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Cognitive Psychology

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Kiah Bizal

on 24 June 2013

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Transcript of Cognitive Psychology

Cognitive Psychology
Noam Chomsky
Major Theories of Memory
Frederick Bartlett
leveling (loss of details over time)
sharpening (accentuating and expanding details deemed important)
confabulation (filling in the gaps)
Larry Squire
feeling of knowing ("tip-of-the-tongue" phenomenon)
explicit vs. implicit memory
Jerome Bruner
criticized cognitive psychology for viewing the mind as an "information processor" and not incorporating enough psychology
focused on the meaning of information
interested in how people constructed their view of the world
conducted experiments to see how people sorted information (categorization)
Ulric Neisser
1928-2012
his book is thought to have given the field its name (Cognitive Psychology - 1967)
criticized cognitive psychology for a lack of real-world application
liked the information processing model but thought it overlooked the surrounding environment
also thought the computerized model did not do justice to the complexity of the human mind
conducted academic achievement studies in minority children in the 1980s - became an active proponent of eliminating disparity
Major Influences
Gestalt theory
Behaviorism
Wundt
William James
Piaget
prominent linguist
criticized Skinner's behavioral approach to language
said language has established forms and rules but humans can produce infinite combinations from them
surface structure vs. deep structure
universal grammar rules/foundations
development of language is innate
received more than 25 honorary degrees
member of the National Academy of Sciences
(Benjamin, 2007; Shiraev, 2011)
(Benjamin, 2007; Shiraev, 2011)
(Benjamin, 2007; Cutting, 2012; Shiraev, 2011)
Definitions
"all the processes by which sensory input is transformed, reduced, elaborated, stored, recovered, and used. It is concerned with these processes even when they operate in the absence of relevant stimulation, as in images and hallucinations. Such terms of sensation, perception, imagery, retention, recall, problem-solving, and thinking, among many others, refer to hypothetical stages or aspects of cognition." (Neisser)
including (but not limited to) the study of language, memory, attention, thinking, problem-solving, and sensation/perception
(Benjamin, 2007)
(Benjamin, 2007; Graf, Shimamura, & Squire, 1985; Shimamura, Squire, 1986)
Bottom-up and
Top-down Processing
Rumelhart's interactive model of reading
visual input
processing and consolidation of information
interpretation of information (grammar, vocabulary, meaning)
Neisser's analysis model
sampling (intake of information)
integration (adjusting schemas)
directing (focus of attention)
(Benjamin, 2007; McClelland, & Rumelhart, 1981).
Seven Sins of Memory
(Schacter, 1999)
Transcience - loss of information over time
Absent-mindedness - lapses of attention, poor encoding
Blocking - ineffective retrieval cues
Suggestibility - inventing memory based on suggestible or misleading prompts
Bias - distortions of memory from present knowledge or judgement
Misattribution - information is remembered but attributed to wrong source
Persistence - remembering information that we would rather forget
Skills for Improving Memory
Mnemonic devices
method of loci
rhyming
acrostics/acronyms
sentences
Association
Repetition
Chunking
Development of CBT
Aaron T. Beck
"cognitive therapy" (1970)
noticed depressed patients were preoccupied with intrusive negative thoughts
sought to reduce or eliminate these thoughts and saw an improvement
relatively simple concept and easy to replicate
applied to a variety of settings and illnesses
Intelligence
Cattell - developed tests to measure psychomotor and cognitive abilities
were not found to be correlated with academic performance
Alfred Binet - sought to measure children's performance in school
identify mental retardation, eventually gifted
normed ages
translated by Goddard and adapted by Lewis Terman
became the Stanford-Binet
(Benjamin, 2007)
Intelligence (cont.)
Army Alpha and Beta
used to assess intelligence for military duty
Henry Hubert Goddard
developed a test for mental retardation
contained stigmatizing labels
influenced the development of special education programs
David Wechsler
intelligence contains many aspects
intelligence is difficult to define but still measurable as a means to an end
constructed a new test based on these views
(Benjamin, 2007; Wechsler, 1975)
Intelligence activity
Flexibility of thinking
29 D. in F. in a L. Y.
11 P. on a F. T.
88 P. K.
3 B. M. (S. H. T. R.)
Quick thinking
Does England have a 4th of July?
How far can a dog run into the woods?
How many birthdays does the average person have?
Types of Intelligence (Howard Gardner)
linguistic
logical-mathematical
musical
body-kinesthetic
spatial
intrapersonal (of self)
interpersonal (of others)
naturalist
spiritual
existential
(Furnham et al., 2002)
(Beck, 1970)
Timeline
(Becklen & Cervone, 1983)
Hermann Ebbinghaus 1850-1909
WWI:1914-1919
Jerome Bruner born 1915
1920: Nineteenth amendment, women granted the right to vote
Eugenics movement begins 1920s
George Miller born 1920
Donald Broadbent born 1926
Noam Chomsky born 1928
Ulrich Neisser born 1928
1929: stock market crash
Jon Searle born 1932
George Sterling born 1934
First calculator 1939
WWII: 1939-1945
Behaviorism globally mainstream approach: 1940s
Eugenics loses much of its momentum post-WWII
First computers late 1930’s-1940s
Cold War begins 1945
United Nations founded 1945
First digital computers late 1940’s-1950s
Korean War 1950-1953
Cognitive neuroscience 1950s
Alan Turing Computing Machinery and Intelligence 1950
1950s-1970s cognitive revolution
Sputnik 1957
Vietnam War 1954- 1975
1959 Noam Chomsky published review of B.F. Skinner’s book Verbal Behavior
1960 Miller and his colleagues founded the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard University
1960s Computing became a widely accepted model to explain aspects of the mind’s work
1970 journal of cognitive psychology
Neisser 1967 first textbook
CT scan 1972
PET scan 1972
Portable computers 1975
MRI:1946 foundations, first human examination 1977
U.S. bombs Libya 1985
1991 Operation Desert Storm launched
1991 World wide web
FMRI 1991

Cognitive Revolution
1950s-1970s
Emphasis on meaning, which behaviorists generally overlooked.
Cognitive psychologists:
Wanted to examine the internal mechanisms, the functioning, and the operational performance of the mind.
Turned to cognitive processes such as thinking, memory, perception, and others. Began to use specific methods, including popular behavioral methods, such as time reaction measurement.
And new methods developed in the 20th century including brain imaging, mathematical models, and sophisticated computer simulations.
Cognitive psychology:
scientific study of human mental processes and their role in thinking, emotions, and behaviors. How we as individuals process information. Analyze behavior in order to study the mind.
Commonly regarded today as part of the interdisciplinary field of cognitive science (combination of cognitive neuroscience, computer science, philosophy, linguistics...)
Computer metaphor of mind:
Entailed the adoption of a new research program for experimental psychology, one that sought to replace the laboratory rat with the human computer system as the chief source of psychological data.

Cognitive Psychology Research
(Shiraev, 2011) (Crowther-Heyck, 1999)
1950s beginnings
Examines the brain mechanisms supporting mental functioning .
Used sophisticated methods and experimental devices
electrophysiology: better ways to measure electric and magnetic fields generated by neurons and neuronal networks in the brain.
New methods of brain imaging
Knowledge about the brain’s normal functioning as well as its dysfunctions.
Lesions
Learn more about the brain’s functioning and the role psychological processes in thinking, emotions, and decision making.
Psychological processes treated as the product of the brain’s physiological processes
Cognitive Neuroscience
(Shiraev, 2011)
(Shiraev, 2011)

Timeline (cont.)
1913-1994 American neuroscientist.
Higher order mental processes:
Function according to their own specific laws and principles,
Which cannot be simply reduced to physiological processes
Mental function more than a combination of billions of neurons firing.
Most cognitive neuroscientists wanted to adopt a holistic viewpoint on psychology and physiology:
total greater than the sum of its parts. 1961
Understanding of psychology:
complexity of multilevel interactions of physiological processes and mechanism by which they interact.
Various models of brain processing as how computers process data. Receives information from the senses, encodes it, stores it, and then exercises decision making and response selection.
Neurons=nodes, nodes functioning in networks
Computer science: computers and humans process similarly.


(Shiraev, 2011)
Roger Sperry
George Miller
1920-2012
1960 founded the Center for Cognitive Studies at Harvard University with his colleagues.
“square one” of cognitive psychology
1960 with Eugene Galanter and Karl Pribram published Plans and the Structure of Behavior
“mental life” could be studied from the standpoint of information processing.
Nature of everything we call subjective (psychological) is rooted in information processing
Image could be understood as a quantitative measure of information, which an individual receives, stores, and processes.
Humans beings are complex computing devices.
Propose that any element of mental life can be explained, in theory, as information processing based on a set of specific instructions or programs.
Instructions for this information processing are very sophisticated. A certain multilevel plan
1965 The Magic Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two.
memory span about seven elements, called chunks

(Shiraev, 2011) (Crowther-Heyck, 1999)

T.O.T.E.
Organization of behavior, mental process:
(Shiraev, 2011)
(http://www.transformdestiny.com/nlp-guide/nlp-strategies-tote.asp)
Alan Turning
1912-1954
British Scientist
Work basis for modern computer science and artificial intelligence program.
Artificial intelligence: study and creation of systems that perceive their environment and make decisions to maximize success.
Human judgment can be explained from the standpoint of mathematics and logic.
Computing Machinery and Intelligence 1950
First: brain uses information from inside and outside the body. The brain stores this information. This information is limited and measurable.
Second: brain uses this information to solve problems.
Mental functions therefore can be seen as problem-solving operations, programs, or procedures.
If the information is measurable then each and every problem that the brain solves using this information is essentially measurable.
1932
Leading philosopher
Believed psychological functions such as consciousness could be studied perfectly by physics or biology.
However, biology alone cannot study the subjectivity of consciousness.
Physiology causes consciousness, processes at the level of individual neurons and changes on the macro-level of the whole brain, consciousness is a higher level feature of the whole system of chemical and physiological processes of the brain.
He suggested that there were limitations of the computational approach to consciousness. (need to be able to apply context of human activities)


(Shiraev, 2011)
Jon Searle
(Shiraev, 2011)
1926-1993
Perception and Communication 1958
Modern study of attention.
Explain using information-processing constructs
Which he introduced and popularized
Sensory register Filter Perceptual Analysis
("bottle neck" theory)
Prevents overloading, holds info for later processing
Ex. hearing different things in each ear
Selective attention
Selective listening
Decision and Stress 1971
Discussed how his previous conclusion(1958) had been modified since then
(Berry, 2002) (Duncan, 1996)
Alan Turning (cont.)
Donald Broadbent
Third: each problem-solving method should be based on a particular rule or algorithm, and then as a computable operation.
Thus all mental operations are computable. And these operations should be sufficient enough to explain all mental functions that the brain performs.
Thus if this right, computer science could provide new insights into the mechanisms of the CNS. If a machine is given a sufficient algorithm it could be capable of thinking
By the 1960s computing became a well-recognized and acceptable model to explain many aspects of the mind’s work. Cognitive processes were routinely compared or even sometimes equated with the programs that could be run on a computational device.
1934
Study initiating what is now called sensory memory
Visual sensory memory = iconic memory
Can encode entire visual field; however, during the process of recall we forget parts
Thus it it about how long our memory can hold this information
Sensory memory has a large capacity, duration is very brief
Visual perception and attention
measured automatic and controlled attention shifts

(Sperling, 1960)
(Shiraev, 2011)
George Sperling
1850-1909
One of first scientists to conduct experimental studies on memory and learning
He used himself as a test subject
Nonsense syllables
two consonants and one vowel, no meaning
to make sure learned in the same degree from test to test
compared to learning with meaning
learning to criterion
repeated as many times as necessary to reach a certain level of accuracy
Retention is effected by repetition
Forgetting Curve, most forgetting occurs within the first few hours
most important contribution:
use of natural science to study memory
IV and DVs and their relationship

(Shiraev, 2011)
(Benjamin, 2007)
Hermann Ebbinghaus
Linguistics Activity
Doublespeak:
custodial engineer
oral hygiene appliance
inoperative statements
manually-powered fastener-driving impact device
hexiform rotatable surface compression unit
user fee, revenue enhancement, wage-based premium
Listen, the Foretelling Spirits Harmonize
Embellish the Corridors
Approach, Everyone who is Steadfast
Father Christmas Currently Approaches the Metropolis
Beck, A. T. (1970). Cognitive therapy: Nature and relation to behavior therapy. In G. Eghigian (Ed.), From Madness to Mental Health (pp. 382-391). New Jersey: Rogers University Press.
Beck, A. T. (1993). Cognitive therapy: Past, present, and future. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 194-198. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.2.194
Becklen, R., & Cervone, D. (1983). Selective looking and the noticing of unexpected events. Memory & Cognition, 11, 601-608. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/616931390?accountid=34899
Benjamin, L. T. (2007). A Brief History of Modern Psychology. Melden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.
Berry, D. (2002). Donald Broadbent. Psychologists, 15(8), 402. http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/211848467/fulltextPDF/13E CDE5005642826143/3?accountid=34899
Broadbent’s Decision and Stress. The American Journal of Psychology, 109(4). 617. http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/224840496/fulltextPDF/13ECDE 5005642826143/4?accountid=34899
Crowther-Heyck, H. (1999). George A. Miller, language, and the computer metaphor of mind. History of Psychology, 2(1), 37-64. http://search.proquest.com.libproxy.edmc.edu/docview/614333635/13ECDE32F80601A2 B6D/2?accountid=34899
Cutting, J. E. (2012). Ulric Neisser. American Psychologist, 67, 492. doi: 10.1037/a0029351
Duncan, J. (1996). Information and uncertainty in a cumulative science of behavior: 25 years after Awards for distinguished scientific contributions: George Sperling. (1989). American Psychologist, 44(4), 626-628. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0092099
Furnham, A., Tang, T. L., Lester, D., O'Connor, R., & Montgomery, R. (2002). Estimates of ten multiple intelligences: Sex and national differences in the perception of oneself and famous people. European Psychologist, 7, 245-255. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1027//1016-9040.7.4.245
Guilford, J. P. (1982). Cognitive psychology's ambiguities: Some suggested remedies. Psychological Review, 89(1), 48-59. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.89.1.48
Graf, P., Shimamura, A. P., & Squire, L. R. (1985). Priming across modalities and priming across category levels: Extending the domain of preserved function in amnesia. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 11, 386-396. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/614282125?accountid=34899
McClelland, J. L., & Rumelhart, D. E. (1981). An interactive activation model of context effects in letter perception: I. an account of basic findings. Psychological Review, 88, 375-407. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.88.5.375
Robins, C. J., & Hayes, A. M. (1993). An appraisal of cognitive therapy. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(2), 205-214. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.2.205
Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21(4), 803-814. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.21.4.803
Schacter, D. L. (1999). The seven sins of memory: Insights from psychology and cognitive neuroscience. American Psychologist, 54, 182-203. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.3.182
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References
The False Memory Effect
(Roediger, & McDermott, 1995)
Cognitive Distortions and Deficiencies in CBT
Arbitrary inference
drawing a conclusion from a lack of evidence
Overgeneralization
unjustified generalization from a single event
Magnification
exaggeration of meaning of a situation
Cognitive deficiency
disregard importance of a situation
"defect in the system of expectations"
(Beck, 1970)
(Beck, 1993)
Treatment Efficacy
Strengths
Weaknesses
Depression:
meta analysis in 1989 showed CT significantly superior to other treatments: behavior therapy, psychodynamic therapy, pharamocotherapy.
However, CT may be equivalent to pharamcotherapy with an acute episode
Panic Disorder:
effective treatment, 1989 uncontrolled study showed cessation of panic attacks after treatment with CT for 8 weeks
interdisciplinary field
mental operations are computable
scientific method of research
quantified and categorized mental processes
mental operations are computable
can neglect environmental context
can reduce mental abilities to numerical scores
can be difficult to define (intelligence)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder:
Shown to be effective, especially with anxiety management training
(Benjamin, 2007; Shiraev, 2011; Wechsler, 1975)
Personality, eating, addictive disorders
little empirical demonstration of the utility of CT as such with these disorders.
(Robins & Hayes, 1993)
Check the plan, make corrections, check again
Ebbinghaus (Cont.)
Major Findings:
Learning curve
time required to memorize increases as number of syllables increases
Learning trials
distributing learning over time more effective in memorizing than in one session
Practicing
enhances retention
Primacy and recency effects
Early/ late items more likely to be recalled than middle
Associations
items separated by intervening syllables could be associated
(Shiraev, 2011)
(Benjamin, 2007; Shiraev, 2011)
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