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The Middle East
Transcript of The Middle East
Outline and Group:
< Geography and Resources
- Kayla Howard
< Iraq - Hend Al Daleel
< Egypt - Jake Seegrist
< Libya - Zeeshan Mirza
< Iran - Ashley MacPherson
Geography of the Middle East
Resources in the Middle East
Zoom to major players:
The Middle East
1) Will Palestine and Israel ever resolve their ongoing dispute?
2) What would it take for the U.S. to disengage from the Middle East? Is it practical?
Iran and Issues Today
Iraq: 1919 - 1948
1948 Al-Wathbah uprising
1947 – Arab-Israeli Conflict
1935-36 Iraqi Shia revolts
1920 Iraq revolts against the British
1919 Iraqi-Kurdish conflict
Iraq 1958 - 1980
1980 Dadr uprising
1963 in November Iraqi coup
Feb 1963 Ba-athist Iraqi coup
1959 Masul uprising
1958 Iraqi Revolution
Iraq: 1984 - 2013
1999 Shia uprising in Iraq
Operation Desert Fox (Iraqi no-fly zones)
1991 uprising in Iraq
1990-91 Gulf War
1984-2013 Kurdish- Turkish conflict
2011– Iraqi insurgency (post-U.S. withdrawal)
2003-2011 Iraq War
Iran: Basic Facts
Major Ethnic Group:
Persia 55% Other 45% is ethnic minorites
Government Type: Theocratic Republic
based on Sharia Law
Government is comprised of Supreme Leader, Guardian Council, President, Parliament and Council of Experts
Also member of OIC and NAM
Turkey, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Israel, Egypt, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Morocco.
Nuclear Weapon Free Zones
Goal: To establish a new world order based on world peace, global collective security and justice
Upper Middle Income nation
Founding Member of OPEC
Exports are increasing
Area of distribution
Member of Economic Cooperation Organization
2nd Most wealthy within that Organization
Nuclear Program since the 1950’s
2011- First Nuclear power plant
Significant help from Russia
New deal to lift Sanctions and Limit Nuclear Program
Israel Feels Betrayed
Only middle eastern country with Nuclear Warheads
US’s Strongest Ally
Doesn’t get along too well with others
Also Problematic with other Middle Eastern countries
Largest Economic Partner is the US
90% of Income comes from
1/5th of the worlds Oil reserves
Three Abrahamic Religions
Influences over government
Iran and Pakistan are Islamic states
Many Countries are part of the “Organization of Islamic
< Arab Spring
- John Gilmore
< Major Powers and Why they are involved
- James Mason
< Ongoing Conflicts
- Neal Mortensen
- Mohammed Al-Bakri
68% of the Worlds Oil
Held in 4 Countries:
Saudi Arabia 25%
5% of the population and
1% of the worlds water - "Water Scarce"
Marriage of Kin
Saudi Arabi 55%
History of Iraq
Formerly part of the Ottoman Empire, Iraq was occupied by Britain during the course of WWI.
Iraq gained its independence as a kingdom by in 1932
Baghdad was the largest multicultural city of the Middle Ages and was the center of learning during the Islamic Golden Age.
Males: 69.6. Females: 72.6.
Total fertility rate is estimating every woman to have 3 kids
Iraq has young population, where 37.2% of the inhabitants are younger than 14 years old
Life Expectancy and Growth Rate
Diversity and Ethnicity
Different ethnicity groups:
Dominated by the oil sector, which provides more than 90% o government revenue and 80% of foreign exchange earnings
Main Export Partners:
USA, India, China, South Korea, Canada, Italy and Spain.
Main Import Partners:
Turkey, Syria, China, USA, South Korea
Unemployment Rate 16%
Percent of the worlds oil is 11%
GDP $79.69bn (un, 2003)
GDP sector split (World An*. ZOHJ)
Agriculture -- 3.6% Industry -- 56.7% Services -- 39.7%
Population (WorldBank, 2011) 6.423 million
Life expectancy (WorldBank, 2011) 75
Public debt 1.9% of GDP (CIA World Facebook 2012 estimate)
IMF growth forecast 20.2% for 2013 (IMF World Economic Outlook 2013 report)
Spread of Islam
Italy invaded Libya and remained in power until they were ousted by Allied forces in 1943.
Libya won independence and was led by a monarch.
Coup by the RRC (Revolutionary Command Council) lead by Muammar Qaddafi overthrow the monarchy.
Junior Libyan Army oﬃcers took control of the Libyan government in a bloodless coup d’état. After the coup, the group formed the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC), chaired by Muammar al-Qadhaﬁ.
Mirrored Gamal abdulnasser on his governing style
federal Union of Arab Republics Established between Egypt, Libya, and Syria
revolution ended the dictator's life and ushered in a new era of a democratic Libya.
Legacy of Authoritarian regime and revolution.
- Libya depends on the oil sector for 95% of export earnings, 25% of its GDP and 80% of government revenues but only 25% of its territory has been explored to date.
- Its oil sector is underdeveloped as output has been in decline for most of the last 40 years and advanced production technologies have not been employed.
- There is little to no merchant class domestically in Libya due to the totalitarian nature of the previous regime.
Heavily dependent on Oil
OPEC’s second largest oil exporter
Economic Sanctions placed on Iran have heavily impacted the economy
Unemployment remains in double digits
Also suffers from underemployment
Has caused many of Iran’s youth to look for jobs abroad leading to significant “brain drain”
Foreign Relations-Maintains relations with almost every member of UN except Israel and US
Doesn’t recognize Israel and no relations with US following Iranian Revolution
Iran’s nuclear program has become major source of contention with Western world, due to concerns they will develop nuclear weapons
Sponsorship of Terrorism
Has armed militants in past
Middle East Role
Geographic Center of Middle East
Predominantly Shi'ite Nation-viewed as a threat by Saudi Arabia and other Gulf countries
“Iran’s security is related to the security of regional countries” –Iranian Ambassador to Azerbaijan
Middle East Peace Talks-Syria
Egypt holds a regional vital, geopolitical position.
connects Asia with Africa
manages the Suez Canal
Traditionally,a Republic, or Parliamentary Monarchy despite its resent revolutions and restructuring.
Oldest continuous parliament in the Arab world.
bicameral system separated into
Shura Council or Consultative Council
People’s Assembly or House of representatives.
86 Million People
15th most populated
predominantly Ethnic Egyptians, minorities include, greek, Turks, and Bedouin tribes.
Islam is dominant Religion, Coptic Christian coming in second.
several minority religions struggle for government recognition. Ba'hais, shi'as, sufis, etc..
History of human rights violations and or pushing limits on the issue.
“The Council of Human Rights” established in 2003, though many opponents see it as a ploy to evoke their violations and provisionary or oppressive laws.
Minorities more specifically religious minorities such as Coptic Christians, Bahá'ís, Sufis, and Shi’as have a history of falling victim to oppressive policies of government or interests.
Rankings and watch lists
In 2013 on a scale of 1-7, 1 being the most free and 7 being the least it was rated a 5 in all categories.
Out of 176 countries surveyed in Transparency International’s 2012 Corruption Perceptions Index, Egypt ranked in at 118.
“The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life ranks Egypt as the 5th worst country in the world for religious freedom.”
Due to its history, extent, and nature of religious rights violations tolerated by its government, Egypt has been placed on a watch list from United States Commission on International Religious Freedom
Combination of Napoleonic codes and Islamic law.
This has changed greatly in the last couple years due to the influx of differing powers and influences.
This year: constitution drafted taking a more secular approach.
In the new constitution
Structure for the new parliament and presidential positions redefined.
Granted new rights to citizens such as gender equality and freedom of thought.
Limitations set for the role of religion, race, geography, and gender in political parties.
1919 - 2000
1919: was a countrywide revolution against the British occupation of Egypt and Sudan
1952: known as the 23 July Revolution, began on 23 July 1952, with a military, by the Free Officers Movement, a group of army officers led by Muhammad Naguib and Gamal Abdel Nasser. The revolution was initially aimed at overthrowing King Farouk.
Terrorism in Egypt: In 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s, terrorist attacks in Egypt became more numerous and severe, and began to target Christian Copts and foreign tourists as well as government officials.
2011 - 2013
Revolution of 25 of January: also known as the Lotus Revolution, took place following a popular uprising that began on 25 January 2011. It was a diverse movement of demonstrations, marches, plaza occupations, riots, non-violent civil resistance, acts of civil disobedience and labor strikes. Millions of protesters from a variety of socio-economic and religious backgrounds demanded the overthrow of the regime of Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak.
Egyptian coup d’etat: On 3 July 2013, the Egyptian army chief General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi removed the country's then-incumbent president Mohamed Morsi from power and suspended the Egyptian constitution. The move came after four days of mass revolt and it also came 48 hours following a warning from the army to respond to the demands of the millions of protesters or it would intervene to restore order and impose its own roadmap. Al-Sisi declared Chief Justice of the Supreme Constitutional Court of Egypt Adly Mansour as the interim president of Egypt. Morsi was put under house arrest and several Muslim Brotherhood leaders were arrested.
Key ingredients to Egypt’s economy include:
Trade routes (Suez Canal)
In January 2011 protests, demonstrations, and civil unrest lead to the resignation of President Mubarak.
February 2011 the military took control via military junta. Military would maintain governance whilst a pending election be held.
The mantle of government caretaker was passed from remaining government officials, namely Prime Minister Ahmed Shafik, and former transport minister Essam Sharaf.
In June 2012 Via Election Mohamed Morsi was sworn in as president.
In July 2013 after civil unrest and disagreement, via a coup d'état led by the minister of defense General; Morsi was removed from office.
Adly Mansour mader interim president.
In Jan 2014 newly drafted constitution voted on.
• 2014 the first elections under the new constitution will be held.
Tunisian vegetable seller repeatedly harassed by police
17 December 2010 his vegetable stand and scales confiscated by police
After being denied an meeting by officials, he returned to the front of governors office with a can of gas and set himself on fire
His story spread fast. Protests began within hours of the event.
Start Tunisia 18 December 2010 Bahrain 14 February 2011
Algeria 29 December 2010 Libya 17 February 2011
Jordan 14 January 2011 Kuwait 19 February 2011
Oman 17 January 2011 Morocco 20 February 2011
Egypt 11 February 2011 Mauritania 25 February 2011
Yemen 27 January 2011 Lebanon 27 February 2011
Djibouti 28 January 2011 Saudi Arabia 11 March 2011
Somalia 28 January 2011 Syria 15 March 2011
Sudan 30 January 2011 Iran 15 April 2011
Israel 15 May 2011
Palestine 4 September 2012
Iraq 23 December 2012
Increased Social Mobility
(internet, social media)
Major Governmental Changes
Democratic Elections held 30 June 2012
Mohammed Morsi elected President with 51.7% of vote
Morsi Overthrown by military coup 3 July 2012
23 October 2011 first elections held
Formerly banned Islamic party Ennahda won with 41% of vote
Relatively peaceful transition
8 March 1963
1966 Syrian coup d'état
1982 Hama massacre,when some 10,000- 40,000 people killed
1986 Damascus bombings
13 March 1986, a deadly bombing took place in Damascus left 60 people dead
15 March 2011 Syrian civil war
According to the United Nations, the death toll surpassed 100,000 in June 2013, and reached 120,000 by September 2013
3) Do you think the training of Libyan military
personnel will help establish stability?
Recent Conflict of Iraq:
Coming to Utah State April 2014
Operation Desert Storm
News and Ongoing Conflicts
4) How can conflicts be resolved within the Arab Spring?
What are the issues between
Palestine and Israel?
Land Disputes & long drawn out issues....
Israel wants what?
What does Palestine want?
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
6 Middle east
2 South American
OPEC has an extraordinary amount of world power
Considerable influence over international Oil price
World is dependent on oil, OPEC is responsible for 81% of the world’s oil