping.
Continues today with the sevenfold circling of the Ka’ba during the Muslim Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) THE FIRST MUSLIMS
Ali: son In law and cousin.
4th Caliph (deputy) and 1st Imam of Shi`ism
Abu Bakr: Father In Law
Islam means ``submission`` or ``surrender`` to God
One who submits is a Muslim or Muslimah
Islam is a way of life. An act and continued relationship between the servant and their master
Commune with God through praise and worship.
These acts of worship are known as ``ibadat``(pl.) Prayer or ``salat`' Practiced since early times.
Distinct aspect of Islam.
A cycle of postures, including prostration (How to Pray) THE HIJRA
620 C.E., On pilgrimage to the Ka'ba, Muhammad met men from Yathrib (Medina 300 miles from Mecca
Experienced fighting between two major tribes.
The men were impressed with Muhammad. Eventually, they agreed to become muslim, and obey the Prophet. This would aid in resolving the conflict they experienced for many years in Medina
622 C.E., Muhammad's followers emigrated to Medina. The Prophet stayed behind until it was too dangerous.
The first year of the Islamic Lunar Calendar
The direction of prayer was changed
Originally faced Jeruselum. Now faced the Ka'ba
Pilgrimage: In 628 C.E., He led the first group of pilgrims to Mecca.
First time as a Muslim group. Prepared for battle, but wished to remain peaceful.
The treaty of alHudaybiya was established. Allowed the Muslims to return the next year for the pilgrimage. The city was evacuated for three days, to avoid conflict.
After a death, during a pilgrimage. 10,000 men were assembled. However, violence was mostly avoided.
Resulted in Mecca becoming an Islamic City Muhammad Ibn Abdallah: The Man was born around 570CE. Muhammad The Prophet was born in 610CE (Gabriel first appears).
Charismatic, thoughtful, sensitive, interest in religion, self realization, contemplation and meditation. Spiritual Seeker
care/sympathy for poor, outcasts, orphans, widows and disadvantaged. Social Justice
Al-Almin "The Trustworthy"
Quraysh Tribe, Banu Hashim Clan.
Father died before he was born. Mother died when he was 6
Was brought up around a Bedouin desert tribe. Learned the purest form of Arabic.
Left to his uncle Abu Talib when his grandfather died
Shepherd in his youth, a merchant in adulthood
Wife: Khadija met in his 20's having a close business relationship. Soon fell for each other. she was the first to become a muslim. 4 daughters 2 sons (died)
The first revelation came to him in a dream and was a terrifying experience.
Wayh (Auditory Inspiration) he was aware that his words were not his own.
Fatra "Dark night of the soul": After contact with the divine a long period of no communication.