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Unit 1: Movement & Settlement
Transcript of Unit 1: Movement & Settlement
Rise of the Middle Class
Merchants began to create
, or business in which a group of people invest together. In a joint-stock company, the investors share in the companies' profits and losses. Forming joint-stock companies allowed investors to take fewer risks.
"Through exploration we gain knowledge of different countries, regions and kingdoms; through it we attract and bring into our countries all kids of riches; through it...Christianity [is spread] in all parts of the earth."
- Samuel de Champlain, quoted in the Canadian Frontier 1534-1760, by W.J. Eccles
The Virginia Company
formed with a charter from King James I in 1606.
joint stock corporation
charged with the settlement of Virginia.
power to appoint the Council of Virginia, the Governor and other officials
responsibility to provide settlers, supplies, and ships for the venture.
Created incentives to reward harder workers with more food.
Formed an alliance with the
Powhatan Confederacy of Native Americans
In 1609 disease and famine hit the colony and the time became known as
By spring 1610, only 60 colonists were left. Soon after, John Rolfe took over the colony.
who took over the Jamestown colony after Smith.
Daughter of Powhatan leader.
Marriage increased peaceful relations until 1622 when a colonist killed a Powhatan leader.
Reasons for Movement
Population began to expand
Colonial officials tried to raise taxes
Nathaniel Bacon led a group who protested the taxes and the friendly relations with the Native Americans.
During Bacon's rebellion, they attacked and burned Jamestown.
His sudden death ended the rebellion.
Council of State
This was the governor's advisory council whose members were elected by the London Company.
House of Burgesses
These members were elected by the colonists.
Virginia Colony Government
More extreme Separatist group that left England in the early 1600s to escape persecution.
They formed a join-stock company and intended to colonize in Virginia - ooops!
They land in Plymouth instead.
Puritans wanted to purify or reform the Anglican Church. They felt that bishops and priests had too much power over church members.
More extreme English Protestants wanted to separate from the Church of England.
Squanto & the First Thanksgiving
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Outspoken in her religious beliefs that a relationship with God didn't need a minister.
After being put on trial, she was exiled from the community.
She and her followers started a colony in Portsmouth which would be part of the Rhode Island Colony.
Came from England to pastor a small group of Pilgrims in New Town, Mass.
He believed that all men should be allowed to vote in the government rather than just some.
He left Mass. to form Connecticut.
English Quaker who founded Pennsylvania
Promoted religious toleration
Made friends with the Lenape Indians
He was given a land-grant from King George II for the colony of Georgia.
The creating of the Georgia colony served 3 main purposes:
King Geroge II was concerned about Spanish Florida and wanted a buffer colony to protect the more northern colonies.
Oglethorpe wanted Georgia to be a place where debtors who were jailed for their debts could start over. Many early Georgia colonists were using this second chance.
Oglethorpe wanted Georgia to be made up of small farms rather than large plantations so he outlawed slavery and limited land grant size.
The Dutch founded New Netherlands in 1613.
In 1664 England captured the colony w/out firing a shot and re-named it New York.
The patroon system was created by the Dutch to encourage settlement.
Large swaths of land were given and tenant settlements were created.
In the long term, this created a wealthy elite in New York.
Indentured servants signed a contract to work four to seven years for those who paid for their journey to America.
Between 1770-1775 about 135,000 came to the middle colonies
1/2 of those moved to Pennsylvania
The Great Awakening
This was a religious movement that swept through the colonies in the 1730s and 1740s.
Revivals became popular
Mixing of religion and politics
Mostly worked in the home
Ran businesses such as clothing, grocery, bakeries, and drugstores
Worked as nurses and midwives
Vinegar & Molasses
Sugar & Molasses
Rum & Iron
The slave trade brought millions of Africans across the Atlantic Ocean through the Middle Passages.
"The Need for a New Labor Force" on pages 58-59, "African Diaspora"on pages 60-61, and "Slave Culture in the Americas" on p. 61.
Write 3 sentences and one image for each heading in your foldable under Slavery & Indentured Servants.
Today I will be able to:
8.1 Explain the primary motivations for English colonization of the New World, including the rise of the middle class (joint stock companies), the need to move surplus population, and the search for religious freedom.
8.2 Trace and explain the founding of Jamestown, including: (E, G, H)
• Virginia Company
• James River
• John Smith
• John Rolfe
• “starving time”
• Bacon’s Rebellion
Quakers (Society of Friends)
Quakers because the leader said that all people should quake, or tremble, "at the word of the Lord."
Felt that individuals should have a more direct relationship with God
Believed in freedom and peace with all people
Came to Plymouth on the Mayflower,
signed the Mayflower Compact upon arriving in Massachusetts in 1620.
As Plymouth Colony governor
First governor of Mass Bay Colony