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Eating Disorders

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Gillian Francis

on 27 May 2015

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Transcript of Eating Disorders

and what you see
What you know
Eating disorders are conditions where an individual develops abnormal eating habits. This can most commonly involve insufficient or excessive food intake to the detriment of an individual's physical and mental health. Their are many types of eating disorders, some of which are not otherwise specified. Wishing you could change something about yourself is a trait most humans have, but when a preoccupation with losing weight takes over your eating habits, thoughts, and life, it's a sign of an eating disorder. Most eating disorders aren't really about food or weight, eating disorders are much more complicated than that. The food and weight-related issues are symptoms of something deeper ( such as depression, loneliness, insecurity, pressure to be perfect, or feeling out of control). These core reasons are things that no amount of dieting or weight loss can cure.
"You don't have to be skinny to have an eating disorder"
Binge Eating Disorder
Binge eating disorder is when the urge of overeating is regular and uncontrollable. Binge eaters most likely use food to cope with stress and other negative emotions. Binge eating is when someone consumes huge amounts of food while feeling out of control and powerless to stop. People with binge eating disorder are embarrassed and ashamed of their eating habits which can convince them to not seek help. In some cases can be a gateway to bulimia.
"When what you crave is not fit for human consumption"
Pica Disorder
Pica is the persistent eating of substances that have no nutritional value, things that are not food. The most common things eaten are ice, clay, chalk, dirt, and sand. Pica is more commonly seen in women and children and doctors do not understand the medical science behind it. Pica is both an eating disorder and a psychiatric problem. Pica is quite easy to get sick or even die from as the sufferer can eat dangerous chemicals or sharp objects.
What you didn't know
There are so many different kinds of eating disorders, many of which are not even categorized, a few that are not recognized but not classified are rumination, diabulimia, drunkorexia, pregorexia and wannarexia.
Mental illnesses are also very common companions of eating disorders, such as depression, OCD, BDD and anxiety. The two most commonly known eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, which are only two out of many. No matter what eating disorder you have, it is important to know that you are never alone and help is always available.
"When healthy becomes an obsession"
Orthorexia Nervosa
Orthorexia is an excessive preoccupation with avoiding foods perceived to be unhealthy. It is basically extreme dieting and is a gateway to anorexia. Orthorexics tend to blame themselves for their constant hunger and the cravings for forbidden foods which can lead to low self-esteem. Orthorexics are constantly fixating on what they eat.
Eating Disorders
Everyone on this Earth has to live in their own personal Hell. Thinking about this can often make you think that you shouldn't be so concerned about your own suffering as it couldn't possibly be bad compared to all these other things. Even if it isn't the worst thing in the world doesn't mean it isn't the worst for yourself at that moment; just because it could be worse doesn't mean it doesn't matter. If you are in pain you don't always need to go on without help. There is always help, and it always matters.
What you didn't know
and what you didn't see
Medical treatment for eating disorders
The first thing to do when trying to beat an eating disorder is to first stabilize any other medical issues you may have with your body. Hospitalization can be a necessity if you are extremely malnourished or so distressed that you have become suicidal. You might also need to be hospitalized if you are at a critical weight.

Nutritional treatment for eating disorders
A second necessity for treating an eating disorder is nutritional counseling. A nutritionist or dietician are professionals who can help educate you about proper nutrition and making healthy nutritional food choices. The nutritionist will generally help you to develop as well as follow a specific meal plan that includes enough calories for you to reach and maintain a healthy weight.

Counseling and therapy for eating disorders
Counseling is crucial for treating eating disorders, as the basis for developing an eating disorder is based on much more than just your weight. The goal of the counseling would be to identify the negative thoughts and feelings that engage your eating disorder and then begin replacing them with healthier and much less distorted beliefs. Another important feature of counseling is to teach you ways to manage your emotions in productive ways.

It may seem like there’s no escape from an eating disorder, but recovery is always within your reach. With treatment, support from others, and self-help strategies, you can overcome an eating disorder and regain your self-confidence to once again enjoy your life.

Anorexia Nervosa
"You may even lose the ability to see yourself as you truly are."
Anorexia Nervosa is when someone is either preventing weight gain or losing weight by starving themselves or excessively limiting the amount of food they let into their body. Anorexia involves three main mental mindsets, these are: a refusal to eat or maintain a healthy body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight, and a distorted body image. After all of these other horrible things about anorexia, the scariest thing about it, in my opinion, is the fact that you may not even know you have it until it’s too late to go back.

Healthy dieting is an attempt to control weight in a healthy way that can also improve your health and appearance. Your self-esteem is based on more than just how much you weigh. Dieting is not limiting all kinds of food you eat, it is mostly limiting the unhealthy foods and having more healthy foods. Diets are much better than anorexia because you actually have control and can become a healthier and happier person.

Anorexia is an attempt to control your life and emotions through hunger, in your mind weight loss as a way to achieve happiness as you can gain a kind of control in your life. Your self-esteem is based entirely on how much you weigh and becoming thin is all that matters; health is not a concern. Anorexia does not necessarily mean not eating any food at all, but can be excessively limiting the amount of food you eat.

Severe calorie restriction has dire physical effects. When your body doesn’t receive enough nutrients, it goes into a starvation mode and slows down. Basically, your body begins to consume itself. Some of the physical effects of anorexia include:
-Severe mood swings
-Lack of energy and weakness
-Slowed thinking and poor memory
-Dry, yellowish skin and brittle nails
-Constipation and bloating
-Tooth decay and gum damage
-Dizziness, fainting, and headaches
-Growth of hair (peach fuzz) all over the body
There are no simple answers to the causes of anorexia and other eating disorders. Anorexia is a condition that may arise from a combination of social, emotional, and biological factors. Although the media's idealization of being thin plays a powerful role as well, there are many other contributing factors; such as your family environment, emotional difficulties, low self-esteem, and traumatic experiences.
Anorexia Nervosa: Causes
Effects of anorexia nervosa
The differences between dieting and anorexia:
Bulimia Nervosa
Bulimia is a vicious cycle that can repeat itself to the point of serious illness, hospitalization, and sometimes death.
Bulimia is basically a compulsion of binge-eating. Afterwords, they will punish themselves by purging, fasting, or exercising to get rid of the calories. The guilt that comes after binging is extreme and can seriously affect your mental state. Life for someone suffering from bulimia involves the constant desire to lose weight or stay thin and also having the overwhelming compulsion to binge eat as well. You don’t want to binge but once and a while you give in. During a binge, you may consume from 3,000 to 5,000 calories. Afterwords, you turn to drastic measures to attempt and undo the binge. This can involve taking laxatives, inducing vomiting, or going for a ten-mile run.
Purging isn’t an effective way to lose the calories from a binge, which is why most people with bulimia end up gaining weight over time. Vomiting immediately after eating only eliminates about 50% of the calories, but it is usually much less. Calorie absorption begins the moment you put food in the mouth. Laxatives and diuretics are even less effective than vomiting. Laxatives get rid of only around 10% of the calories while diuretics do nothing at all.

The most dangerous side effect of bulimia is dehydration. Dehydration can occur due to purging. Vomiting, laxatives, and diuretics can also cause electrolyte imbalances in the body, most commonly in the form of low potassium levels. Other medical effects of bulimia can include:
-Weight gain
-Abdominal pain
-Hands and feet swell
-Chronic sore throat
-Broken blood vessels in the eyes
-Swollen cheeks
-Weakness and dizziness/fainting spells
-Tooth colouring
-Mouth sores
-Acid reflux or ulcers
-Ruptured stomach/esophagus
-Loss of menstruation
-Constipation from laxative abuse
There's no single cause of bulimia. Low self-esteem and concerns about weight can play an important role, though there are many other contributing factors. In most cases, people with bulimia have trouble dealing with their emotions in a healthy and beneficial way. Eating can also be an urge when feeling angry, depressed, stressed, or anxious; which is why people often binge under emotional strain. Bulimia is a complex emotional issue. Having a poor body image, emphasis on thinness and beauty in media can lead to body dissatisfaction which leaves you at risk of developing an eating disorder. Women or men who have low self-esteem can often find themselves trying to control something about themselves, such as their weight. Depression, perfectionism, childhood abuse, and a critical home environment ca all lead to low-self esteem. Women with bulimia are known to have a higher statistic of having been sexually abused. People with bulimia have also been more likely to have had parents with a substance abuse problem or psychological disorder. Major life transitions that are stressful can also trigger bulimia. Bulimia can be considered a way to cope with stress for some, though really it just causes more problems. People who face an extreme amount of body image related pressures (ballet dancers, models, gymnasts, wrestlers, runners, and actors) can be at risk of developing bulimia to deal with the tremendous amount of socialistic ideals created by the media.
Effects of bulimia
Bulimia Nervosa: Causes

Encouraging a friend or family member with an eating disorder to get treatment is the most caring and supportive thing you can do. If you suspect that your friend or family member has an eating disorder, it is always best to talk to the person about your concerns, gently express your thoughts and let the person know that you’re available to listen. Offer compassion and support for them. Your loved one may deny there’s a problem and so keep in mind that the person may get defensive or angry. It is very important to talk to your loved one because even if they get angry, you gave them a chance to talk and open up about their struggle. Either way, if he or she does open up, listen without judgment and make sure the person knows you care. An eating disorder should never be ignored. The person’s physical and emotional health is at stake, along with much more. It’s painful to know someone you love is going through such a hard time in their life; yet if they only ever tell you about their struggles without seeking professional help, it can build up on you as well and can sometimes make you yourself turn to an eating disorder, as you can start to understand their reasons. Accept your limits when talking to them, because there isn’t a lot you can do to solve your loved one’s problem yourself, the best thing to do is let them know you care by offering your compassion, encouragement, and support throughout the treatment process. It is also important to let them know that telling someone who can help, such as a doctor, counselor, parent, or teacher is an important step and can help a lot. Avoid insults, scare tactics, guilt trips, and patronizing comments, which will generally only have a negative impact. Even if you do your best to support your loved one, you must remember that it is ultimately the individual’s choice to decide when they are ready to seek help.

Set a good example for your loved one by eating healthy, exercising, and having a positive body image, take care of yourself. Don’t make negative comments about your own body or anyone else’s. Don’t act like the food police. A person with an eating disorder needs compassion and support, not an authority figure standing over them and judging what is right for them. Bear in mind that eating disorders are often a symptom of extreme emotional distress.

Helping a person with an eating disorder
No body is perfect but every body is beautiful
Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified
Night Eating Syndrome
Muscle Dysmorphia
Body Dysmorphic Disorder
An eating disorder that does not meet the criteria for anorexia nervosa nor bulimia nervosa is considered an eating disorder not otherwise specified. This includes symptoms of anorexia or bulimia or mixed features of both disorders. Just because it is not categorized does not mean it isn't just as hazardous and consequential. People with this disorder can have just as many mental issues as people with anorexia or bulimia.
People suffering from night eating syndrome have an ongoing pattern of late-night binge eating. It is closely related to binge-eating disorder but people with this disorder don't necessarliy eat to control their emotions. With this syndrome the overeating is more about the desire and the feeling that if one does not eat they can't fall asleep.
"When sleep only comes with a full stomach"
"When the person staring back in the mirror isn't you anymore"
Though it's not technically an eating disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, or BDD, is a chronic mental illness where an individual is so concerned about their body image that they manifest flaws in themself or even become obsessed with minor flaws and turn them into major ones. Having this disorder can lead someone to an eating disorder or other mental illnesses. The causes of body dysmorphic disorder are different for each person, though they usually vary from a combination of biological, psychological, and environmental factors. The symptoms of BDD include depression, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder and anxiety or stress.
This disorder is when someone thinks that they are not muscular enough. They may take on many diets or even rely on muscle-enhancing drugs to try and achieve their goal of having enough muscles. Though the person with this disorder may become very muscular, they may not ever see what they have as enough. Often these people will dehydrate themselves to make their muscles more prominent, as the skin shrinks when it doesn't have as much water and fits onto the muscles. Muscle dysmorphia often is related to body dysmorphic disorder. This is the only eating disorder more common in men than women.
Hypergymnasia is an eating disorder characterized by excessive and compulsive exercise. All of the reasons for starting hypergymnasia are the same as anorexia. People with this eating disorder tend to over exercise to give themselves a sense of having control over their body. In reality people with hypergymnasia cannot stop exercising or regulating food intake without feeling guilty.
Eating disorders have the highest mortality rate of any other mental illness.
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