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AP Human Geography Models
Transcript of AP Human Geography Models
movement of people.
Example: Migration Diffusion Models Who created it: Frank Bass, an American economist who was one of the first people to start the study of marketing science. He grew up in Cuero, Texas. Diffusion of an idea by the snowballing effect 3 types of Expansion Diffusion
1. Hierarchical Diffusion
2. Contagious Diffusion
3. Stimulus Diffusion 1. Hierarchical Diffusion Diffusion of an idea by a public figure. Example: Constantine converted to Christianity, Byzantine Empire became primarily Christian 2. Contagious Diffusion Widespread and rapid diffusion
of an idea. Example: Diffusion of HIV/AIDS 3. Stimulus Diffusion Diffusion of the underlying principal, without the specific characteristics Example: Fast food Demographic Transition Model Stage 1: High CBR and High CDR
Stage 2: High CBR and Low CDR
Stage 3: CBR drops, CDR continues to drop
Stage 4: Low CBR and CDR, population growth primarily because of migration
(Possible) Stage 5: CDR higher than CBR, ZPG Example: United Kingdom Stage 1: Until 1750
Grew 5 million in 700 years; the Bubonic Plague, famine
Stage 2: 1750 - 1800
CBR increased dramatically because of industrialization --> increased standard of living
Stage 3: 1880 - 1970's
CBR and CDR changed very little
Stage 4: 1970's - PRESENT
Increased standard of living, smaller families; Low CBR and CDR Who created it: Warren Thompson, American Demographer created this model in 1919 Epidemiological Transition Model Who created it: Abdel Omran, created this model in 1971 Stages 1 and 2: the stage of pestilence and famine; epidemics (The
Black Plague) and pandemics (Cholera)
Stage 3: stage of degenerative diseases; chronic diseases
(cardiovascular diseases, cancers)
Stage 4: Delayed degenerative diseases.
(Possible) Stage 5: Reoccurance of stronger epidemics A.P. Human Geography Models & Theories Ravenstein's Laws of Migration Who created it: E.G. Ravenstein, a German-English geographer/cartographer who created this model in the 1880's 1. Most migration is short distance
2. Migration occurs in steps
3. Long-range migrants go to urban areas.
4. Migration from one place to another produces migration the opposite way.
5. Rural people are more likely to to migrate than urban people.
6. Females are more likely to migrate within a county.
7. Males are mole likely to migrate internationally.
8. Large towns and cities grow more from migration than natural increase rate.
9. Most migrants are adults.
10. Migration increases with economic development.
11. Migration is most due to economic causes. Malthus Model Today (1798): 1 person, 1 unit of food
25 years from now: 2 persons, 2 units of food
50 years from now: 4 persons, 3 units of food
75 years from now: 8 persons, 4 units of food
100 years from now: 16 persons, 5 units of food Core-Domain Sphere Model Core: The zone of greatest concentration or
homogeneity of the culture traits that characterize a region.
Domain: The area outside of the core of a
culture region in which the culture is still dominant but less intense.
Sphere: The zone of outer influence for a
culture region example: Mormonism in Utah
(see graph) Heartland Theory 1. Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland
2. Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island
3. Who rules the World-Island commands the world
Heartland = Pivot Area is the core area of Eurasia
World-Island = all of Eurasia (both Europe and Asia) Who created it: Sir Halford Mackinder in 1904; a geographer in the United Kingdom Who created it: D.W. Meinig, a geographer in Washington, USA Who created it: Thomas Malthus, a British cleric and scholar Rimland Theory who created it: Nicholas J. Spykman, a Dutch-American geo-strategist, who created this theory in 1942. Nicholas Spykman believed the opposite of Mackinder's Heartland theory, stating that to control the world you first have to control the Rimland (outlying islands outside of the heartland). Domino Theory Who created it: the term was first "coined" by the Eisenhower Administration on April 7th, 1954 This theory was the idea that if one country became communist the surrounding countries would become communist (based off China, the Soviet Union, and North Korea --> used during the Vietnam War era). Neocolonialism who created it: Kwame Nikrumah The geo-political practice of economically, socially and politically controlling (and taking over of) a country versus physical control (military). Von Thünen's Model of Agriculture who created it: Johann Heinrich Von Thunen, a German farmer and economist, created this model in 1826 Assumptions:
-The city is located centrally within an "Isolated State."
-The Isolated State is surrounded by wilderness.
-The land is completely flat and has no rivers or mountains.
-Soil quality and climate are consistent.
-Farmers in the Isolated State transport their own goods to market via oxcart, across land, directly to the central city. There are no roads.
-Farmers behave rationally to maximize profits. Example: This model can be used today on a global scale. A farmer in a more remote location, who wishes to sell their product to a large market, is less likely to grow highly perishable and bulky products. The main focus of this model is TRANSPORTATION costs. Ester Boserup's Model of Agricultural Development who created it: Ester Boserup, a Danish economist The idea that population growth effects agricultural development in two ways:
1. the land is left fallow for less time.
2. intensification of farming and adoption of new (more efficient) farming tools/techniques. anti-Malthusian
model Sustainable Development who created it: Brundtland Commission in Stockholm, Sweden The idea of "development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs". Weber's Model of Industrial Location who created it: Alfred Weber, a German economist and geographer who created this model based off of the work developed by Wilhelm Launhardt Least Cost Theory based on three factors:
1.Transportation (bulk gaining or bulk reducing)
2. Labor (cheap labor or expensive labor)
3. Agglomeration (similar industries cluster together because they have the same consumer base) Rostow's Modernization Model who created it: W.W. Rostow, an American economist and political theorist 1. Traditional society: high percentage of primary sector jobs, money allocated mostly to military and religion.
2. Preconditions for take-off: an elite group initiates innovative economic activities, money allocated towards infrastructure and new technology, stimulating productivity
3. Take-off: rapid growth generated in a limited number of economic activities, textiles, food; beconoming productive in some sectors but still unproductive in others
4. Drive to maturity: modern technology diffuses to a wide variety of industries, more skilled workforce
5. Age of High mass consumption: transition from primary/secondary sectors completely over to tertiary sector. Concentric Zone Model who created it: Ernest Burgess, a Canadian urban sociologist 1. Central Business District: non residential activities
2. Zone in transition: industry, poor-quality housing (immigrants, rooming houses)
3.Working class homes: modest older houses, stable working class families
4. Newer more spacial homes
5. Commuter's Zone: people who live on the outskirts of the city (suburbs) Example: Chicago 1920's Zone 1: Central Business District (called the "loop" in Chicago) where most of the tertiary employment
is located and where the urban transport infrastructure is converging, making this zone the most accessible.
Zone 2: Immediately adjacent to the CBD a zone where many industrial activities locate to take
advantage of nearby labor and markets. Further, most transport terminals, namely port sites and railyards, are located adjacent to the central area.
Zone 3: This zone is gradually been reconverted to other uses by expanding manufacturing / industrial
activities. It contains the poorest segment of the urban population, notably first generation immigrants living, in the lowest housing conditions.
Zone 4: Residential zone dominated by the working class and those who were able to move away from
the previous zone (often second generation immigrants). This zone has the advantage of being located near the major zones of employment (I and II) and thus represents a low cost location for the working class.
Zone 5: Represents higher quality housing linked with longer commuting costs.
Zone 6: Mainly high class and expensive housing in a rural, suburbanized, setting. The commuting costs
are the highest. Prior to mass diffusion of the automobile (1930s), most of these settlements were located next to rail stations. Sector Model who created it: Homer Hoyt, a land economist from Kansas, USA. Chicago as it's basis; like Concentric Zone Model. Multiple Nuclei Model who created it: C.D. Harris and E.L. Ullman Central Place Theory who created it: Walter Christaller Bigger markets may serve the smaller markets, but not necessarily the other way around.