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# Math Presentation for 628-677 GMU

Mathematics is a Nebulous Journey
by

## beth winsor

on 26 February 2013

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#### Transcript of Math Presentation for 628-677 GMU

Guest Speaker Let's Sing about Rounding Let's Play! CLosing With a graded quiz. http://pisdtv.pisd.edu/dooley/features/188 You have been given a Math Journal.
The pages of the journal correlate with the number on each station.

Some centers are differentiated. Use the material labeled with the letter assigned to you.

Some centers have self correcting material.

One center is a folder for you to make and take.

There is a direction card with each center that also indicates which VAKT it represents. By an out of this world team!
Erik
Jeanine
Lori
Beth Understanding math
is like the structure of a building.
A good foundation must be built in order to learn a subject that compounds information. Math is the layering of skills. The continued learning of skills greatly depends on the quality of the floor of knowledge below. Our goal is to help each student build a sky scraper up to the stars. Vocabulary should be taught using explicit strategies.
As you are teaching math, help children understand that math is a language. Prior knowledge must be obtained before introducing new concepts.
A child's self confidence can plummet and the child is likely to give up and feel defeated. KEVA PLANK DEMO http://www.vdoe.whro.org/math-strategies/FLA_DOE_11/fla_doe_11.swf http://www.flocabulary.com/pythagorean-theorem/ Credits: Wall of Thinking Maps Thought Processes:
Used for Analogies
Identifies Differences/Similarities between relationships
Must have relating factors
______is ______ as ______ is to _____

What are the relating factors?
What are the analogies?
How did you know this? Bridge Map Thought Process:
Sequencing
Ordering Processes

What is the sequence?
How to you know what order to use?
What are the stages?
What are the sub-stages? Flow Map Thought Process:
Classifying
Vocabulary & Word Problems
Equations
Parts
Order

What are the main ideas?
What are the supporting ideas?
What are the details in this map? Tree Map Thought Process:
Compare/Contrast
Can be adjusted for ELL students

What is similar/different to you?
What qualities are the same?
What qualities are different?
Which qualities do you like the most? Double Bubble Map Thought Process:
Describing Qualities
Thought Process writing or defining things

How are you describing this?
What qualities do you like the best? Bubble Map 3-D Thinking Map More Circle Maps Thought Process:
Defining in a concept in context
Defining vocabulary terms
Vocabulary development
Brainstorming
Accessing prior knowledge

Ask students to identify sources of prior knowledge.
How are you defining this concept? Circle Map Bridge Map: Flow Map: Student Generated Example: For Thinking Maps to be effective, the student must be the one who constructs the map. This gives the student the opportunity to cognitively
link the visual images to the content as well as incorporating the frames of reference that are individual to each student.

Teacher Generated Example: Incorporating Thinking Maps into
Explicit Instruction

Teacher Introduces the lesson
Activate prior knowledge
Use frame of reference
Introduce concepts and use questions to activate thinking
Initial Instruction
Teacher models several problems
Teacher provides explicit instruction for students to complete their thinking maps
Teacher-Guided Practice
Students use maps with teacher supervision
Teacher monitors student success
Students may work together in peer groups
Independent Practice
Students complete problems independently
Check for Understanding
Teacher checks for student success during independent practice
Re-teach Students Who are Having Difficulty
Identify students who are still having difficulty
Reintroduce concepts and re-teach Examples of Guiding Questions for adding a Frame of Reference Each thinking map is linked to a specific thought process
Connects a visual design with specific thought processes
Helps close achievement gap with ELL students
Provides a way to teach cognitive skills explicitly
Helps students become independent thinkers
Creates a mental visual pattern for thinking
Non-Linguistic Representation
Provides a frame of reference –> what influences a student’s thinking Thinking Maps: 8 Cognitive Skills

Many of our students have experienced repeated difficulties in math. They often get discouraged and feel like they will “never get it.” These negative feelings can persist and may become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Thinking maps are an evidence based practice to help students learn how to think. What’s going on in our students’ brains
during math instruction? THINKING MAPS A Language for Learning Multiple Maps
Same concept: multiple maps Thought Process:
Cause and Effect Relationships

What are the causes?
What are the effects?
What happens next? Multi-Flow Map Thought Process:
Part to Whole Relationships
Reasoning
Structural Analysis

What are the components?
What are the parts?
What are the subparts?
How to they fit together? A format for solving word problems Brace Map They are NOT graphic organizers!
Graphic organizers are flat, black and white, and very generalized.
Graphic organizers don’t teach students how to think.
Important!
They are not teacher generated:
Students complete the maps themselves in order to allow them to make cognitive connections. Thinking Maps vs. Graphic Organizers

School/district wide method
Evidence Based Practice
Provides a Visual Scaffold for Learning

The brain can register 36,000
images an hour
90% of all information that comes
into our brains is visual
40% of nerve fibers that connect to
the brain connect through the retina*

Helps students conceptualize abstract
concepts such as:

Spatial Relationships
Distances
Sequencing
Multi-step processes
Compare/Contrast
Classifications

* Adapted from Brain Based Learning,
Eric Jensen, 1996
How Do Thinking Maps Work? Thinking Maps: Math Anxiety

Are YOU afraid of math?

blinds?

Are they coming to you with “bugs”?

Do they already feel like they
will never understand math?

down during instruction,
independent practice, or tests?
Adding a frame of reference is the hook that allows the student to make cognitive connections to the new material. It is the “thinking” part of thinking maps.

Ask the student questions that frame the new information.
Did you get your information from a
specific source?
Have you seen this before?
Who could use this information?
Why is it important? Frames of Reference are thought processes. Each of the 8 thinking maps has a unique thought process. What is a Frame of Reference? •A Mnemonic is any procedure or operation designed to improve one’s memory
•A meta-analysis revealed that the effect sizes for these interventions were very large (Scruggs and Mastropieri, 2000)
•Forness (2001) demonstrated that these interventions had the largest and most consistent results of all special education intervention strategies.
•Useful across all subject areas
•Improve retention and recall information for all students but most importantly for students with disabilities Math Strategies
Mnemonics A nebulous journey Three types The Keyword
Method Letter Strategies Pegword Method •A keyword is used to connect a picture with information needed. The object in the picture has a sound that is similar to the word that needs to be remembered. Italian Vocabulary word
Lago = Lake

Keyword Image = log in a lake •Using a rhyming proxy for a number. Used for ordered operations.

(one is bun, two is shoe, three is tree) Acronyms STAR Letter strategy for problem solving
S earch the word problem, T ranslate the words into an equation in picture form, A nswer the problem,
R eview the solution My Very Excited Mother Just Served Us Nuggets
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune Auditory Learners learn best by listening.
Auditory Learners do well with lecture and class discussions.
Auditory Learners tend to remember and repeat ideas that were verbally presented.
They can repeat and fulfill verbal instructions. Auditory Understanding the Learning Styles of your students
Assessments through Curriculum Based Measurement Learning Styles

VAKT Visual Learners prefer using images, pictures and colors to organize information.
Visual Learners like to read instruction on their own to increase understanding.
They learn by seeing and watching demonstrations.
They use the “mind’s eye” to conjure up images. Visual Conceptual Understanding – understanding mathematical concepts (word problems and integers) and operations (PEMDAS)
Strategic Competence – ability to formulate and conduct math problems
Procedural Fluency – ability to accurately and efficiently conduct operations and math practices
Productive Disposition – appreciating the useful and positive influence of understanding math and how ones attitude toward math influences success Math proficiency is the essential goal of instruction.
Math proficiency is what any student needs in order to acquire mathematical understanding.
Mastery – to be able to apply the concepts covered in class to “real world” situations.
How do we measure mastery? Math Proficiency A very important feature of a comprehensive math program is to teach concepts and vocabulary – to make sure students understand the language of mathematics. Learning Styles There are a lot of forces at work here.
There is a lot of diversity among the students as to their level of disability and cultural backgrounds.
This requires much attention and needs development of instructional interventions to meet the specific needs of the students. We cannot ignore the fact that our classrooms are a microcosm of languages and prior experiences. Diversity in the Classroom Kinesthetic
Visual
Auditory
Kinesthetic
Tactile 4 Types of Learning Styles In addition, we need to individualize the instruction for the children. We often assume an individualized program means the student works alone. Individualization refers to the program designed to meet the individual needs of the student. Despite years of research, no single method of math instruction has been proven to be significantly better than others. Individualization We know through the reading that students having difficulties in math often have other related difficulties that cause interference in learning math.
For example-
Students with learning disabilities often have difficulty applying learning strategies.
Students with emotional disturbances may have greater difficulties learning math than other subjects because it requires persistence and concentration.
(Parmar, Cawley, & Miller, 1994) Diversity in the Classroom Psychological Factors Personality Factors Educational Factors Neuropsychological patterns Intelligence
Cognitive ability
Distractibility
Ability to apply strategies Quality of past education
Amount of intervention
English as a second language Persistence
Self Confidence
Attitude Birth defects
Severe illness
Head Trauma Methods that can be used for studying math vocabulary.

Math journal; As you teach provide the child with a short explanation of the lesson to glue into a specific note book. Teach him how to use it as a reference book. Highlight all specific vocabulary.
.
Word banks; Provide word banks and posters that contain vocabulary words to increase the frequency of exposure.

Word webs and concept circles – The same types of materials used in a language arts class can be used for Math vocabulary

The Frayer Model - Thinking Map Tactile Auditory Teach children Math is not a black whole! Mathematics A Song for Geometry Auditory Songs Help http://www.sheppardsoftware.com/mathgames/earlymath/clock_shoot.htm Identify numbers
Count
Skip Counting
Subtract
Calendar knowledge
Basic Shapes
Telling Time
Elapsed time
Multiply
Divide
Fact Families
Rounding
Estimation
Money recognitions Making Change
Place Value
Decimals
Measuring Angles
3D Shapes
Volume
Area
Perimeter
Circumference
Pie
Naming Angles
Measuring distance, weight and volume
Metric system
Converting base 10 to metric
Digits
Variables
inequalities http://animoto.com/play/5Jqq2Ka2jrUC56NJ4r0b5Q More ideas! Circle Maps are for defining things in context
Make a paper plate Circle Map defining your favorite number.
Put your favorite number in the middle of the plate.
Put everything you understand about the number around the circle. You Try! http://pinterest.com/search/pins/?q=math+thinking+maps

http://pinterest.com/search/pins/?q=math+thinking+maps

http://tellier.edublogs.org/2010/12/14/december-14-solving-multiple-step-equations/

http://www.doe.k12.ga.us/Curriculum-Instruction-and-Assessment/Special-Education-Services/Documents/Thinking%20Maps%20ppt.pdf

http://animoto.com/play/5Jqq2Ka2jrUC56NJ4r0b5Q

http://coachkessler.weebly.com/thinking-maps.html Credits: Acrostics Where do we begin? Where to Begin Learn through experience and physical activities like playing games or role playing
Benefit from demonstrations
They learn from teaching others what they know Process information best through a "hands-on" experience
Learn by touching and manipulating objects
Prefer a personal connection to the topic
Follow directions they have written themselves
First we need to determine the performance level of the students. For students with special needs, individually administered assessments yield the most information. (BRIGANCE Diagnostic Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills and the Test of Early Mathematics Ability provide information to assist with designing and monitoring instruction)
From there, “one would be hard-pressed to find a more effective technique than curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for directing, monitoring, and redirecting remedial efforts.” Bryant and Rivera 1997
From the individual assessments, we can pinpoint the concepts or operations where children are having trouble.
From there we define the goal which will help the student achieve mastery. Then we give a pretest to establish a measureable baseline of their current abilities. Then based upon their learning style, we individualize the instruction to best fit the child. The teacher and student meet frequently to discuss and track the student’s progress and modify assignments and instruction to help learning. This gives the student ownership of their progress and hopefully will positively increase their “disposition” towards math. How do we develop instructional programs for the students? So, we know where the deficits lie based upon the individual assessment we gave. We defined the goal we want them to achieve. From here we can individualize instruction. So what kind of strategies can we use to help kids with math deficits? What does “progress tracking” provide teachers? DATA for IEPs!! References and Resources
Scruggs, T.E., Mastropieri, M.A., Berkeley, & Marshak, L. (2010). Mnemonic
Strategies: Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence.
Intervention in School and Clinic. 46 (2) 79-86.
Forness, Steven R. (2001) Special Education and Related Services: What Have
We Learned From Meta-Analysis? Exceptionality. 9 (4)
Scruggs, T. E., & Mastropieri, M. A. (2000). The effectiveness of mnemonic
instruction for students with learning and behavior problems: An update
and research synthesis. Journal of Behavioral Education, 10(2-3), 163-173.
doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1016640214368 http://www.education.com/study-help/article/types-triangles/
http://www.mathsisfun.com/angles.html