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Fluid Mosaic Model Timeline
Transcript of Fluid Mosaic Model Timeline
Fluid Mosaic Model Contribution Timeline
Benjamin Franklin (1706-1790)
Benjamin Franklin was a self-trained scientist, author, inventor, philosopher, and statesman (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Benjamin was likely the first to study and contribute to the Fluid Mosaic Model. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
In 1774 Benjamin was curious about oil and water not mixing, which lead to his experiment on the effects of oil on the surface of water(Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
The experiment passed relatively unnoticed. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Agnes Pokels (1862-1935)
Agnes started to study the effects of substances on water and surface tension in 1880 in her kitchen (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
In 1891 Pockels wrote to Lord Rayleigh about her own experiment and device (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
She designed a device that could measure the surface tension and exact area of an oil film.(Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Charles Ernest Overton (1865-1933)
Had a doctoral degree in botany (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
His findings of membrane properties were accidental (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Proposed that there are similarities between cell membrane and lipids (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Had a lot of opposition to Overton's idea that lipid can pass through the membrane (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Irving Langmuir (1881 - 1957)
American Chemist and physicist (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Irving improved on Agnes Pockels's device. Device is now known as the Langmuir Trough. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Proposed that fatty acids formed a monolayer where the molecules were vertical with the carboxyl group touching water and the hydro chains away from water. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
His work was published in 1917 (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
E.Gorter & F.Grendel (1881 - 1954)
They extracted lipid from a red blood cell, knowing that red blood cells have no nuclei or membrane- bound organelles.
Using a modified trough they were able to demonstrate that lipid molecules could form a bi layer (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
They decided that red blood cells are covered by a layer of fatty substances two molecules thick in 1925(Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
James Danielli (1911-1984), E. Newton Harvey (1886-1957), and Hugh Davson (1906-1996)
Proposed the first membrane model to be accepted by majority of scientist in 1935 (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Danielli had found proteins that could be absorbed to oil droplets obtained from mackerel eggs. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
The model proposed was a "sandwich" of lipids by two layers of globular proteins. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Later versions of their model included "active patches" and protein lined pores after researching about membrane being selectively permeable. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
J. David Robertson (1923-1995)
1957 J. Robertson proposed a modified version of the membrane model call the unit membrane (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Used a high Magnification of the transmission electron microscope to notice that the membrane appeared to consist of two darker outer lines and a lighter inner region.
This shows that the two outer layers are the protein layer and the region inbetween is the lipid bilayer.
Lord Rayleigh (1842 - 1919)
Was a British physicist who earned a Nobel Prize for physics in 1904
Did a similar oil and water experiment one century after Benjamin Franklin's experiment. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Conducted his experiment many times to get the right amount of oil to cover surface of the water (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
This experiment allowed him to measure the thickness of a film of olive oil which he said was one molecule thick (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Published his work in 1890 (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
"Oil Monolayer." Web. 22 April 2014.
This is what Benjamin Franklin observed during his experiments.
Seymour Jonathan Singer (1924-Present) and Garth Nicolson (1943-Unkown)
Unit membrane model was replaced in early 1970s by the current model known as Fluid Mosaic Model. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
The Fluid mosaic model retains the basic lipid bilayer first proposed by Gorter and Grendel and modified by Danielli and Daveson and Robertson. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
The proteins are thought to be globular and to float within the lipid bilayer rather than forming the layers of the sandwich model (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
Unwin and Henderson (1984)
They found that the portion of the protein that spans the lipid bylayer is hydrophobic in nature (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
It is also arranged in a three-dimensional shape, often in the form of an alpha helix (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
The fluid mosaic model has been modified by more recent discoveries such as Unwin and Hendersons work but remains the model preferred by biologists. (Eichman, 22 April. 2014)
George E. Palade (1912-2008)
1950's - 1960's: George E. Palade mapped the structure of mitochondria.
This showed that micromes are a part of the internal cellular transport system, endoplasmic reticulum.
Palade developed understanding for how organelles cooperate to enable protein secretion, endocytosis, and membrane biogenesis.
"Lord Rayleigh." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Agnes Pockel." Web. 22 April 2014 <http://home.frognet.net/~ejcov/pockels4.jpg>
"Charles Overton." Web. 22 April 2014. <http://www.unipublic.uzh.ch/archiv/magazin/gesundheit/2001/0366/overton.jpg>
"Irving Langmuir." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Representative phospholipid." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Lipid monolayer." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Red Blood Cells." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Lipid bilayer." Web. 22 April 2014.
Gorter and Grendel's model
"Danielli-Davson model." Web. 22 April 2014.
Danielli and Davson's Model
"George E.Palade." Web. 22 April 2014.
"J.David Robertson." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Jonathan Singer & Garth Nicolson." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Fluid mosaic model." Web. 22 April 2014.
Singer and Nicolson's model
"Fluid mosaic model with alpha helical protein." Web. 22 April 2014.
Unwin and Henderson's modified fluid mosaic model
Mary Kraft, Peter Weber, Joshua Zimmerberg (2013)
Published new findings on the organization within the cell membrane.
Using advanced equipment it allowed the team to look at the membrane itself
They anticipated the lipids would associate with cholesterol to create domains of 200nm across
Actual results the 200nm domains clustered to form micrometer-sized patches
"Sphingolipids." Web. 22 April 2014.
"Benjamin Franklin." Web. 22 April 2014.
Ahlberg, Liz . "News Bureau | University of Illinois." New look at cell membrane reveals surprising organization. N.p., 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
Cooper GM. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Sunderland (MA): Sinauer Associates; 2000. Structure of the Plasma Membrane. Available from:
Eichman, P. From the Lipid Bilayer to the fluid mosaic: A brief history of the membrane models.Rio Grande, Ohio. 1993. web 21 April 2014
Moran, Laurence. "Sandwalk." : Nobel Laureate: George Palade. N.p., 16 July 2008. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
"The Mad Science Blog: Scientific Exploits of Ben Franklin Part 1: The Oil Drop Experiments." The Mad Science Blog: Scientific Exploits of Ben Franklin Part 1: The Oil Drop Experiments. N.p., 21 July 2010. Web. 22 Apr. 2014.
April 23, 2014