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Transcript of Intellectual Disabilities
"Opportunities for real interactions between the student with intellectual disabilities and other students in the class should be a priority." -
List of Intellectual Disabilities
* Pervasive Developmental Disorder
* Asperger Syndrome
* Tourette's Syndrome
* Angelman Syndrome
* Sotos Syndrome
* William's Syndrome
* Tuberous Sclerosis
* Down Syndrome
* Fragile X
* Klinefelter Syndrome
* Prader-Will Syndrome
* Rett's Syndrome
* Cri Du Chat
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
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Angleman Syndrome Foundation. (2012). Get involved. Retrieved from http://www.angelman.org/get-involved/
Asperger Autism Spectrum Education Network. (2014). Information about aspen. Retrieved from http://aspennj.org/about-aspen
Autism, Asperger Syndrome and PDD-NOS. Autism Speaks (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-
Autism Speaks. (2014). Family services. Retrieved from http://www.autismspeaks.org/family-services
CeCe Cares Pediatric Epilepsy Foundation. (2014). Information and resource information . Retrieved from http://www.cececares.org/for-parents-information-about-epilepsy.html
Center for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Information for parents. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/tourette/families.html
Choosing Options and Accommodations for Children (COACH): A Guide to Planning Inclusive Education (Michael
Giangreco, Chigee J. Cloninger, and Virginia Salce Iverson, Paul Brooks Publishing Co., Toronto, 1993)
Claiborne, L. (Presenter). (2012, December 11). Let’s Talk About Intellectual Disabilities. TEDx Talks. Video retrieved from
Clayton-Smith, J. (2010). Angelman syndrome. Journal of Pediatric Neurology, 8(1), 97-99. Retrieved from
Down Syndrome - National Down Syndrome Society (2012). Retrieved from http://www.ndss.org/Down-Syndrome
Down Syndrome Education International (2014). Retrieved from http://www.dseinternational.org/en-gb/about-down-
Down Syndrome Information Alliance. (2012). parent-to-parent program. Retrieved from http://downsyndromeinfo.org/parent-to-parent/
Epilepsy Foundation. (2012). Parents. Retrieved from http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org/livingwithepilepsy/parentsandcaregivers/parents/index.cfm
Facts about Down Syndrome - National Association for Down Syndrome (2012). Retrieved from http://www.nads.org/
Facts about Down Syndrome - Centers for Disease Control and Pervention (2013). Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/
Foundation for Angelman Syndrome Therapeutics. (2008). News and events . Retrieved from http://www.cureangelman.org/newsandevents.html
Harrigan, J., & Jacob, S. (2014). National fragile x foundation forward. Retrieved from
Intellectual Disability (Mental Retardation): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments. WebMD. (n.d.) Retrieved from http://
Intellectual Disability. National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities (n.d.). Retrieved from http://
Lambert, K. (2012). Can i tell you about epilepsy?. London, England: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Minnesota Department of Education, Mankato Area Public Schools. (2013).
Demographics booklet for ids77. Retrieved from website: http://www.isd77.org/sites/www.isd77.org/files/files/Demographics/demographicbook2012-13.pdf
National Down Syndrome Society. (2012). Finding support. Retrieved from https://www.ndss.org/Resources/New-Expectant-Parents/Finding-Support/
National Fragile X Foundation. (2014). Top 10 things you can do after your child is diagnosed with fxs. Retrieved from http://www.fragilex.org/newly-diagnosed/top-10-things-to-do-after-your-child-is-diagnosed-with-fxs/
National Tourette Syndrome Association. (2014). Tsa in the usa. Retrieved from http://tsa-usa.org/
Niner, H. L. (2005). I can't stop! a story about tourette syndrome. Morton Grove, Illinois: Albert Whitman & Company
Sacks, Ben & Buckley, S (2013). Motor Development for individuals with Down Syndrome. retrieved Feb 07 2014, from
An Overview Web Site: http://www.down-syndrome.org/information/motor/overview/
Smith, T. C., Polloway, E., Patton, J., & Dowdy, C. (2012). Teaching students with special needs in inclusive settings (6th
ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
The National Autism Resource & Information Center. (2014). In the community. Retrieved from http://autismnow.org/in-the-community/
U.S. Department of Education, Minnesota Department of
Education. (2012). 2010-2011 minnesota annual report on special education performance. Retrieved from website: http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/SchSup/SpecEdComp/
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Digest of Education Statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001), Table 46.
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Rehabilitative Services, Office of Special Education Programs. (2011). 30th annual report to congress on the implementation of the individuals with disabilities education act, 2008. Retrieved from website: http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/SchSup/SpecEdComp/
Kara Vollmer, Michelle Burke, Amanda Wolff, & Brianna Miller
Amount of time students with disabilities spend in the classroom
Fragile X Syndrome
Resources for parents
Number of students in Minnesota with disabilities
Percent of students with an Intellectual Disability
* More time on assigments
* Activity Breaks
* Cooperative Learning Groups
* Tape Tasks
* Use manipulatives
* Written directions instead of oral
* Allow use of a calculator
* Allow use of "math facts" sheet
Total number of Students served under IDEA part B
In the Mankato School District 14% of student population is part of the special education program.
* Always refer to IEP
* Change learning tasks with similar topic by simplifying or condensing, combining or grouping, or by using special coding
* Use different resourcs; software that provides text to speech/speech to text capabilities
Causes of Intellectual Disabilities
Specific biological causes
Psychological factors and Environmental influences
Problems during pregnancy
Problems at birth
Characteristics of Intellectual Disabilities
Mild Intellectual Disability
Moderate Intellectual Disability
Severe Intellectual Disability
Profound Intellectual Disability
IQ below 25
Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified
* Motor Skills
* Oral Motor Skills/Language Skills
* Basic Number Skills
Adaptive behavior difficulties
Underdeveloped social skills
Limited metacognition skills
Language development delays
Delayed or absent milestones
Pervasive Developmental Disorder
A general term for a group of complex disorders of brain development.
Cause: Generally a combination of risk genes and environmental factors that influence brain development.
Someone with PDD-NOS will exhibit some but not all characteristics of autism, or very mild characteristics.
Characteristics: challenges in social, language or behavioral development.
Types of PDD-NOS:
25% high functioning with language development delays and mild cognitive impairment.
25% resemble autism, but do not meet all characteristics of autism
50% meet all diagnostic characteristics of autism, but characteristics are very mild
Autism & Asperger's
Underdeveloped social and emotional skills
Fixation on specific topics
*Those with autism also experience underdeveloped language and communication skills
Angelman syndrome is a complex genetic disorder that causes developmental and neurological problems.
Have a set routine
Provide a break area
Reduce number of problems that still meet the standard
Allow students to create classroom expectations
Allow extra time on tests/assignments
Refer to IEP for modifications
Modify tasks so they still fit the content area, but meet a developmentally appropriate standard.
Cause of Angelman Syndrome
Features of Angelman syndrome
Physical- includes ataxia, absent speech,
seizures, truncal hypotonia, smallness of
Behavior- smiling, laughing, gait, hand flapping, love of water, sleep disorder.
Milestones- feeding, tremulous, sitting, walking.
The cause of Angelman Syndrome is a genetic mutation. The mutation is on chromosome fifteen.
allow to communicate
with gestures or communication
systems (depending on standard
could also be modification)
Refer to the IEP
Change learning tasks with similar
topic by simplifying or condensing,
combining or grouping, or by using
It is a genetic condition that causes intellectual disability, behavioral, and learning challenges and various physical characteristics
- For males, approximentaely 1 in 3,600 to 4,000
- For females, approximentely 1 in 4,000 to 6,000
Avoid timed tests
Replace written test for oral tests (would be a modification if they were being tested on writing standards)
Limit homework. make it an option
Use manipulatives, visual material, videos,models
Provide visual cues to help organize tasks
depend on the severity of their fragile X characteristics
Refer to students IEP
Males with FXS
Significant intellectual disability, range from moderate LD to more servere ID
Physical features may include large ears, long face, soft skin
Behavorial characteristics: ADD, ADHD autism and autistic behaviors, soical anxiety, hand-biting, sensory disorders, and increased risk for aggression
Females with FXS
Often have milder intellectual disabiltiy, about 1/3 of females have significant ID
Milder presentation of behavioral and physical features
Moderate or mild LD, emotional/mental health issues, general anxiety and/or social anxiety