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Transcript of Indian Horse
By: Emina, Maria and Miranda
Part II: ST. JEROME'S INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOL
Group A: Chapter 11-18
Life at Residential Schools
What are Residential Schools?
Who Attended Residential Schools?
Where are Residential Schools Located?
Why Were Residential Schools Built?
"Your father is the Heavenly Father. You will learn that here. Your human father has nothing to offer you anymore."(45)
About 1,100 students attended 69 schools across the country
About 150,000 First Nation, Inuit and Métis children were removed from their communities and forced to attend the schools.
There were around 80 schools operating in Canada
Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada.
Web. 2 Nov. 2014
British Columbia: 18 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Alberta: 26 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Saskatchewan: 20 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Manitoba: 15 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Ontario: 18 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Quebec: 12 (Mainly Non-Denominational)
Nova Scotia: 1 (Roman Catholic)
Nunavut: 13 (Mainly Non-Denominational)
Northwest Territories: 14 (Mainly Roman Catholic)
Yukon: 5 (Mainly Anglican)
Plot - Introduction
New Characters Continued
Comparison to Other Stories
Overview of Residential Schools
"Moment of Reckoning -- Turning the Page on a Dark Chapter of Our Shared History." YouTube. YouTube. Web. 6 Nov. 2014.
Wagamese, Richard. Indian Horse: A Novel. Vancouver, BC: Douglas & McIntyre, 2012. Print.
"The wool pants scratched at my skin. They were a size too big and had to be held up with a belt cinched tight. The shirt was stiff and white. The shoes were thin leather with laces and smooth, slippery soles. They made us walk awkwardly." (Wagamese 44)
To completely wipe out the First Nations population.
Government of Canada believed the First Nations were not important to society.
"At St. Jerome's we work to remove the Indian from our children so that the blessing of the Lord may be evidenced upon them." (Wagamese 47)
The head priest at St. Jerome's
Very calm and quiet. He just oversees the school.
"'Industry, boys,' Father Quinney said. 'Good earnest study. That's what will prepare you for the world."' (47)
The head nun at St. Jerome's
"The sister smiled, it was chilling because there was no laughter in her eyes. They were a cold, pale blue, like the eyes of a husky, and when she reached behind her and brought a leather paddle into view she had a terrible calm about her."
Why do you think Sister Ignacia had a calm about her?
Father Gaston Leboutilier:
Father that arrived the same year as Saul
Personality is very different from the other priest and nuns.
"He was a young priest with a sense of humour that angered his fellow priests and the nuns, and a kindness and sense of adventure that drew the boys to him...he brought us hockey." (56)
" St. Jerome's took all the light from my world ." (43)
"The world I had known was replaced by an ominous black cloud."(47)
"The floors were hardwood...walls were a sickly green. At every landing were doors of frosted glass so the light was pale and gave off a feeling of cold even though the radiators pulsed heat outward in waves." (44)
What does this quote indicate?
Why do you think the Priests and Nuns were angered by Father Leboutilier?
We watched the silvery, brown flash as they flopped...The fourth time we stood quietly, each of us lost in our thoughts, as the fish struggled for air , for life, for freedom."(53)
"When they lay gasping on the grass, it was ourselves we saw fighting for air."(54)
"So much life, so much desperation, so much energy."(53)
"As I laced on the skates my fingers actually trembled." Not from the cold but from the knowledge that freedom was imminent, that flight was at hand." (64)
Connected easily, belief that Shabogeesick gift had been passed on to him
"I had no longer felt hopeless,chill air around me because I had Father Leboutilier, the ice ,the mornings and the promise of a game that I would soon be old enough to play." (66)
Symbolism for the Fish
Symbolism for Hockey
Children vs Sister Ignacia
changed their traditional names to biblical names
Created and enforced rules against the children
"I watched my long, straight hair land on the floor, and when I looked at the other boy he was crying. Huge, silent tears."(45)
"St. Germ's scraped away at us, leaving holes in our beings. I could never understand how the god...such cruelty and suffering."(52)
Cleaning the rink became my assigned chore and I would rise...was our regular breakfast."(60)
" She reached out to lay a hand on his face. He flinched." (46)
Symbolism for Residential Schools Continued
Symbolism of the Indian Horse
The Indian Horse may symbolize the spirit of the children in residential schools
"Their breathing was like expelled air of mustangs. The clomp of their blades made me think of hoofs on frozen ground."(67)
"When the priest turned them loose...they broke with the abandon of mustangs."(57)
"She walked into the school quietly, humbly, regally almost."(50)
17th century: First missionary-operated school established near Quebec City
1892: Federal government and churches officially partner in operation of schools
1907: Indian Affairs chief medical inspector reports numerous deficiencies in the schools
1920: Residential school attendance become mandatory
1931: 80 schools are in operation across Canada.
1958: Indian Affairs inspectors recommend to shut down residential schools
1986: United Church apologizes for its role in residential schools
1991: Phil Fontaine becomes first native leader to publicly disclose his abuse at school
1993 and 1994 : Anglican and Presbyterian Church apologizes for its role in residential schools
1996: Last government-run residential school closes; Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples publishes a comprehensive report on First Nations issues
2006: Government, and churches sign $4-billion residential schools settlement agreement
2008: Residential schools truth and reconciliation commission launched
News, CBC. "A Timeline of Residential Schools, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 25 Mar. 2014. Web. 06 Nov. 2014.
Set up by: the Canadian government and run by: churches
Purpose to educating Aboriginal children
separated children from their families for a long time
Not allowed: to acknowledge their Aboriginal heritage and culture or to speak their own languages.
Children were severely punished if strict rules were broken. horrendous abuse: physical, sexual, emotional, and psychological.
Aboriginal students with an inferior education, often only up to grade five, that focused on training students for manual labour in agriculture, light industry domestic work.
Saul arrives at St. Jerome’s Residential School
“St. Jerome’s took all the light from my world. Everything I knew vanished behind me with an audible swish, like the sound a moose makes disappearing into spruce.” (43)
Important dates of Residential school
News, CBC. "A History of Residential Schools in Canada." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 7 Jan. 2014. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/a-history-of-residential-schools-in-canada-1.702280>.
Saul and Father Gaston Leboutiler
“He smiled and pulled me forward into a hug. I closed my eyes and I almost cried for the memory of my father. He held me a long moment, then let me go.”(59)
"The Residential School System." The Residential School System. N.p., n.d. Web. 05 Nov. 2014.
Strong, brave, courageous, and resistant
“So I retreated. That’s how I survived. Alone. When the tears threatened to erupt from me at night I vowed they would never hear me cry. I ached in solitude. What I let them see was a quiet, withdrawn boy, void of feeling.” (55)
Unity (also the falling action)
“When Father Leboutilier finally whistled us to a stop, the older boys skated to the boards and leaned there. I dawdled behind them, unsure of what to do. But as I drew near they made a spot for me among them. We stood there like stallions home from range.”(71)
"The nuns found her three days later, knee deep in a bog."(51) Relates to "The Animal People Choose A Leader".
"Shabogeesick's gift had been passed on to me."(58) Relates to "My own Medicine Story"
"So I learned...played the game."(65) Relates to "My Own Medicine Story".
Wagamese also uses the same character name from "The Animal People Choose A Leader"
After a minute the priest made us stand and threw handfuls of delousing powder over us. It bit at the corners of my eyes as he sat us in the tubs again to rinse it off. Then a pair of nuns scrubbed us with stiff-bristled brushes. The soap was harsh. They rubbed us nearly raw.
It felt like they were trying to remove our skin.
When it was over they handed us clothing and watched us while we dressed.(44)
"There was no tolerance for Indian talk. On the second day I was there, a boy named Curtis White Fox had his mouth washed out with lye soap for speaking Ojibway. He choked on it and died right there in the classroom. He was ten."(48)
Repetition and Parallelism
kids die of tuberculosis, influenza, pneumonia and broke hearts at St. Jerome’s.
young boys and girls die standing on their own two feet.
runaways carried back, frozen solid as boards.
bodies hung from rafters on thin ropes.
wrists slashed and the cascade of blood on the bathroom floor and, one time, a young boy impaled on the tines of a pitchfork and he’d shoved through him-self." (55)
Life at Residential Schools
"They took me to St. Jerome's Indian Residential School." (43)
"One afternoon, during some rare unsupervised time, a dozen of us escaped to the bottom of the ridge the school sat on." (53)
"He convinced Father Quinney to let him build a rink, outfit the older boys and start a team." (56)
WHY COULD THE CHILDREN POSSIBLY HAVE UNSUPERVISED TIME?
Roman, Karina. "St. Anne's Residential School: One Survivor's Story." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 18 Dec. 2013. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/st-anne-s-residential-school-one-survivor-s-story-1.2467924>.
"Photograph of St. Paul's Residential School in Cardston Alberta." Welcome to Archives & Special Collections. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://archives.algomau.ca/main/node/15755>
Flaminio, Anna. Residential Schools. Print.
"St. Michael's Indian Residential School - Alert Bay, BC." Mission and Justice Relationships. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.anglican.ca/relationships/histories/st-michaels-alert-bay>.
"St. Michael’s Indian Residential School — Alert Bay, BC." Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.anglican.ca/relationships/histories/pelican-lake>.
"Review:John Milloy, A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System - 1879 to 1986." Manitoba History: Review: A National Crime: The Canadian Government and the Residential School System. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/mb_history/38/nationalcrime.shtml>.
"Bompas Hall - Northwest Territories." Mission and Justice Relationships. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.anglican.ca/relationships/histories/ft-simpson-nwt>.
"BYTE Yukon » Blog Archive » The Importance of the New Residential Schools Curriculum in NWT and Nunavut." BYTE Yukon » Blog Archive » The Importance of the New Residential Schools Curriculum in NWT and Nunavut. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.yukonyouth.com/2012/10/the-importance-of-the-new-residential-schools-curriculum-in-nwt-and-nunavut/>.
"St. Philip's School - Fort George, QC." Mission and Justice Relationships. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.anglican.ca/relationships/histories/st-philips-ftgeorge>.
"Shingle Point School - Yukon." Mission and Justice Relationships. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.anglican.ca/relationships/histories/shingle-point-yukon>.
"INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS - Cultural Genocide." INDIAN RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS - Cultural Genocide. Web. 6 Nov. 2014. <http://www.danielnpaul.com/IndianResidentialSchools.html>.