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ServSafe Manager Class and Exam

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Colleen Meyer

on 15 August 2014

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Transcript of ServSafe Manager Class and Exam

ServSafe Manager Class and Exam
Using one set of cutting boards for raw TCS Food and another set for ready to eat food reduces the risk of
Cross- Contamination
Time-Temperature Abuse
Physical Contamination
Toxic Metal Poisoning

Quiz Questions

Why are young children at a higher risk for food borne illness?

They are more likely to spend time in a hospital.
Their immune systems are not yet fully developed.
They are more likely to suffer allergic reactions.
Their appetites are suppressed.

Quiz Questions

1-25

Government Agencies

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA)
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
U.S. Public Health Service (PHS)
State and local regulatory authorities

Keeping Food Safe

Focus on these measures

Controlling time and temperature
Preventing cross-contamination
Practicing personal hygiene
Purchasing from approved, reputable suppliers
Cleaning and sanitizing

1-23

Keeping Food Safe

TCS Food or Not?

1-11

Five Risk Factors for Foodborne Illness
Purchasing food from unsafe sources
Failing to cook food correctly
Holding food at incorrect temperatures
Using contaminated equipment
Practicing poor personal hygiene


How Food Becomes Unsafe

Anyone ever had a food borne illness?



Today~
Break about 10-1030am
Lunch about 1230pm- 130pm
Go to Global Village or Crossroads
Punch out and in
Done for day 3:30 -4:00pm


Tomorrow~
Here at 8am
Finish and Review
Test


Agenda

1-24

Training and Monitoring
Train staff to follow food safety procedures
Provide initial and ongoing training
Provide all staff with general food
safety knowledge
Provide job specific food safety training
Retrain staff regularly
Monitor staff to make sure they are following procedures
Document training

Keeping Food Safe

1-17

Poor personal hygiene can cause a foodborne illness when food handlers:
fail to wash their hands correctly after using the restroom
cough or sneeze on food
touch or scratch wounds, and then touch food
work while sick

Things we can control…

Food has been time-temperature abused when:

It has not been held or stored at correct temperatures
It is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens
It is not cooled correctly



1-13

Time-temperature abuse:
When food has stayed too long at temperatures good for pathogen growth


Things we can control…




There have been changes per the 2011 and 2013 FDA Codes.

Listen Closely…..


Changes

1-21

Ready-to-eat food is food that can be eaten without further
Preparation
Washing
Cooking

Ready-to-eat food includes:
Cooked food
Washed fruit and vegetables
Deli meat
Bakery items
Sugar, spices, and seasonings (including garnishes)


Ready-to-Eat Food

1-18

Poor cleaning and sanitizing:
Equipment and utensils are not washed, rinsed, and sanitized between uses.
Food contact surfaces are wiped clean instead of being washed, rinsed, and sanitized
Wiping cloths are not stored in a sanitizer solution between uses.
Sanitizer solution was not prepared correctly

Things we can control..

1-16

Cross-contamination can cause a foodborne illness when:
Contaminated ingredients are added to food that receives no further cooking
Ready-to-eat food touches contaminated surfaces
A food handler touches contaminated food and then touches ready-to-eat food
Contaminated cleaning cloths touch
food-contact surfaces


Things we can control…

1-15

Cross-contamination:


When pathogens are transferred from one surface or food to another


Things we can control…

1-4

Challenges include:
Time and money*
Language and culture*
Literacy and education*
Different/ New Pathogens*
Unapproved suppliers*
High-risk customers*
Staff turnover*

Challenges to Food Safety

1-3

Challenges to Food Safety

A foodborne illness is a disease transmitted to people through food

An illness is considered an outbreak when:
Two or more people have the same symptoms after eating the same food
An investigation is conducted by state and local regulatory authorities
The outbreak is confirmed by laboratory analysis

1-7

Unsafe food is the result of contamination
Biological


Chemical


Physical


How Foodborne Illnesses Occur

What we used to call Potentially Hazardous Foods are now called,
TCS Foods (Time-Temperature Control for Safety Foods)

We are talking about what you do at
WORK
Not home
BUT, if you get sick at home, you will bring it to work.


Federal vs. State and County
Test is Federal
Everyday is State/ County


Differences

1-22

Populations at High Risk for
Foodborne Illnesses

These people have a higher risk of getting a foodborne illness:
Elderly people


Preschool-age children


People with compromised immune systems


No arguing.
With me or classmates.

Ask questions
Let others ask theirs.


Sign in sheet

No cell phones

Stuff...

Poor cleaning and sanitizing

Poor personal hygiene

Cross-contamination

Time-temperature abuse

1-12

Things we can control….

Staff retraining

Increased insurance premiums

Staff missing work

Lawsuits and legal fees

Costs of a foodborne illness to an operation:

1-6

Costs of Foodborne Illness

Lowered staff morale

Negative media exposure

Loss of reputation

Loss of customers and sales

Costs of a foodborne illness to an operation:

1-5

Costs of Foodborne Illness

Shellfish and
crustaceans

Poultry

Eggs (except those
treated to eliminate
Salmonella spp.)

Fish

Meat: beef, pork,
and lamb

Milk and dairy
products

1-19

TCS Food:

Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe

Sliced melons and
cut tomatoes

Untreated garlic-and-oil mixtures

Sprouts and
sprout seeds

Tofu or other
soy-protein food

Baked potatoes

Heat-treated plant food, such as cooked rice, beans, and vegetables

1-20

TCS Food:

Food Most Likely to Become Unsafe

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x
x

x

x

TCS Food or Not?

Story Time

What if….

What’s wrong with this picture?

What’s wrong with this picture?

Giving the Smelly Talk

2-42

Identify staff
Keep a list of food handlers scheduled at time of incident
Interview staff immediately

Cooperate with authorities
Provide appropriate documentation
NEVER ARGUE

Review procedures
Determine if standards are being met
Identify if standards are not working


Responding to a
Foodborne-Illness Outbreak

3-21

Handling Staff Illnesses

IF:
The food handler has been diagnosed with a foodborne illness
caused by one of these pathogens and has symptoms.
Hepatitis A
Salmonella Typhi
E. coli
Norovirus
Shigella spp.

THEN:
Exclude the food handler from the operation.
Work with the food handler’s medical practitioner and/or the local regulatory authority to decide when the person can go back to work.

3-18

IF:
The food handler has a sore throat with a fever.

THEN:
Restrict the food handler from working with or around food.
Exclude the food handler from the operation if you primarily serve a high-risk population.
A written release from a medical practitioner is required before returning to work

Handling Staff Illnesses

3-13

How to Use Gloves:
Wash and dry hands before putting gloves on
Select the correct glove size
Hold gloves by the edge when putting them on.
Once gloves are on, check for rips or tears
NEVER blow into gloves
NEVER roll gloves to make them easier to put on

Single-Use Gloves

3-12

Single-use gloves:
Must be used when handling
ready-to-eat food
Except when washing produce
Except when handling ready-to-eat ingredients for a dish that will be cooked
Must never be used in place
of handwashing
Must never be washed and reused
Must fit properly


Single-Use Gloves

3-11

Infected Wounds or Cuts

Infected wounds or cuts
contain pus.
must be covered to prevent pathogens
from contaminating food and food-contact surfaces.

How a wound is covered depends upon where it is located
Cover wounds on the hand or wrist with an
impermeable cover. (i.e. bandage or finger cot) and
then a single-use glove.
Cover wounds on the arm with an impermeable cover,
such as a bandage.
Cover wounds on other parts of the body with a dry,
tight-fitting bandage.

3-7

Food handlers must wash their hands before they start work and after:
Using the restroom
Handling raw meat, poultry, and seafood (before and after)
Touching the hair, face, or body
Sneezing, coughing, or using a tissue
Eating, drinking, smoking, or chewing gum or tobacco
Handling chemicals that might affect food safety


When to Wash Hands

3-5

Managers must focus on the following:
Creating personal hygiene policies
Training food handlers on personal hygiene policies and retraining them regularly
Modeling correct behavior at all times
Supervising food safety practices
Revising personal hygiene policies when laws or science change.

Managing a Personal
Hygiene Program

3-3

Foodhandlers can contaminate food when they:
Have a foodborne illness
Have wounds that contain a pathogen
Sneeze or cough
Have contact with a person who is ill
Touch anything that may contaminate their hands and don’t wash them
Have symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, or jaundice—a yellowing of the eyes or skin

How Food Handlers Can
Contaminate Food

3-2

Objectives:
Avoiding personal behaviors that can contaminate food
Washing and caring for hands
Dressing for work and handling work clothes
Limiting where staff can eat, drink, smoke, and chew gum or tobacco
Preventing staff who may be carrying pathogens from working with or around food, or from working in the operation

The Safe Food handler

2-49

Wash, rinse, and sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment after handling a food allergen.
Wash hands and change gloves before prepping food
Use separate fryers and cooking oils when frying food for customers with food allergies
Prep food for customers with food allergies in a separate area from other food
Label food packaged on site for retail sale. Name all major allergens on the label and follow any additional labeling requirements


Avoid Cross-Contact

2-46

Service Staff
Describe how the dish is prepared
Identify ingredients
No such thing as a secret ingredient
Suggest simple menu items
Hand-deliver food to customers with food allergies
Separately from other foods


Prevent Allergic Reactions

2-48

Know How To Read Food Labels
Check food labels for allergens,
BUT…



Food Allergens

2-44

Food Allergens

Allergy Symptoms
Nausea
Wheezing or shortness of breath
Hives or itchy rashes
Swelling of the body, face, eyes, hands, or feet
Vomiting and/or diarrhea
Abdominal pain

Allergic reactions
Symptoms can become serious quickly
A severe reaction, called anaphylaxis, can lead to death




2-40

Gather information
Ask the person for general contact information
Name, Phone, email
Ask the person to identify the food eaten
Ask for a description of symptoms
Ask when the person first became sick

GIVE ALL THIS INFO TO SAFETY MANAGER

Notify Authorities
Contact the local regulatory authority if an outbreak is suspect


Responding to a
Foodborne-Illness Outbreak

2-39

Gather information
Notify authorities
Segregate product
Document information
Identify staff
Cooperate with authorities
Review procedures


Responding to a
Foodborne-Illness Outbreak

2-35

Sources
Common objects that get into food
Metal shavings from cans
Wood
Fingernails
Staples
Bandages
Glass
Jewelry
Dirt
Naturally occurring objects such as fruit pits and bones

Physical Contaminants

2-34

Prevention
Only handle food with equipment and utensils approved for foodservice use.
Make sure the manufacturer’s labels on original chemical containers are readable
Keep MSDS current, and make sure they are accessible to staff at all times.
Follow the manufacturer’s directions and local regulatory requirements when throwing out chemicals.

Chemical Contaminants

2-32

Chemical Contaminants

2-31

Chemical Contaminants

Origin
Naturally occur in certain plants, mushrooms, and seafood

Seafood toxins
Produced by pathogens found on certain fish
Tuna, bonito, mahi mahi
Histamine produced when fish is time-temperature abused
Occur in certain fish that eat smaller fish that have consumed the toxin
Barracuda, snapper, grouper, amberjack
Ciguatera toxin is an example






Biological Toxins

2-29

2-26

Location
Require a host to live and reproduce

Source
Seafood, wild game, and food processed with contaminated water, such as produce



Parasites: Basic characteristics

2-22

Destruction
Not destroyed by normal cooking temperatures.
Good personal hygiene must be practiced when handling food and food-contact surfaces.
Quick removal and cleanup of vomit is important


Viruses: Basic Characteristics

Major Bacteria That Cause
Foodborne Illness

2-17

The FDA has identified four types of bacteria that cause severe illness and are highly contagious.
Salmonella Typhi
Nontyphoidal Salmonella
Shigella spp.
Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (E. Coli)

2-8

Location
Found almost everywhere
Detection
Cannot be seen, smelled, or tasted
Growth
Will grow rapidly if FAT TOM conditions are right
Prevention
Control time and temperature


Bacteria: Basic Characteristics

Common Symptoms of Foodborne Illness
Diarrhea
Vomiting
Fever
Nausea
Abdominal cramps
Jaundice (yellowing of skin and eyes)

Onset times
Depend upon the type of foodborne illness
Can range from 30 minutes to 6 weeks



2-7

Biological Contamination

Microorganism – Not all bad
Small, living organism that can be seen only with a microscope
Pathogen
Harmful microorganism
Make people sick when eaten or produce toxins that cause illness
Toxin
Poison

2-5

Biological Contamination

2-4

People can contaminate food when:
They don’t wash their hands after using
the restroom
They are in contact with a person who is ill
They sneeze or vomit onto food or food contact surfaces
They touch dirty food-contact surfaces and equipment and then touch food



How Contamination Happens

2-2

Objectives:
Biological, chemical, and physical contaminants and how to prevent them
How to prevent the deliberate contamination of food
How to respond to a foodborne-illness outbreak
Common food allergens and how to prevent reactions to them

You Can Prevent Contamination

3-20

IF:
The food handler has Jaundice

THEN:
Food handlers with jaundice must be reported to the regulatory authority
Exclude food handlers with jaundice for less than 7 days from the operation.
Food handlers must have a written release from a medical practitioner and approval from the regulatory authority before returning to work.

Handling Staff Illnesses

IF:
The food handler has at least one of these symptoms:
Vomiting
Diarrhea

THEN:
Exclude the food handler from the operation
Before returning to work, food handlers who vomited
or had diarrhea must meet one of these requirements:
Have had no symptoms for at least 24 hours
Have a written release from a medical practitioner

3-19

Handling Staff Illnesses

We are not one of those jurisdictions…

3-15

Bare hand contact with ready-to-eat food must be avoided.
Some jurisdictions allow it but require:
Policies on employee health
Training in handwashing and personal hygiene practices
NEVER
handle ready-to-eat food with bare hands when you primarily serve a high-risk population



Bare-Hand Contact with
Ready-to-Eat Food

“You can’t sanitize DIRT.”

3-9

Hand Antiseptics
Liquids or gels used to lower the number
of pathogens on skin
Must comply with the CFR and
FDA standards
Should be used only after handwashing
Must never be used in place of handwashing
Should be allowed to dry before touching food or equipment

Hand Antiseptics

3-8

Food handlers must wash their hands after:
Taking out garbage
Clearing tables or bussing dirty dishes
Touching clothing or aprons
Handling money
Leaving and returning to the kitchen/prep area.
Handling service animals or aquatic animals
Touching anything else that may contaminate hands

When to Wash Hands

2-48

Kitchen Staff
Avoid cross-contact
Wash, rinse, and sanitize cookware, utensils, and equipment after handling an allergen
Wash your hands and change gloves before prepping food
Prep food for customers with food allergies in a separate area from other food
Label food packaged onsite for retail use


Prevent Allergic Reactions

2-47

Kitchen Staff
Avoid cross-contact
DO NOT
cook different types of food in the same fryer oil
DO NOT
put food on surfaces that have touched allergens


Prevent Allergic Reactions

2-45

Common Food Allergens
F
ish
M
ilk
S
hellfish, including lobster, shrimp, and crab

S
oy
W
heat
E
gg
P
eanuts
T
ree nuts, such as almonds, walnuts, and pecans

Food Allergens

2-43

What is a Food Allergen?
A protein in a food or ingredient some people are sensitive to
These proteins occur naturally
When enough of an allergen is eaten, an allergic reaction can occur


Food Allergens

Food Allergens

2-41

Segregate product
Set the suspect product aside if any remains
Include a label with “Do not use”
and “Do Not Discard” on it.

Document the information- email to Safety Manager will do.
Log information about suspect product
Include a product description, product date, lot number, sell-by date, and pack size
Gather appropriate temp sheets.


Responding to a
Foodborne-Illness Outbreak

How could it
happen here?

2-37

Groups who may attempt to contaminate food
Terrorists or activists
Disgruntled current or former staff
Vendors
Competitors

FDA Defense Tool
ALERT


Deliberate Contamination of Food

2-36

Symptoms
Mild to fatal injuries are possible
Cuts, dental damage, and choking
Bleeding and pain

Prevention
Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers
Closely inspect food received
Take steps to prevent physical contamination,
including practicing good personal hygiene


Physical Contaminants

Illness
Symptoms and onset times vary with illness
People will experience illness within minutes

General Symptoms
Diarrhea or vomiting
Neurological symptoms
Tingling in extremities
Reversal of hot and cold sensations
Flushing of the face and/or hives
Difficulty breathing
Heart palpitations







Biological Toxins

2-30

2-28

Fungi: Basic Characteristics

Yeasts, molds, and mushrooms
Some molds and mushrooms
produce toxins
Throw out moldy food, unless mold is a natural part of the food
Purchase mushrooms from approved, reputable suppliers

2-27

Prevention
Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers
Cook food to required minimum internal temperatures
Fish that will be served raw or undercooked, must be frozen correctly by the manufacturer






Parasites: Basic characteristics

Major Viruses That Cause
Foodborne Illness

2-24

Major Viruses that Cause
Foodborne Illnesses

2-23

The FDA has identified 2 viruses that are highly contagious
and can cause severe illness.
Hepatitis A
Norovirus


Food handlers diagnosed with an illness from Hepatitis A or Norovirus must not work in an operation while they are sick
.


2-21

Location
Carried by human beings and animals.
Require a living host to grow
Do not grow in food
Can be transferred through food and remain infectious in food

Sources
Food, water, or any contaminated surface.
Typically occur through fecal-oral routes.


Viruses: Basic Characteristics

Major Bacteria That Cause
Foodborne Illness

Bacteria: Enterohemorrhagic and shiga toxin-producing
Escherichia coli (ess-chur-EE-kee-UH-KO-LI)
Source: Intestines of cattle; infected people

2-20

Major Bacteria That Cause
Foodborne Illness

2-18

The Conditions You Can Control

Temperature
Keep TCS food out of the temperature danger zone


Time
Limit how long TCS food spends in the temperature danger zone


Controlling the Growth of Pathogens

M
Moisture

2-15

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Moisture
Bacteria grow well in food with high levels
of moisture.
aw = water activity; the amount of moisture available in food for bacterial growth
aw scale ranges from 0.0 to 1.0.
Water has a water activity of 1.0

T
Time

2-13

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Time
Bacteria need time to grow

The more time bacteria spend in the temperature danger zone, the greater chance they have to grow to unsafe levels.

4 hours or more in TDZ = growth high enough to make someone sick


A
Acidity

2-11

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Acidity
Bacteria grow best in food that
contains little or no acid.

The pH scale ranges from 0-14.

Bacteria grow best between 4-7.

2-3

Contaminants come from a variety of places:

Animals we use for food
Air, contaminated water, and dirt
People
Deliberately
Accidentally


How Contamination Happens

Your observations?

3-14

Single-Use Gloves

When to Change Gloves
As soon as they become dirty or torn
Before beginning a different task
After an interruption, such as taking a phone call
After handling raw meat, seafood, or poultry and before handling ready-to-eat food

Same as cash handling

Deliberate Contamination of Food

2-38

A
ssure
Make sure products received are from safe
sources
L
ook
Monitor the security of products in the
facility
E
mployees
Know who is in your facility
R
eports

Keep information related to food defense
accessible
T
hreat


Develop a plan for responding to suspicious
activity or a threat to the operation


12 inches

2-33

Prevention
Only use chemicals approved for use in foodservice operations.
Purchase chemicals from approved, reputable suppliers.
Store chemicals away from prep areas, food-storage areas, and service areas.
Chemicals must be separated from food and food-contact surfaces by spacing and partitioning.
Chemicals must never be stored above food or food-contact surfaces.
Use chemicals for their intended use and follow manufacturer’s directions.




Chemical Contaminants

Major Viruses That Cause
Foodborne Illness

2-25

Major Bacteria That Cause
Foodborne Illness

Bacteria: Shigella spp. (shi-GEL-uh)
Source: Human feces

2-19

Bacteria: Nontyphoidal Salmonella (SAL-me-NEL-uh)
Source: Farm animals, People

Major Bacteria That Cause
Foodborne Illness

2-20

WHAT?

Myth Busters- 5 Second Rule

O
Oxygen

2-14

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Oxygen
Some bacteria need oxygen to grow, while others grow when oxygen isn’t there
This is the only variable of FAT TOM

F
Food

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Food
Most bacteria need nutrients to survive.
TCS food supports the growth of bacteria better than other types of food.


Name me a place where
none of these occur?

3-17

Eating, Drinking, Smoking,
and Chewing Gum or Tobacco

Foodhandlers must not:
Eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum or tobacco

When:
Prepping or serving food
Working in prep areas
Working in areas used to clean utensils and equipment


3-16

Food handlers must:
Wear a clean hat or other
hair restraint
Wear clean clothing daily
Remove aprons when leaving food-preparation areas
Remove jewelry from hands and arms before prepping food or when working around prep areas

Work Attire

E.
Touching a pimple or
infected wound

F.
Wearing a dirty uniform

G.
Coughing or sneezing into the hand

H.
Spitting in the operation

A.
Scratching the scalp

B.
Running fingers through hair

C.
Wiping or touching the nose

D.
Rubbing an ear

Actions That Can Contaminate Food

3-4

How Foodhandlers Can
Contaminate Food

(Just for the exam!!)

Temperature
Pathogens grow well at temperatures
between
41˚F
and
135˚F
(5˚C and 57˚C)


This range is known as the temperature danger zone (TDZ)

T
Temperature

2-12

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Do not wear
false nails

Do not wear
nail polish

Keep fingernails
short and clean

Requirements for Foodhandlers

Hand Care

4-4

Good personal hygiene includes:
Maintaining personal cleanliness
Wearing proper work attire
Following hygienic hand practices
Avoiding unsanitary habits and actions
Maintaining good health
Reporting illnesses

A Good Personal
Hygiene Program

20 seconds for us!

3-6

2. Apply soap. Apply enough to build up a good lather.

Handwashing

5. Dry hands and arms. Use a single-use paper towel or hand dryer. Consider using a paper towel to turn off the faucet and open the restroom door.

4. Rinse hands and arms thoroughly. Use running warm water.

3. Scrub hands and arms vigorously. Scrub them for
10 to 15 seconds
. (for test) Clean under fingernails and between fingers.

1. Wet hands and arms. Use running water as hot as you can comfortably stand. It should be at least 100°F(38°C).

How to Wash Hands (Should take at least 20 seconds)


Bacteria

2-6

Fungi

Parasites

Viruses

Four types of pathogens can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness:

Biological Contamination

M
Moisture

O
Oxygen

T
Time

T
Temperature

A
Acidity

2-9

F
Food

What Bacteria Need to Grow

Your units?


General Preparation Practices

6-6

Corrective Actions:
Food must be thrown out in the following situations.
When it is handled by staff who have been restricted or excluded from the operation due to illness
When it is contaminated by hands or bodily fluids from the nose or mouth
When it has exceeded the time and temperature requirements designed to keep food safe

General Preparation Practices

6-4

Food and Color Additives:
Only use additives approved by your local regulatory authority.
Never use more additives than are allowed by law
Never use additives to alter the appearance of food.
Do not sell produce treated with sulfites before it was received in the operation.
Never add sulfites to produce that will be eaten raw.


Storage

5-33

Food should be stored in a clean, dry location away from dust and other contaminants
To prevent contamination, NEVER store food in these areas.
Locker rooms or dressing rooms
Restroom or garbage rooms
Mechanical rooms
Under unshielded sewer lines or leaking water lines
Under stairwells

Storage

5-25

Temperatures
Do not overload coolers or freezers
Prevents airflow
Makes unit work harder
Frequent opening of the cooler lets warm air inside, which can affect food safety
Use open shelving
Lining shelving restricts circulation
Monitor food temperatures regularly
Randomly sample food temperatures

Storage

5-22

Date marking

If:
A commercially processed food has a use-by date that is less than seven days from the date the container was opened.

Then:
The container should be marked with this use-by date
As long as the date is based on food safety



Storage

5-19

Labeling Food Packaged On-site for Retail Sale
Common name of the food or a statement clearly identifying it.
Quantity of the food.
If the item contains two or more ingredients, list the ingredients in descending order by weight.
List of artificial colors and flavors in the food including chemical preservatives
Name and place of business of the manufacturer, packer, or distributor.
Source of each major food allergen contained in the food.

Receiving and Inspecting

5-6

Rejecting Deliveries
Separate rejected items from accepted items
Tell the delivery person what is wrong with the item
Get a signed adjustment or credit slip before giving
the rejected item to the delivery person.
Log the incident on the invoice or receiving document.

The Flow of Food:
Purchasing, Receiving, and Storage

5-2

Objectives:
Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers
Use criteria to accept or reject food during receiving
Label and date food
Store food and nonfood items to prevent time-temperature abuse and contamination

Reheating Food

6-36

Food Reheated for Immediate Service
Can be reheated to any temperature if it was cooked and cooled correctly

Food Reheated for Hot-Holding
Must be reheated to an internal temperature of 165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds within 2 hours
Reheat commercially processed and packaged ready-to-eat food to an internal temperature of at least 135°F (57°C)


Storing Food for
Further Cooling

6-35

When storing food for further cooling:
Loosely cover food containers before storing them
Food can be left uncovered if protected from contamination
Storing uncovered containers above other food, especially raw seafood, meat, and poultry, will help prevent cross-contamination


Cooling Food

6-32

If you cool food from 135˚F to 70˚F (57˚C to 21˚C)
in less than 2 hours:
Use the remaining time to cool it to 41˚F (5˚C) or lower
The total cooling time cannot be longer than 6 hours

Example:
If you cool food from 135˚F to 70˚F (57˚C to 21˚C) in 1 hour
Then you have 5 hours to get the food to 41˚F (5˚C) or lower


Partial Cooking During Preparation

6-27

If partially cooking meat, seafood, poultry, or eggs or dishes containing these items:
Never cook the food longer than
60 minutes during initial cooking.
Cool the food immediately after initial cooking.
Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling it.
Heat the food to at least 165˚F (74˚C) for 15 seconds before selling or serving it.
Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held for service.

Cooking Requirements for
Specific Food

6-23

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

145°F (63°C) for 4 minutes

Roasts of pork, beef, veal, and lamb
Alternate cooking times/temperatures
130°F (54°C) 112 minutes
131°F (55°C) 89 minutes
133°F (56°C) 56 minutes
135°F (57°C) 36 minutes
136°F (58°C) 28 minutes
138°F (59°C) 18 minutes
140°F (60°C) 12 minutes
142°F (61°C) 8 minutes
144°F (62°C) 5 minutes
Cooking Requirements for
Specific Food

6-21

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

155°F (68°C) for 15 seconds

Ground meat—beef, pork, and other meat
Injected meat—including brined ham and flavor-injected roasts
Mechanically tenderized meat
Ratites including ostrich and emu
Ground seafood—including chopped or minced seafood
Shell eggs that will be hot-held for service

Cooking Food

6-18

When cooking TCS food, the internal portion must:
Reach the required minimum internal temperature
Hold that temperature for a specific amount of time

Preparation Practices

6-17

You need a variance if prepping food in these ways:
Packaging food using a reduced-oxygen packaging (ROP) method
Sprouting seeds or beans
Offering live shellfish from a display tank
Custom-processing animals for personal use (i.e. dressing a deer)

Prepping Specific Food

6-15

Ice:
Store ice scoops outside ice machines in a clean, protected location
Never use a glass to scoop ice or touch ice with hands



Prepping Specific Food

6-13

Salads containing TCS food:
Make sure leftover TCS ingredients (i.e., pasta, chicken, potatoes) have been handled safely by ensuring that they were:
Cooked, held, and cooled correctly
Stored for less than 7 days at 41°F (5°C) or lower
Prepping Specific Food

6-11

Eggs and egg mixtures:
Handle pooled eggs (if allowed) with care:

Cook promptly after mixing or store at 41°F (5°C) or lower
Clean and sanitize containers between batches
Consider using pasteurized shell eggs or egg products when prepping dishes that need little or no cooking


Prepping Specific Food

6-8

Produce:
Make sure produce does not touch surfaces exposed to raw meat, seafood, or poultry.
Wash it thoroughly under running water before:
Cutting
Cooking
Combining with other ingredients


General Preparation Practices

6-3

When prepping food:
Only remove as much food from the cooler as you can prep in a short period of time.
This limits time-temperature abuse
Return prepped food to the cooler or cook it as quickly as possible.
Make sure workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are clean and sanitized.

General Preparation Practices

6-2

Objectives:
Prevent cross-contamination and time-temperature abuse
Thaw food correctly
Cook food to a minimum internal temperature
Cool and reheat food to the correct temperature in the correct amount of time

Storage

5-32

Preventing Cross Contamination:
Store food items in the following
top-to-bottom order:
A.
Ready-to-eat food
B.
Seafood
C.
Whole cuts of beef and pork
D.
Ground meat and ground fish
E.
Whole and ground poultry
This storage order is based on the minimum internal cooking temperature of each food.

Storage

5-29

Preventing Cross Contamination:
Store food in durable containers intended for food.
Use containers that are durable, leak proof, and able to be sealed or covered.
Never use empty food containers to store chemicals. Never put food in empty chemical containers.

Storage

5-27

Preventing Cross Contamination:
Store all items in designated storage areas.
Store items away from walls and at least six inches (15 centimeters) off the floor
Store single-use items (e.g., sleeve of single-use cups, single-use gloves) in original packaging.

Storage

5-23

Date marking
When combining food in a dish with different
use-by dates, the discard date of the dish should be based on the earliest prepared food
Consider a shrimp and sausage jambalaya prepared on December 4.
The shrimp has a use-by date of December 8.
The sausage has a use-by date of December 10.
The use-by date of the jambalaya is December 8.

Receiving and Inspecting

5-17

Assessing Food Quality:
Appearance:
Reject food that is moldy or has an abnormal color.

Texture:
Reject meat, fish, or poultry if:
It is slimy, sticky, or dry
It has soft flesh that leaves an imprint when touched

Odor:
Reject food with an abnormal or unpleasant odor


Receiving and Inspecting

5-16

Required Documents:
Fish that will be eaten raw or partially cooked
Documentation must show the fish was correctly frozen before being received.
Keep documents for 90 days from the sale of the fish.
Farm raised fish
Must have documentation stating the fish was raised to FDA standards.
Keep documents for 90 days from the sale of the fish

Receiving and Inspecting

5-15

Required Documents:
Shellfish must be received with shellstock identification tags:
Tags indicate when and where the shellfish were harvested.
Must be kept on file for 90 days from the date the last shellfish was used from its delivery container.

Receiving and Inspecting

5-14

Reject packaged items with:
Tears, holes, or punctures in packaging; reject cans with swollen ends, rust, or dents
Bloating or leaking (ROP food)
Broken cartons or seals
Dirty and discolored packaging
Leaks, dampness, or water stains
Signs of pests or pest damage
Expired use-by/expiration dates
Evidence of tampering

Receiving and Inspecting

5-11

Temperature Criteria for Deliveries
Cold TCS food
: Receive at 41°F (5°C) or lower, unless otherwise specified.
Live shellfish
: Receive oysters, mussels, clams, and scallops at an air temperature of 45°F (7°C) and an internal temperature no greater than 50°F (10°C).
Once received, the shellfish must be cooled to 41°F (5°C) or lower in four hours.
Shucked shellfish
: Receive at 45°F (7°C) or lower.
Cool the shellfish to 41°F (5°C) or lower in four hours.

Checking the Temperature of ROP Food
(MAP, vacuum-packed, and sous vide food)
Insert the thermometer stem or probe between 2 packages
As an alternative, fold packaging around the thermometer stem or probe


Receiving and Inspecting

5-9

Receiving and Inspecting

5-7

Recalls
Identify the recalled food items
Remove the item from inventory, and place it in a secure and appropriate location.
Store the item separately from food, utensils, equipment, linens, and single-use items.
Label the item in a way that will prevent it from being placed back in inventory.
Inform staff not to use the product.
Refer to the vendor’s notification or recall notice to determine what to do with the item.

General Purchasing and
Receiving Principles

5-4

Receiving Principles
Make specific staff responsible for receiving
Train them to follow food safety guidelines
Provide them with the right tools
Have enough trained staff available to receive food promptly
Inspect delivery trucks for signs of contamination
Visually check food items and
check temperatures

Store items promptly after receiving


General Purchasing and
Receiving Principles

5-3

Purchase food from approved, reputable suppliers
Have been inspected
Meet all applicable local, state, and federal laws

Arrange it so deliveries arrive:
When staff has enough time to do inspections
When they can be correctly received

Monitoring Time and Temperature

4-11

Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI)
Monitor both time and temperature
Are attached to packages by the supplier
A color change appears on the device when time-temperature abuse has occurred
Maximum Registering Tape
Indicates the highest temperature reached during use
Used where temperature readings cannot be continuously observed.


Monitoring Time and Temperature

4-9

Thermocouples and Thermistors
Measure temperature through a metal probe
Display temperatures digitally
Come with interchangeable probes
Immersion probe
Surface probe
Penetration probe
Air probe
Have a sensing area on the tip of their probe

Preventing Time-Temperature Abuse

4-6

Time Temperature Control
Food held in the range of 41°F and 135°F (5°C and 57°C) has been time-temperature abused
Food has been time-temperature abused whenever it is handled in the following ways
Cooked to the wrong internal temperature
Held at the wrong temperature
Cooked or reheated incorrectly

Preventing
Cross-Contamination

4-4

Separate Equipment
Use separate equipment for each type of food
Clean and Sanitize
Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment, and utensils after each task

The Flow of Food

4-3

To keep food safe throughout the flow of food:
Prevent cross-contamination
Prevent time-temperature abuse


The Flow of Food

4-2

Objectives:
How to prevent cross-contamination
How to prevent time-temperature abuse
How to use the correct kinds of thermometers to take temperatures


Methods for Cooling Food

6-33

Before cooling food, start by reducing its size:
Cut larger items into smaller pieces
Divide large containers of food into smaller containers or shallow pans

6-25

Cooking TCS Food
in a Microwave

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

165°F (74°C)

Meat
Seafood
Poultry
Eggs


Cooking Requirements for
Specific Food

6-24

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

135°F (57°C)

Fruit, vegetables, grains (rice, pasta), and legumes (beans, refried beans) that will be hot-held for service


Cooking Requirements for
Specific Food

6-22

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

145°F (63°C) for 15 seconds

Seafood—including fish, shellfish, and crustaceans
Steaks/chops of pork, beef, veal, and lamb
Commercial raised game
Shell eggs that will be served immediately


Cooking Requirements for
Specific Food

6-20

Minimum internal cooking temperature:

165°F (74°C) for 15 seconds

Poultry—whole or ground chicken, turkey or duck
Stuffing made with fish, meat, or poultry
Stuffed meat, seafood, poultry, or pasta
Dishes that include previously cooked, TCS ingredients
Preparation Practices That
Have Special Requirements

6-16

You need a variance if prepping food in these ways:
Packaging fresh juice on-site for sale at a later time, unless the juice has a warning label.
Smoking food to preserve it but not to enhance flavor
Using food additives or components to preserve or alter food so it no longer needs time and temperature control for safety
Curing food

Prepping Specific Food

6-14

Ice:
Never use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold.
Transfer ice using clean and sanitized containers and scoops.
Never hold ice in containers that held chemicals, or raw meat, seafood, or poultry.

Prepping Specific Food

6-9

Produce:
Produce can be washed in water containing ozone to sanitize it
Check with your local regulatory authority
When soaking or storing produce in standing water or an ice-water slurry, do not mix:
Different items
Multiple batches of the same item
Thawing

6-7

Four Methods for Thawing Food
1.
Thaw food in a cooler, keeping its temperature at 41°F (5°C) or lower
2.
Submerge food under running water at 70°F (21°C) or lower
Never let the temperature of the food go above 41°F (5°C) or lower for longer than four hours
3.
Thaw food in a microwave, only if cooked immediately after thawing
4.
Thaw as part of the cooking process

General Preparation Practices

6-5

Present Food Honestly:
Do not use the following to misrepresent the appearance of food
Food additives or color additive
Colored overwraps
Lights
Food not presented honestly must be thrown out

Storage

5-30

Preventing Cross Contamination:
Keep all storage areas clean and dry
Clean up spills and leaks right away
Clean dollies, carts, transporters, and trays often
Store food in containers that have been cleaned and sanitized
Store dirty linens in clean nonabsorbent containers or washable laundry bags.

Storage

5-26

Rotate food to use the oldest inventory first
One way to rotate products is to follow FIFO:
Identify the food item’s use-by or expiration date
Store items with the earliest use-by or expiration dates in front of items with later dates
Once shelved, use those items stored in front first.
Throw out food that has passed its manufacturer’s use-by or expiration date.

Storage

5-24

Temperatures
Store TCS food at an internal temperature of 41°F (5°C) or lower or 135°F (57°C) or higher.
Store frozen food at temperatures that keep it frozen.
Make sure storage units have at least one air temperature measuring device. It must be accurate to +/- 3°F or +/- 1.5°C.
Place the device in the warmest part of refrigerated units, and the coldest part of hot holding units.


Storage

5-21

Date Marking
Ready-to-eat TCS food can be stored for only seven days if it is held at 41°F (5°C) or lower
The count begins on the day that the food was prepared or a commercial container was opened
For example, potato salad prepared and stored on October 1 would have a discard date of October 7 on the label
Some operations write the day or date the food was prepared on the label. Others write the use-by day or date on the label.

Storage

5-20

Date marking
Ready-to-eat TCS food must be marked if held for longer than 24 hours.
Date mark must indicate when the food must be sold, eaten, or thrown out.


Storage

5-18

Labeling Food for Use On-site
All items not in their original containers must be labeled
Food labels should include the common name of the food or a statement that clearly and accurately identifies it
It is not necessary to label food if it clearly will not be mistaken for another item.

Receiving and Inspecting

5-13

Temperature Criteria for Deliveries:
Reject frozen food if there is evidence of thawing and refreezing:
Fluids or water stains in case bottoms or on packaging
Ice crystals or frozen liquids on the food or packaging

Receiving and Inspecting

5-12

Temperature Criteria for Deliveries:
Shell eggs: Receive at an air temperature of 45°F (7°C) or lower.
Milk: Receive at 45°F (7°C) or lower.
Cool the milk to 41°F (5°C) or lower in four hours.
Hot TCS food: Receive at 135°F (57°C) or higher.
Frozen food: Receive frozen solid.

Checking the Temperature of Other Packaged Food
Open the package and insert the thermometer stem or probe into the food


Receiving and Inspecting

5-10

Checking the Temperature of Meat, Poultry, and Fish
Insert the thermometer stem or probe into the thickest part of the food (usually the center)

Receiving and Inspecting

5-8

Example on campus?

Receiving and Inspecting

5-5

Key Drop Deliveries
Supplier is given after-hour access to the operation to make deliveries.

Deliveries must meet the following criteria.
Be inspected upon arrival at the operation
Be from an approved source
Have been placed in the correct storage location to
maintain the required temperature
Have been protected from contamination in storage
Is NOT contaminated
Is honestly presented


General Thermometer Guidelines

4-13

When using thermometers:
Insert the thermometer stem or
probe into thickest part of the product
(usually the center)
Take more than one reading in different spots
Wait for the thermometer reading to steady before recording the temperature

4-8

Monitoring Time and Temperature

Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer

Preventing Time-Temperature Abuse

4-7

Avoid time-temperature abuse
Monitor time and temperature
Make sure the correct kinds of thermometers are available.
Regularly record temperatures and the times they are taken
Minimize the time that food spends in the temperature danger zone
Take corrective actions if time-temperature standards are not met

Preventing
Cross-Contamination

4-5

Prep food at different times
Prepare raw meat, fish, and poultry at different times than ready-to-eat food (when using the same prep table)

Buy prepared food
Buy food items that don’t require much prepping or handling

Cooling Food

6-31

Cooling Requirements

Examples?

Consumer Advisories

6-28

If your menu includes raw or undercooked TCS items, you must:

Note it on the menu next to the items
Asterisk the item
Place a footnote at the menu bottom indicating the item is raw, undercooked, or contains raw or undercooked ingredients

Advise customers who order this food of the increased risk of foodborne illness
Post a notice in the menu
Provide this information using brochures, table tents, or signs


6-26

Cooking TCS Food
in a Microwave

Guidelines for Microwave Cooking:
Cover food to prevent the surface from drying out
Rotate or stir it halfway through cooking so heat reaches the food more evenly
Let it stand for at least 2 minutes after cooking to let the food temperature even out
Check the temperature in at least 2 places to make sure the food is cooked through

Cooking Food

6-19

When checking temperatures:
Pick a thermometer with a probe that is the correct size for the food.
Check the temperature in the thickest part of the food
Take at least two readings in different locations
Prepping Specific Food

6-10

Produce:
Refrigerate and hold sliced melons,

Cut tomatoes, and cut leafy greens at 41°F (5°C) or lower

Do NOT serve raw seed sprouts if primarily serving a high-risk population


Preventing Cross Contamination:
Wrap or cover food
Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood separately from ready-to-eat food
If this is not possible, store ready-to-eat food above raw meat, poultry, and seafood
This will prevent juices from raw food from dripping onto ready-to-eat food


Storage

5-31

General Thermometer Guidelines

4-12

When using thermometers:
Wash, rinse, sanitize, and air-dry thermometers before and after using them
Calibrate them before each shift to ensure accuracy

How?
Make sure thermometers used to measure the temperature of food are accurate to +/- 2°F or +/- 1°C
Only use glass thermometers if they are enclosed in a shatterproof casing

Can this be used to tell you that
chicken is at 165 degrees?

Monitoring Time and Temperature

4-10

Infrared (Laser) Thermometers
Used to measure the surface temperature of food and equipment
Hold as close to the food or equipment as possible
Remove anything between the thermometer and the food, food package, or equipment
Follow manufacturers’ guidelines

Operations That Mainly Serve
High-Risk Populations

6-30

Never serve:
Raw seed sprouts
Raw or undercooked eggs, meat, or seafood
Over-easy eggs
Raw oysters on the half shell
Rare hamburgers

Prepping Specific Food

6-12

Eggs for high-risk populations:
Use pasteurized shell eggs if eggs
will be pooled
Use pasteurized eggs or egg products when serving raw or undercooked dishes
Unpasteurized shell eggs can be used if the dish will be cooked all the way through (i.e., omelets, cakes)

6-34

Methods for Cooling Food

Methods for Cooling Food Safely and Quickly

Place food in an ice-water bath


Stir it with an ice paddle


Place it in a blast chiller



Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-26

Develop a plan for cleaning up vomit and diarrhea:
How staff will be notified of the correct procedures for containing, cleaning, and disinfecting these substances
How to segregate contaminated areas from other areas
When staff must be restricted from working with or around food or excluded from working in the operation
How sick customers will be quickly removed from the operation
How the cleaning plan will be implemented

Guidelines for the Effective
Use of Sanitizers

10-10

Guidelines for the Effective
Use of Sanitizers

Cleaning and Sanitizing

10-2

Objectives:
Different methods of sanitizing and how to make sure they are effective
How and when to clean and sanitize surfaces
How to wash items in a dishwasher or a three-compartment
sink and then store them
How to use and store cleaning tools and supplies
How to develop a cleaning program

9-29

Deny pests shelter:
Store food and supplies quickly and correctly
Keep them away from walls and at least 6" (15 cm) off the floor
Rotate products (FIFO) so pests cannot settle and breed
Clean the establishment thoroughly
Clean up food and beverage spills immediately
Clean break rooms after use
Keep cleaning tools and supplies clean and dry

Pest Prevention

Emergencies that Affect
the Facility

9-23

How to respond to a crisis affecting the facility:
Determine if there is a significant risk to the safety or security of your food
If the risk is significant
Stop service
Notify the local regulatory authority
Decide how to correct the problem
Establish time-temperature control
Clean and sanitize surfaces
Verify water is drinkable
Reestablish physical security of the facility

Safe Facilities and
Pest Management

9-2

Objectives:
Pick materials and equipment that are safe for use in foodservice operations
Install and maintain equipment
Avoid food safety hazards caused by utilities
Maintain your facility
Handle emergencies
Prevent and control pests


HACCP

8-20

These specialized processing methods require a variance and may require a HACCP plan:
Packaging food using ROP methods including:
MAP
Vacuum-packed
Sous vide
Treating (e.g., pasteurizes) juice on-site and packaging it for later sale
Sprouting seeds or beans

HACCP

8-19

These specialized processing methods require a variance and may require a HACCP plan:
Smoking food as a method to preserve it (but not to enhance flavor)
Using food additives or components such as vinegar to preserve or alter food so it no longer requires time and temperature control for safety
Curing food
Custom-processing animals

Active Managerial Control

8-6

Focuses on controlling the 5 most common risk factors for foodborne illness:
Purchasing food from unsafe sources
Failing to cook food adequately
Holding food at incorrect temperatures
Using contaminated equipment
Practicing poor personal hygiene

Food Safety Management System
Group of practices and procedures intended to prevent foodborne illness
Actively controls risks and hazards throughout the flow of food

Food Safety Management
Systems

8-3

Developing a Cleaning
Program

10-31

To develop an effective cleaning program:
Create a master cleaning schedule
Train your employees to follow it
Monitor the program to make sure it works

Using Foodservice
Chemicals

10-29

Chemicals
Only purchase those approved for use in foodservice operations
Store them in their original containers away
from food and food-prep areas
If transferring them to a new container, label
it with the common name of the chemical

Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-25

Consider the following when developing a plan for cleaning up vomit and diarrhea:
How you will contain liquid and airborne substances, and remove them from the operation
How you will clean, sanitize, and disinfect surfaces
When to throw away food that may have been contaminated
What equipment is needed to clean up these substances, and how it will be cleaned and disinfected after use
When a food handler must wear personal protective equipment

Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-23

When cleaning the premises:
Clean nonfood-contact surfaces regularly
Includes floors, ceilings, walls, equipment exteriors, etc.
Prevents dust, dirt, food residue and other debris from building up.

Dishwasher Operation

Guidelines
Clean the machine as often as needed
Scrape, rinse, or soak items before washing
Use the correct dish racks
Never
overload dish racks
Air-dry all items
Check the machine’s water temperature and pressure

10-16

How and When to Clean
and Sanitize

Clean-in-Place Equipment:
Equipment holding and dispensing TCS food must be cleaned and sanitized every day unless otherwise indicated by the manufacturer
Check local regulatory requirements

How and When to Clean
and Sanitize

Cleaning and Sanitizing Stationary Equipment:
Rinse the equipment surfaces with clean water
Sanitize the equipment surfaces
Make sure the sanitizer comes in contact with each surface
Allow all surfaces to air-dry.
Put the unit back together

How and When to Clean
and Sanitize

Food-contact surfaces must be cleaned and sanitized:
After they are used
Before working with a different type of food
Any time a task was interrupted and the items may have been contaminated
After four hours if the items are in constant use

Water Hardness and pH
Find out what your water hardness and pH is from your municipality
Work with your supplier to identify the correct amount of sanitizer to use

Sanitizer Effectiveness

Sanitizer Effectiveness

Temperature
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations for the correct temperature

Contact Time
The sanitizer must make contact with the object for a specific amount of time
Minimum times differ for each sanitizer

Sanitizer Effectiveness

Concentration
Check concentration with a test kit
Make sure it is designed for the sanitizer used
Check the concentration often
Change the solution when:
It’s dirty
The concentration is too low

Surfaces can be sanitized using:
Heat
The water must be at least 171F°(77°C)
Immerse the item for 30 seconds
Chemicals
Chlorine
Iodine
Quats

10-4

Sanitizing

To keep pests from entering with deliveries:
Check deliveries before they enter the operation
Refuse shipments if pests or signs of pests (egg cases, body parts) are found


Pest Prevention

Emergencies That Affect
the Facility

9-22

Imminent health hazard:
A significant threat or danger to health
Requires immediate correction or closure to prevent injury

Possible imminent health hazards:
Electrical power outages
Fire
Flood
Sewage backups

Garbage

Outdoor containers must:
Be placed on a smooth, durable nonabsorbent surface
Asphalt or concrete
Have tight-fitting lids
Be covered at all times
Have their drain plugs in place

Cross-Connection
Physical link between safe water and dirty water from:

Drains
Sewers
Other wastewater sources

Water and Plumbing

9-14

Water and Plumbing

9-13

Acceptable sources of potable water:
Approved public water mains
Regularly tested and maintained private sources
Closed, portable water containers
Water transport vehicles


Three-Compartment Sinks

9-10

Purchase sinks large enough to accommodate large equipment and utensils


Dishwashing Machines

9-9

When selecting dishwashers make sure:
the detergents and sanitizers used are approved by the local regulatory authority.
they have the ability to measure water temperature, water pressure, and cleaning and sanitizing chemical concentration.
information about the correct settings is posted on the machine.

Installing and Maintaining
Equipment

9-7

Once equipment has been installed:
It must be maintained regularly
Only qualified people should maintain it
Set up a maintenance schedule with your supplier or manufacturer
Check equipment regularly to make sure it is working right

Equipment Selection

9-4

Foodservice equipment must meet these standards if it will come in contact with food:
Nonabsorbent, smooth and corrosion resistant
Easy to clean
Durable
Resistant to damage

Principle 5: Identify corrective actions
Identify steps that must be taken when a critical limit is not met
Determine these steps in advance



The 7 HACCP Principles

8-16

HACCP

8-10

To be effective, a HACCP system must be based on a written plan:
It must be specific to each facility’s menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operations
A plan that works for one operation may not work for another

HACCP

8-9

The HACCP Approach
HACCP is based on identifying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points within a product’s flow through an operation
Once identified, hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels



Active Managerial Control

8-8

The FDA provides recommendations for controlling the common risk factors for foodborne illness:
Demonstration of knowledge
Staff health controls
Controlling hands as a vehicle of contamination
Time and temperature parameters for controlling pathogens
Consumer pathogens


Active Managerial Control

8-7

There are many ways to achieve active managerial control in the operation:
Training programs
Manager supervision
Incorporation of standard operating procedures (SOPs)
HACCP

These are critical to the success of active managerial control
Monitoring critical activities in the operation
Taking the necessary corrective action when required
Verifying that the actions taken control the risks factors


Objectives:
Food safety management systems
Active managerial control
Hazard Analysis Critical Control point (HACCP)


Service

8-2

Off-Site Service

7-21

When delivering food off-site:
Make sure the service site has the correct utilities
Safe water for cooking, dishwashing, and handwashing
Garbage containers stored away from food-prep, storage, and serving areas
Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood, and ready-to-eat items separately

BUT…

Labeling Bulk Food in
Self-Service Areas

7-19

A label is not needed for bulk unpackaged food, such as bakery products, if:
The product makes no claim regarding health or nutrient content
No laws requiring labeling exist
The food is manufactured or prepared on the premises
The food is manufactured or prepared at another regulated food operation or processing plant owned by the same person

Self-Service Areas

7-16

Prevent time-temperature abuse and contamination
Keep hot food at 135°F (57°C) or higher
Keep cold food at 41°F (5°C) or lower
Keep raw meat, fish, and poultry separate from ready-to-eat food
Do not let customers refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at self-service areas

Kitchen Staff Guidelines
for Serving Food

7-9

Prevent contamination when serving food:
Store serving utensils correctly between uses
On a clean and sanitized food-contact surface
In the food with the handle extended above the container rim

Guidelines for Holding Food

7-5

Temperature:
Never use hot-holding equipment to reheat food unless it’s designed for it
Reheat food correctly, and then move it into a holding unit

Guidelines for Holding Food

7-4

Temperature:
Hold TCS food at the right temperature
Hot food: 135°F(57°C) or higher
Cold food: 41°F(5°C) or lower
Check temperatures at least every 4 hours
Throw out food not at 41°F (5°C) or lower
Check temperatures every 2 hours to leave time for corrective action


Service

7-2

Objectives:
Holding hot food
Holding cold food
Using time as a method of control for food
Preventing contamination in self-service areas and when serving food to customers

Developing a Cleaning
Program

10-33

Monitoring the cleaning program:
Supervise daily cleaning routines
Check cleaning tasks against the master schedule every day
Change the master schedule as needed
Ask staff for input on the program

Developing a Cleaning
Program

10-32

To create a master cleaning schedule, identify:
What should be cleaned
Who should clean it
When it should be cleaned
How it should be cleaned

Using Foodservice
Chemicals

Chemicals
Keep MSDS for each chemical
When throwing chemicals out, follow:
Instructions on the label
Local regulatory requirements

Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-28

Never:
Dump mop water or other liquid waste into toilets or urinals
Clean tools in sinks used for:
Handwashing
Food prep
Dishwashing


Blood Borne
Pathogen training…

Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-24

Cleaning up after people who get sick:
Diarrhea and vomit in the operation, must be cleaned up the correct way.
It can carry Norovirus, which is highly contagious.
Correct cleanup can prevent food from becoming contaminated and keep others from getting sick

Manual Dishwashing

Setting Up a Three-Compartment Sink
Clean and sanitize each sink and drain board.
Fill the first sink with detergent and water at least 110°F (43°C).
Fill the second sink with clean water.
Fill the third sink with water and sanitizer to the correct concentration.
Provide a clock with a second hand to let food handlers know how long items have been in the sanitizer.

10-17

High-Temperature Machines
Final sanitizing rinse must be at least 180°F (82°C)
165°F (74°C) for stationary rack, single-temperature machines

Chemical-Sanitizing Machines
Clean and sanitize at much lower temperatures
Follow the temperature guidelines provided by the manufacturer


Machine Dishwashing

How and When to Clean
and Sanitize

Cleaning and Sanitizing Stationary Equipment:
Unplug the equipment
Take the removable parts off the equipment
Wash, rinse, and sanitize them by hand or run the parts through a dishwasher if allowed
Scrape or remove food from the equipment surfaces
Wash the equipment surfaces

10-6

Sanitizer Effectiveness

Concentration
Sanitizers should be mixed with water to the right concentration
Not enough sanitizer:

May make the solution weak and useless
Too much sanitizer:
May make the solution too strong, unsafe, and corrode metal

10-5

Chemical Sanitizing:
Food-contact surfaces can be sanitized by either:
Soaking them in a sanitizing solution
Rinsing, swabbing, or spraying them with a sanitizing solution
In some cases a detergent-sanitizer blend can be used:
Use it once to clean
Use it a second time to sanitize

Sanitizing

10-3

Cleaners must be:
Stable and noncorrosive
Safe to use

When using them:
Follow manufacturers’ instructions
Do not use one type of detergent in place of another unless the intended use is the same

Cleaners

9-30

Contact your PCO immediately if you see these or any other pest-related problems:
Feces
Nests
Damage on products, packaging, and the facility itself

Pest Control

9-27

Deny pests shelter:
Throw out garbage quickly and correctly
Keep containers clean and in good condition
Keep outdoor containers tightly
covered
Clean up spills around containers
immediately
Store recyclables properly
Keep recyclables in clean, pest-proof containers
Keep containers as far away from the building as regulations allow



Pest Prevention

Pest Prevention

9-26

Make sure all of the points where pests can access the building are secure:
Screen windows and vents
Seal cracks in floors and walls and around pipes
Install air curtains (also called air doors or fly fans) above or alongside doors

3 Rules of Pest Prevention:
1. Deny pests access to the operation
2. Deny pests food, water, and shelter
3. Work with a licensed Pest Control Operator (PCO)

Pest Management

Garbage

9-20

Indoor containers must be:
Leak proof, waterproof, and pest proof
Easy to clean
Covered when not in use

Designated storage areas:
Store waste and recyclables separately from food and food-contact surfaces
Storage must not create a nuisance or a public health hazard

Garbage

9-19

Garbage
Remove from prep areas as quickly
as possible
Be careful not to contaminate food and food-contact surfaces
Clean the inside and outside of containers frequently
Clean them away from food-prep and storage areas

Ventilation

Ventilation

9-18

Ventilation Systems
Must be cleaned and maintained to prevent grease and condensation from building up on walls and ceilings
Follow manufacturer’s recommendations
Meet local regulatory requirements


Lighting

9-17

Consider the following when installing and maintaining lighting:
Different areas of the facility have different lighting intensity requirements
Local jurisdictions usually require prep areas to be brighter than other areas
All lights should have shatter-resistant light bulbs or protective covers
Replace burned out bulbs with correct size bulbs

Water and Plumbing

9-15

Backflow
Reverse flow of contaminants through a cross-connection into the potable water supply

Backsiphonage
A vacuum created in the plumbing system that sucks contaminants back into the water supply:
Can occur when high water use in one area of the operation creates a vacuum
A running hose in a mop bucket can lead to backsiphonage



Handwashing sinks must be used only for handwashing

Handwashing Stations

9-11

Handwashing stations must be conveniently located and are required in:
Restrooms or directly next to them
Food-prep areas
Service areas
Dishwashing areas

Dishwashing Machines

9-8

Dishwashers must be installed:
so they are reachable and conveniently located.
in a way that keeps utensils, equipment, and other food-contact services from becoming contaminated.
following manufacturer’s instructions.

Interior Requirements for
a Safe Operation

9-3

Floors, walls, and ceilings:
Materials must be smooth and durable for easier cleaning
Must be regularly maintained

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-18

Principle 7: Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation
Keep records for these actions:
Monitoring activities
Corrective actions
Validating equipment (checking for good working condition)
Working with suppliers (invoices, specifications, etc.)

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-17

Principle 6: Verify that the system works
Determine if the plan is working as intended
Evaluate the plan on a regular basis using:
Monitoring charts
Records
Hazard analysis
Determine if your plan prevents, reduces, or eliminates identified hazards

Best Way to Monitor?

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-15

Principle 4: Establish monitoring procedures
Determine the best way to check critical limits
Make sure they are consistently met
Identify who will monitor them and how often


The 7 HACCP Principles

8-13

Principle 2: Determine critical control points (CCPs)
Find points in the process where identified hazards can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels—these are the CCPs
Depending on the process, there may be more than one CCP

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-11

The 7 HACCP Principles
1.
Conduct a hazard analysis
2.
Determine critical control points (CCPs)
3.
Establish critical limits
4.
Establish monitoring procedures
5.
Identify corrective actions
6.
Verify that the system works
7.
Establish procedures for record keeping and documentation



Vending Machines

7-22

To keep vended food safe:
Check product shelf life daily
Refrigerated food prepped on site and not sold in 7 days must be thrown out
Keep TCS food at the correct temperature
Dispense TCS food in its original container
Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels before putting it in the machine

Self-Service Areas

7-17

Prevent time-temperature abuse and contamination
Stock food displays with the correct utensils for dispensing food.
Do not use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food or beverages cold

Self-Service Areas

7-15

Prevent time-temperature abuse and contamination
Use sneeze guards
Must be located 14" (36cm) above the counter
Must extend 7" (18cm) beyond
the food
Identify all food items
Label food
Place salad dressing names on ladle handles

Preset Tableware

7-13

If you preset tableware:

Prevent it from being contaminated
Wrap or cover the items

Table settings do not need to be wrapped or covered if extra settings:
Are removed when guests are seated
Are cleaned and sanitized after guests have left

Kitchen Staff Guidelines

7-8

Prevent contamination when serving food:
Wear single-use gloves whenever handling ready-to-eat food
As an alternative use spatulas, tongs, deli sheets, or other utensils

Use clean and sanitized utensils for serving
Use separate utensils for each food
Clean and sanitize utensils after each task
At minimum, clean and sanitize them at least
once every four hours

Hot food can be held without temperature control for up to 4 hours if:
It was held at 135°F (57°C) or higher before removing it from temperature control
It has a label specifying when the item must be thrown out
It is sold, served, or thrown out within 4 hours


Holding Food Without
Temperature Control

7-7

Cleaning and Sanitizing in
the Operation

10-27

Storing Cleaning Tools and Chemicals
Place in a separate area away from food and prep areas

The storage area should have:
Good lighting so chemicals can be easily seen
Utility sink for filling buckets and washing cleaning tools
Floor drain for dumping dirty water
Hooks for hanging cleaning tools

Storing Tableware and
Equipment

10-22

When storing clean and sanitized tableware and equipment:
Store flatware and utensils with handles up
Cover the food-contact surfaces of stationary equipment until ready for use
Clean and sanitize trays and carts used to carry clean tableware and utensils

Tabletop equipment should be either:
Mounted on legs at least 4 inches (10 centimeters) high
Sealed to the countertop
Installing and Maintaining
Equipment

9-5

Floor-mounted equipment must be either:
Mounted on legs at least 6 inches (15 centimeters) high
Sealed to a masonry base
Labeling Bulk Food in
Self-Service Areas

7-18

When labeling bulk food in self-service areas:
Make sure the label is in plain view of the customer
Include the manufacturer or processor label provided with the food
As an alternative provide the information using a card, sign, or other labeling method


Re-serving Food

7-14

Never re-serve:
Food returned by one customer to another customer
Uncovered condiments
Uneaten bread
Plate garnishes


Generally, only unopened, prepackaged food in good condition can be re-served:
Condiment packets
Wrapped crackers or breadsticks

Holding Food Without
Temperature Control

7-6

Cold food can be held without temperature control for up to 6 hours if:
It was held at 41°F (5°C) or lower before removing it from refrigeration
It does not exceed 70°F (21°C) during service
Throw out food that exceeds this temperature
It has a label specifying:
Time it was removed from refrigeration
Time it must be thrown out
It is sold, served, or thrown out within 6 hours

Guidelines for Holding Food

7-3

Food covers and sneeze guards:
Cover food and install sneeze guards to protect food from contaminants
Covers protect food from contamination and help maintain food temperatures.

Storing Tableware and
Equipment

10-21

When storing clean and sanitized tableware and equipment:
Store them at least 6" (15 cm) off the floor
Clean and sanitize drawers and shelves before items are stored
Store glasses and cups upside down on a clean and sanitized shelf or rack

Water and Plumbing

9-16

Air gap

Backflow Prevention Methods

Vacuum breaker

Example?

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-14

Principle 3: Establish critical limits
For each CCP, establish minimum or maximum limits
These limits must be met to:
Prevent or eliminate the hazard
Reduce it to a safe level


Off-Site Service

7-20

When delivering food off-site:

Use insulated, food-grade containers designed to stop food from mixing, leaking, or spilling
Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly
Check internal food temperatures when you get to the serving site.
Label food with a use-by date and time, and reheating and service instructions

10-12

Wash the surface.

How and When to Clean
and Sanitize

Allow the surface to air-dry

Sanitize the surface.

Rinse the surface.

Scrape or remove food bits from
the surface.

How to clean and sanitize

Cleaning and
sanitation program

Facility design and equipment maintenance program

Pest control program

Standard operating
proceedures (SOPs)

Food Safety Programs

8-5

These are the foundation of a food safety management system:

Personal hygiene program

Supplier selection and specification program

Quality control and
assurance program

Food Safety Programs

8-4

Food safety training program

These are the foundation of a food safety management system:

Right

Wrong

Service Staff Guidelines
for Serving Food

7-10

Handling Dishes and Glassware


5. Air-dry items on a clean
and sanitized surface.

4. Sanitize items in the
third sink.

3. Rinse items in the
second sink.

2. Wash items in the
first sink.

1. Rinse, scrape, or soak
items before washing them.

Three-Compartment Sinks

10-20

Steps for Cleaning and Sanitizing

The 7 HACCP Principles

8-12

Principle 1: Conduct a hazard analysis
Identify potential hazards in the food served by looking at how it
is processed
Identify TCS food items and determine where hazards are likely to occur for each one; look for biological, chemical, and physical contaminants


Handwashing Stations

9-12

Signage

Garbage container

A way to dry hands

Soap

Hot and cold running water
Handwashing stations must have:

Chapter 1
Providing Safe Food
Chapter 2
Forms of Contamination
http://www.discovery.com/tv-shows/mythbusters/videos/five-second-rule-minimyth.htm
Bacteria: Salmonella Typhi (SAL-me-NEL-uh TI-fee)
Source: People

Virus: Hepatitis A (HEP-a-TI-tiss))
Source: Human feces

Virus: Norovirus (NOR-o-VI-rus)
Source: Human feces

Sources
Certain types of kitchenware and equipment (items made from pewter, copper, zinc, and some types of painted pottery
Cleaners, sanitizers, polishes, machine lubricants, and pesticides
Deodorizers, first aid products, and health and beauty products (hand lotions, hairsprays, etc.)

Symptoms
Vary depending on chemical consumed
Most illnesses occur within minutes
Vomiting and diarrhea are typical


Chapter 3
The Safe Food Handler
Chapter 4
The Flow of Food:
An Introduction
Chapter 5
The Flow of Food:
Purchasing, Receiving, and Storage
Chapter 6
The Flow of Food: Preparation
Chapter 7
The Flow of Food: Service
Chapter 8
Food Safety Management
Systems
Chapter 9
Safe Facilities and
Pest Management
Chapter 10
Cleaning and Sanitizing
Full transcript